Insulin pork

Identification

Summary

Insulin pork is a purified form of porcine insulin used to control hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus.

Brand Names
Hypurin
Generic Name
Insulin pork
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00071
Background

Insulin isolated from pig pancreas. Composed of alpha and beta chains, processed from pro-insulin. Forms a hexameric structure.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones / Insulins
Protein Structure
Db00071
Protein Chemical Formula
C257H387N65O76S6
Protein Average Weight
5795.6 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Insulin (pork)
  • Insulin porcine
  • Insulin purified porcine
  • Insulin purified pork
  • Insulin, porcine
  • Insulin, regular, pork
  • Porcine insulin

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of type I and II diabetes mellitus.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Insulin is used in the treatment of type I and type II diabetes. The primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. In muscle and other tissues (except the brain), insulin causes rapid transport of glucose and amino acids intracellularly. It also promotes anabolism, and inhibits protein catabolism. In the liver, insulin promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in the form of glycogen, inhibits gluconeogenesis, and promotes the conversion of excess glucose into fat.

Mechanism of action

Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInsulin receptor
binder
Humans
UInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptorNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acarbose is combined with Insulin pork.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin pork can be increased when used in combination with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Insulin pork.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Insulin pork.
AcetazolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin pork can be increased when used in combination with Acetazolamide.
AcetohexamideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin pork is combined with Acetohexamide.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin pork can be increased when used in combination with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Insulin pork.
AcyclovirThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be increased when combined with Insulin pork.
AgomelatineThe metabolism of Agomelatine can be increased when combined with Insulin pork.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid excessive or chronic alcohol consumption. Drinking more than two standard drinks per day in women, or more than 3 standard drinks per day in men, can reduce a patient's insulin requirements, and therefore increase the risk of hypoglycemia if the insulin dosing is not adjusted.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Insulin suspension isophane purified porkNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Insulin suspension protamine zinc purified porkNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Insulin zinc suspension prompt purified porkNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Insulin zinc suspension purified porkNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Hypurin Nph Insulin Isophane PorkSuspension100 unit/mLIntramuscular; SubcutaneousWockhardt Uk Ltd2006-04-01Not applicableCanada flag
Hypurin Regular Insulin PorkSolution100 unitIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousWockhardt Uk Ltd2006-04-01Not applicableCanada flag
Regular Purified Pork Insulin InjLiquid100 unit / mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1980-12-312006-04-03Canada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A10AC03 — Insulin (pork)A10AB03 — Insulin (pork)A10AE03 — Insulin (pork)A10AD03 — Insulin (pork)
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
AVT680JB39
CAS number
12584-58-6

References

Synthesis Reference

Bruce H. Frank, "Process for producing an insulin precursor." U.S. Patent US4430266, issued November, 1974.

US4430266
General References
Not Available
UniProt
Q8HXV2
Genbank
AY137503
PubChem Substance
46508925
RxNav
221109
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001089
PharmGKB
PA164781053
Wikipedia
Insulin

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous100 unit/mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous100 unit
LiquidSubcutaneous100 unit / mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySlightly solubleNot Available
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (...
Gene Name
INSR
Uniprot ID
P06213
Uniprot Name
Insulin receptor
Molecular Weight
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem. 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. [Article]
  2. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [Article]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involv...
Gene Name
IGF1R
Uniprot ID
P08069
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Molecular Weight
154791.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Fottner C, Engelhardt D, Weber MM: Regulation of steroidogenesis by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in adult human adrenocortical cells: IGF-I and, more potently, IGF-II preferentially enhance androgen biosynthesis through interaction with the IGF-I receptor and IGF-binding proteins. J Endocrinol. 1998 Sep;158(3):409-17. [Article]
  4. Zhang Q, Berggren PO, Hansson A, Tally M: Insulin-like growth factor-I-induced DNA synthesis in insulin-secreting cell line RINm5F is associated with phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and the insulin receptor substrate-2. J Endocrinol. 1998 Mar;156(3):573-81. [Article]
  5. Sowers JR, Jacobs DB, Simpson L, al-Homsi B, Grunberger G, Sokol R: Erythrocyte insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor tyrosine kinase activity in hypertension in pregnancy. Metabolism. 1995 Oct;44(10):1308-13. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Barnett CR, Wilson J, Wolf CR, Flatt PR, Ioannides C: Hyperinsulinaemia causes a preferential increase in hepatic P4501A2 activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Mar 17;43(6):1255-61. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(92)90500-i. [Article]
  2. Pass GJ, Becker W, Kluge R, Linnartz K, Plum L, Giesen K, Joost HG: Effect of hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes-like hyperglycemia on expression of hepatic cytochrome p450 and glutathione s-transferase isoforms in a New Zealand obese-derived mouse backcross population. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):442-50. doi: 10.1124/jpet.102.033553. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi M, Iwasaki M, Watanabe N, Ishibashi O, Takata Y, Haruta T, Sasaoka T, Shigeta Y, Inouye K: Metabolism of a mutant insulin by a receptor-mediated process and an insulin degrading enzyme. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1986 Sep-Oct;2(5):257-62. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8227(86)80001-8. [Article]
  2. Harada S, Smith RM, Smith JA, Jarett L: Inhibition of insulin-degrading enzyme increases translocation of insulin to the nucleus in H35 rat hepatoma cells: evidence of a cytosolic pathway. Endocrinology. 1993 Jun;132(6):2293-8. [Article]
  3. Hsu MC, Bai JP: Investigation into the presence of insulin-degrading enzyme in cultured type II alveolar cells and the effects of enzyme inhibitors on pulmonary bioavailability of insulin in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1998 May;50(5):507-14. [Article]
  4. MARIGO S, PANELLI G: [Insulinase and its inhibition by hypoglycemic sulfonamides; data on insulin sensitivity during tolbutamide therapy]. Arch Sci Med (Torino). 1958 Jun;105(6):587-609. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on October 26, 2021 21:40