Amylmetacresol

Identification

Summary

Amylmetacresol is an antiseptic used to treat infections in the mouth and throat.

Generic Name
Amylmetacresol
DrugBank Accession Number
DB13908
Background

Amylmetacresol is an antiseptic available in Canada over-the-counter in a number of lozenges for the treatment of sore throat and minor mouth infections 8, 9. Amylmetacresol is often combined with dichlorobenzyl alcohol and menthol in the commonly used sore throat lozenges, known as Strepsils 13.

The acute sore throat (pharyngitis) is one of the most common conditions for which children are seen in the primary care setting. Pharyngitis is normally caused by viruses and proves benign and self-limiting. Clinically proven, over-the-counter throat lozenges offer rapid and effective relief of acute sore throat symptoms, and are increasingly important in the management of this condition 6.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 178.275
Monoisotopic: 178.1357652
Chemical Formula
C12H18O
Synonyms
  • 5-methyl-2-pentylphenol
  • 6-amyl-m-cresol
  • 6-n-amyl-m-cresol
  • 6-n-pentyl-m-cresol
  • 6-pentyl-m-cresol
  • amilmetacresol
  • Amyl metacresol
  • Amylmetacresol
  • amylmetacresolum
External IDs
  • BRN 2440952

Pharmacology

Indication

Sore throat, minor mouth and throat infections 8, 9, 1.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
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Pharmacodynamics

The mixture of amylmetacresol throat lozenge medications markedly reduces the infectivity of certain infectious viruses in the throat and in cough droplets, thus reducing opportunities for person-to-person transmission 9. In addition, it relieves symptoms of sore throat/irritation of the throat 1, 2.

Amylmetacresol is thought to inhibit the inflammatory and pain mediators that are involved in the inflammation of the mouth and throat mucous membranes, as well as the sore throat 11.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of virucidal action is not fully elucidated, however it is suggested that denaturation of external protein spikes, a pH-induced rearrangement of the tertiary structure of attachment proteins, or a selective effect on viral lipid membranes/protein–lipid interaction is responsible for this action 4.

Amylmetacresol is an antibacterial and antiviral agent, and blocks voltage-gated Na channels in a local anesthetic-like manner 5.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed and eliminated 12.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50: 1500 mg/kg (rat) MSDS

Adverse effects include hypersensitivity reactions, tongue soreness 8.

Occasionally, hypersensitivity reactions may occur, manifested by digestive problems such as nausea or dyspepsia. This is extremely rare 9.

In the case of overdose, management should be symptomatic. In cases of severe overdosage, gastric lavage may be warranted to empty the stomach contents. Saline laxatives and activated charcoal may be administered orally 8.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MAC DUAL ACTION LOZENGES,HONEY &LEMON FLAVOURLozengeOralZIWELL MEDICAL SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Strepsils 1 - LozLozenge0.6 mgOralKnoll Pharma Inc.1996-12-311997-07-31Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Antibacterial Throat LozengesAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralQuimica Canada Limited2013-03-07Not applicableCanada flag
Benylin Antiseptic Throat LozengesAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
BETADINE SORE THROAT LOZENGES HONEY & LEMONAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralMundipharma Pharmaceuticals Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BETADINE SORE THROAT LOZENGES MENTHOL & EUCALYPTUSAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralMundipharma Pharmaceuticals Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BETADINE SORE THROAT LOZENGES ORANGEAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralMundipharma Pharmaceuticals Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Cepacol Children's Fruity StrawberryAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralRb Health (Canada) Inc.2013-08-15Not applicableCanada flag
Cepacol Children's Sweet Honey LemonAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralReckitt Benckiser2013-08-152020-07-29Canada flag
Cepacol SensationsAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg)LozengeOralRb Health (Canada) Inc.2012-07-19Not applicableCanada flag
Cepacol Sensations Cool MintAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg) + Levomenthol (8 mg)LozengeOralRb Health (Canada) Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cepacol Sensations CoolingAmylmetacresol (0.6 mg) + Dichlorobenzyl alcohol (1.2 mg) + Levomenthol (8 mg)LozengeOralReckitt Benckiser2012-07-192017-11-24Canada flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as meta cresols. These are aromatic compounds containing a meta-cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing a methyl group and a hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 3, respectively.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
Cresols
Direct Parent
Meta cresols
Alternative Parents
Toluenes / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / M-cresol / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic oxygen compound / Organooxygen compound / Toluene
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenols (CHEBI:48213)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
05W904P57F
CAS number
1300-94-3
InChI Key
CKGWFZQGEQJZIL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18O/c1-3-4-5-6-11-8-7-10(2)9-12(11)13/h7-9,13H,3-6H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
5-methyl-2-pentylphenol
SMILES
CCCCCC1=CC=C(C)C=C1O

