Adjuvants, Immunologic

Adjuvants, Immunologic
Accession Number

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.

ATC Classification
DrugDrug Description
Interferon beta-1aA form of recombinant human interferon used to slow disease progression and reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms in patients who have relapsing multiple sclerosis.
Interferon beta-1bA form of recombinant human interferon used to slow the progression of relapsing multiple sclerosis and to reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms.
GlatiramerAn immunomodulator used to reduce the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
PidotimodA synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties used in patients with documented cell-mediated immunosuppression to stimulate their immunity during lung and urinary tract infections.
RoquinimexRoquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions. As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone...
ThymopentinThymopentin has been used in trials studying the treatment and prevention of HIV Infections and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
LenograstimA granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indicated in the reduction of duration of neutropenia in bone marrow transplant and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells in healthy donors.
BCG vaccineA vaccine indicated in the prevention of tuberculosis and the treatment of non-invasive urothelial bladder cancer.
LentinanNot Annotated
MifamurtideA muramyl dipeptide derivative used to treat high grade, resectable, non-metastatic osteosarcoma after surgical resection.
Vitamin AA vitamin important for retinal function that is used clinically to correct vitamin A deficiency.
ImiquimodA toll-like receptor 7 agonist used to treat non hyperkeratotic, non hypertrophic actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, genital or perianal warts, and condyloma acuminata.
LevamisoleLevamisole is a nicotinic receptor agonist used to treat helminth infections and some skin infections.
PrasteroneA steroid formulated as a vaginal insert indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia associated with menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy.
DitiocarbA chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of man and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
ThymalfasinIndicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate...
Keyhole limpet hemocyaninInvestigated for use/treatment in bladder cancer and solid tumors.
QS-21Investigated for use/treatment in genital herpes, HIV infection, hepatitis (viral, B), influenza, malaria, melanoma, and viral infection.
Hyaluronic acidA glycosaminoglycan used for the relief of joint pain, wound healing, ophthalmologic treatment, cosmetic treatment, and various other applications.
Aluminum sulfateA medication used to prevent infections and to treat minor bleeding.
Bryostatin 1Bryostatin 1 has been investigated for the treatment of HIV Infection and Alzheimer's Disease.
VesnarinoneVesnarinone has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections and Sarcoma, Kaposi.
MafosfamideMafosfamide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lymphoma, Leukemia, Meningeal Neoplasm, and Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors.
Squaric acid dibutyl esterSquaric acid dibutyl ester is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01971385 (Safety and Efficacy of Squaric Acid Dibutyl Ester for the Treatment of Herpes Labialis).
AviscumineCy 503 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00658437 (Aviscumine for the Treatment of Malignant Melanoma Stage IV After Failure of Prior Therapy).
SizofiranA beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach. Sizofiran has been used...
Peginterferon alfa-2aA modified form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses.
Interferon alfa-n1A purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of genital warts due to human papilloma virus.
PegfilgrastimA recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor used to stimulate the production of neutrophils and prevent febrile neutropenia or infections after myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
SargramostimA modified form of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor used to increase immune cell production after myelosuppressive therapy or bone marrow transplant.
Peginterferon alfa-2bA purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C, genital warts, and some cancers.
Interferon alfa-2aA form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses.
OprelvekinA form of recombinant interleukin-11 used to stimulate production of megakaryocytes and platelets in patients with or at risk of thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy.
AldesleukinA recombinant analog of interleukin-2 used to induce an adaptive immune response in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
Interferon alfacon-1A recombinant interferon similar the interferon alfa subtype which is used to treat hepatitis C infections.
Interferon alfa-2bA form of recombinant human interferon used to treat hepatitis B and C infection, genital warts, hairy cell leukemia, follicular lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and AIDs-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
Albinterferon Alfa-2BInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
Sipuleucel-TAn autologous cellular immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer.
PlerixaforA CXCR4 antagonist used in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
AncestimA human stem cell factor used in combination with filgrastim during autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation to increase PBPC mobilization for improved collection.
Peginterferon beta-1aAn interferon beta used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
TasonerminA tumor necrosis factor alpha used along with surgery to remove soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs.
MolgramostimMolgramostim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.
BalugrastimBalugrastim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Solid Tumors.
Cepeginterferon alfa-2BCepeginterferon alfa-2B is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01889433 (An Open-label Comparative Efficacy and Safety Study of Algeron (Cepeginterferon Alfa-2b) in Treatment-naive Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C).
LipegfilgrastimA medication used to reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in cytotoxic chemotherapy.
CridanimodNot Annotated
HistamineAn ingredient of topical drugs for the relief of joint pain or muscle aches and pains.
