- Adjuvants, Immunologic
- Accession Number
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
- ATC Classification
Drug Drug Description Interferon beta-1a A form of recombinant human interferon used to slow disease progression and reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms in patients who have relapsing multiple sclerosis. Interferon beta-1b A form of recombinant human interferon used to slow the progression of relapsing multiple sclerosis and to reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms. Glatiramer An immunomodulator used to reduce the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Pidotimod A synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties used in patients with documented cell-mediated immunosuppression to stimulate their immunity during lung and urinary tract infections. Roquinimex Roquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions. As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone... Thymopentin Thymopentin has been used in trials studying the treatment and prevention of HIV Infections and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Lenograstim A granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indicated in the reduction of duration of neutropenia in bone marrow transplant and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells in healthy donors. BCG vaccine A vaccine indicated in the prevention of tuberculosis and the treatment of non-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. Lentinan Not Annotated Mifamurtide A muramyl dipeptide derivative used to treat high grade, resectable, non-metastatic osteosarcoma after surgical resection. Vitamin A A vitamin important for retinal function that is used clinically to correct vitamin A deficiency. Imiquimod A toll-like receptor 7 agonist used to treat non hyperkeratotic, non hypertrophic actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, genital or perianal warts, and condyloma acuminata. Levamisole Levamisole is a nicotinic receptor agonist used to treat helminth infections and some skin infections. Prasterone A steroid formulated as a vaginal insert indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia associated with menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Ditiocarb A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of man and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM. Thymalfasin Indicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate... Keyhole limpet hemocyanin Investigated for use/treatment in bladder cancer and solid tumors. QS-21 Investigated for use/treatment in genital herpes, HIV infection, hepatitis (viral, B), influenza, malaria, melanoma, and viral infection. Hyaluronic acid A glycosaminoglycan used for the relief of joint pain, wound healing, ophthalmologic treatment, cosmetic treatment, and various other applications. Aluminum sulfate A medication used to prevent infections and to treat minor bleeding. Bryostatin 1 Bryostatin 1 has been investigated for the treatment of HIV Infection and Alzheimer's Disease. Vesnarinone Vesnarinone has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections and Sarcoma, Kaposi. Mafosfamide Mafosfamide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lymphoma, Leukemia, Meningeal Neoplasm, and Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors. Squaric acid dibutyl ester Squaric acid dibutyl ester is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01971385 (Safety and Efficacy of Squaric Acid Dibutyl Ester for the Treatment of Herpes Labialis). Aviscumine Cy 503 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00658437 (Aviscumine for the Treatment of Malignant Melanoma Stage IV After Failure of Prior Therapy). Sizofiran A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach. Sizofiran has been used... Peginterferon alfa-2a A modified form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses. Interferon alfa-n1 A purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of genital warts due to human papilloma virus. Pegfilgrastim A recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor used to stimulate the production of neutrophils and prevent febrile neutropenia or infections after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Sargramostim A modified form of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor used to increase immune cell production after myelosuppressive therapy or bone marrow transplant. Peginterferon alfa-2b A purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C, genital warts, and some cancers. Interferon alfa-2a A form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses. Oprelvekin A form of recombinant interleukin-11 used to stimulate production of megakaryocytes and platelets in patients with or at risk of thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy. Aldesleukin A recombinant analog of interleukin-2 used to induce an adaptive immune response in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Interferon alfacon-1 A recombinant interferon similar the interferon alfa subtype which is used to treat hepatitis C infections. Interferon alfa-2b A form of recombinant human interferon used to treat hepatitis B and C infection, genital warts, hairy cell leukemia, follicular lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and AIDs-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Albinterferon Alfa-2B Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C). Sipuleucel-T An autologous cellular immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer. Plerixafor A CXCR4 antagonist used in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Ancestim