References

General References
  1. Weckmann G, Hauptmann-Voss A, Baumeister SE, Klotzer C, Chenot JF: Efficacy of AMC/DCBA lozenges for sore throat: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2017 Oct;71(10). doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13002. Epub 2017 Sep 4. [Article]
  2. Foadi N, de Oliveira RC, Buchholz V, Stoetzer C, Wegner F, Pilawski I, Haeseler G, Leuwer M, Ahrens J: A combination of topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat blocks voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;387(10):991-1000. doi: 10.1007/s00210-014-1016-y. Epub 2014 Jul 12. [Article]
  3. McNally D, Shephard A, Field E: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a single dose of an amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol plus lidocaine lozenge or a hexylresorcinol lozenge for the treatment of acute sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;15(2):281-94. [Article]
  4. Morokutti-Kurz M, Graf C, Prieschl-Grassauer E: Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat. Int J Gen Med. 2017 Feb 28;10:53-60. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S120665. eCollection 2017. [Article]
  5. Buchholz V, Leuwer M, Ahrens J, Foadi N, Krampfl K, Haeseler G: Topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat block voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels in a local anaesthetic-like manner. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;380(2):161-8. doi: 10.1007/s00210-009-0416-x. Epub 2009 Apr 15. [Article]
  6. Thompson A, Reader S, Field E, Shephard A: Open-label taste-testing study to evaluate the acceptability of both strawberry-flavored and orange-flavored amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol throat lozenges in healthy children. Drugs R D. 2013 Jun;13(2):101-7. doi: 10.1007/s40268-013-0012-x. [Article]
  7. Amylmetacresol [Link]
  8. Amylmetacresol, MIMS [Link]
  9. Bioxer Pharma, Amylmetacresol [Link]
  10. Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat [Link]
  11. Neo agin [Link]
  12. A Note on the Toxicity of Amyl-meta-cresol [Link]
  13. Review Article: Sprays and lozenges for sore throats [Link]
  14. PUBLIC ASSESSMENT REPORT of the Medicines Evaluation Board in the Netherlands: Amylmetacresol and 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol [File]
  15. UK public assessment report: Sore Throat Relief Honey & Lemon Flavour 0.6mg Lozenges [File]
  16. Acute sore throat revisited: clinical and experimental evidence for the efficacy of over-the-counter AMC/DCBA throat lozenges. [File]
ChemSpider
14076
RxNav
236248
ChEBI
48213
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1512677
ZINC
ZINC000002039651
Wikipedia
Amylmetacresol
MSDS
Download (119 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletTransmucosal
PastilleOral
LozengeOral
LozengeOral
TabletOral
LozengeOral0.6 mg
LozengeOral1.2 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)24MSDS
boiling point (°C)258MSDS
water solubilitynot solubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.068 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.33ALOGPS
logP4.47ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity56.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN2A
Uniprot ID
Q99250
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Buchholz V, Leuwer M, Ahrens J, Foadi N, Krampfl K, Haeseler G: Topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat block voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels in a local anaesthetic-like manner. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;380(2):161-8. doi: 10.1007/s00210-009-0416-x. Epub 2009 Apr 15. [Article]

Drug created on September 18, 2017 19:49 / Updated on October 24, 2021 16:00