A human stem cell factor used in combination with filgrastim during autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation to increase PBPC mobilization for improved collection. Peginterferon beta-1a An interferon beta used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Tasonermin A tumor necrosis factor alpha used along with surgery to remove soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs. Molgramostim Molgramostim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. Balugrastim Balugrastim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Solid Tumors. Cepeginterferon alfa-2B Cepeginterferon alfa-2B is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01889433 (An Open-label Comparative Efficacy and Safety Study of Algeron (Cepeginterferon Alfa-2b) in Treatment-naive Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C). Lipegfilgrastim A medication used to reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in cytotoxic chemotherapy. Cridanimod Not Annotated Histamine An ingredient of topical drugs for the relief of joint pain or muscle aches and pains. Aluminium phosphate Not Available Ipilimumab A human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibody used to treat metastatic or unresectable melanoma. Nivolumab A PD-1 blocking antibody used to treat melanoma, non small-cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, head and neck cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Potassium alum Potassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the... Pegademase A modified form of bovine adenosine deaminase used to treat adenosine deaminase deficiency, a condition which leads to the formation of adenosine metabolites which are cytotoxic to lymphocytes. Ropeginterferon alfa-2b A mono-pegylated type I interferon used to treat polycythemia vera. Pegteograstim Pegteograstim is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02787876 (Pegteograstim in Children With Solid Tumors). ISS-1018 Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, hepatitis (viral, B), and lymphoma (non-hodgkin's). ISS 1018 is currently being investigated in combination with HBsAg vaccine as a prophylactic treatment for to prevent... Edrecolomab Not Annotated 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine Not Available Edodekin alfa Edodekin alfa is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01468896 (Cetuximab and Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck That Is Recurrent, Metastatic, or... Interferon Gamma Interferon gamma is a Type 1 inflammatory cytokine and the only type II interferon. It has antitumor properties, antiviral activities, and important immunoregulatory functions. The interferon is primarily produced by... Elapegademase A recombinant adenosine deaminase used to treat adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency. Empegfilgrastim Empegfilgrastim is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01569087 (Dose-finding Study of Empegfilgrastim for Neutropenia Prophylaxis in Patients With Breast Cancer). OM85 OM-85, a bacterial extract, is an immunomodulator of interferon-β production and inflammasome activity. Ditiocarb zinc Ditiocarb Zinc is approved for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6... Colforsin Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities;... Arsanilic acid An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals. [PubChem] Ubenimex An adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. Bropirimine Not Available Oglufanide Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C). Aluminum hydroxide An antacid used for the symptomatic relief of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach. Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit is an ingredient in the EMA-authorised product Dukoral. Benfotiamine A derivative of thiamine thought to be useful in the management of diabetic neuropathy, although evidence is lacking. Zuretinol acetate Zuretinol acetate has been used in trials studying the treatment of Impaired Dark Adaptation, RP (Retinitis Pigmentosa), Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), and LCA (Leber Congenital Amaurosis). Binetrakin Binetrakin has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections, Sarcoma, Kaposi, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous (AML), among others. KRN-7000 KRN7000 has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lung Cancer, Chronic Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Chronic, Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific, and Prevention of GvHD in Patients... Lisofylline Lisofylline has been investigated for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Inosine pranobex A medication used to treat subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Meldonium Not Annotated Distearyldimonium Not Annotated Maritime pine extract A plant extract in nutritional supplements for healthy hair, skin, and nails. Lithium chloride An injection indicated for cardiac output measurement. Plumbagin Plumbagin is a compound investigated for its anticancer activity. It has been found that it inactivates the Akt/NF-kB, MMP-9 and VEGF pathways. Virulizin Not Available Ukrain cation Not Annotated Dasiprotimut-T Dasiprotimut-T is a personalized therapeutic vaccine against B-cell lymphomas. It has been investigated in clinical trials. Incomplete Freund's adjuvant Not Annotated Ammonium trichlorotellurate Ammonium trichlorotellurate is an investigational compound with anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory properties. Hiltonol Not Available
- Drugs & Drug Targets