Aluminium phosphateNot Available
IpilimumabA human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibody used to treat metastatic or unresectable melanoma.
NivolumabA PD-1 blocking antibody used to treat melanoma, non small-cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, head and neck cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma.
Potassium alumPotassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the...
PegademaseA modified form of bovine adenosine deaminase used to treat adenosine deaminase deficiency, a condition which leads to the formation of adenosine metabolites which are cytotoxic to lymphocytes.
Ropeginterferon alfa-2bA mono-pegylated type I interferon used to treat polycythemia vera.
PegteograstimPegteograstim is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02787876 (Pegteograstim in Children With Solid Tumors).
ISS-1018Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, hepatitis (viral, B), and lymphoma (non-hodgkin's). ISS 1018 is currently being investigated in combination with HBsAg vaccine as a prophylactic treatment for to prevent...
EdrecolomabNot Annotated
8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosineNot Available
Edodekin alfaEdodekin alfa is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01468896 (Cetuximab and Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck That Is Recurrent, Metastatic, or...
Interferon GammaInterferon gamma is a Type 1 inflammatory cytokine and the only type II interferon. It has antitumor properties, antiviral activities, and important immunoregulatory functions. The interferon is primarily produced by...
ElapegademaseA recombinant adenosine deaminase used to treat adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency.
EmpegfilgrastimEmpegfilgrastim is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01569087 (Dose-finding Study of Empegfilgrastim for Neutropenia Prophylaxis in Patients With Breast Cancer).
OM85OM-85, a bacterial extract, is an immunomodulator of interferon-β production and inflammasome activity.
Ditiocarb zincDitiocarb Zinc is approved for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6...
ColforsinPotent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities;...
Arsanilic acidAn arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals. [PubChem]
UbenimexAn adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia.
BropirimineNot Available
OglufanideInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
Aluminum hydroxideAn antacid used for the symptomatic relief of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.
Recombinant Cholera Toxin B SubunitRecombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit is an ingredient in the EMA-authorised product Dukoral.
BenfotiamineA derivative of thiamine thought to be useful in the management of diabetic neuropathy, although evidence is lacking.
Zuretinol acetateZuretinol acetate has been used in trials studying the treatment of Impaired Dark Adaptation, RP (Retinitis Pigmentosa), Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), and LCA (Leber Congenital Amaurosis).
BinetrakinBinetrakin has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections, Sarcoma, Kaposi, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous (AML), among others.
KRN-7000KRN7000 has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lung Cancer, Chronic Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Chronic, Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific, and Prevention of GvHD in Patients...
LisofyllineLisofylline has been investigated for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Inosine pranobexA medication used to treat subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
MeldoniumNot Annotated
DistearyldimoniumNot Annotated
Maritime pine extractA plant extract in nutritional supplements for healthy hair, skin, and nails.
Lithium chlorideAn injection indicated for cardiac output measurement.
PlumbaginPlumbagin is a compound investigated for its anticancer activity. It has been found that it inactivates the Akt/NF-kB, MMP-9 and VEGF pathways.
VirulizinNot Available
Ukrain cationNot Annotated
Dasiprotimut-TDasiprotimut-T is a personalized therapeutic vaccine against B-cell lymphomas. It has been investigated in clinical trials.
Incomplete Freund's adjuvantNot Annotated
Ammonium trichlorotellurateAmmonium trichlorotellurate is an investigational compound with anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory properties.
HiltonolNot Available
Efbemalenograstim alfaA granulocyte-colony stimulating factor used to treat prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
EflapegrastimA form of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor used to induce the production of granulocytes and lower infection risk after myelosuppressive therapy.
LeniolisibA phosphoinositide 3-kinase-delta inhibitor that is used to treat activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome.
Drugs & Drug Targets
Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon beta-1aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon beta-1bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
GlatiramerMHC class II protein complextarget
LenograstimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
MifamurtideToll-like receptor 4target
MifamurtideNucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2target
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 12target
Vitamin A11-cis retinol dehydrogenasetarget
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 13target
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 5carrier
Vitamin ARetinoid-binding protein 7carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 4carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 2carrier
Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 2target
Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 1target
Vitamin ALecithin retinol acyltransferasetarget
Vitamin AShort-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3target
Vitamin AAldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3target
Vitamin AAll-trans-retinol 13,14-reductasetarget
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 11target
Vitamin ADehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4target
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 14target
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 8target
Vitamin ACytochrome P450 26A1enzyme
Vitamin AApolipoprotein Dtarget
Vitamin AProstaglandin-H2 D-isomerasetarget
Vitamin ASerum albumincarrier
Vitamin ARetinaldehyde-binding protein 1carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 3carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 1carrier
Vitamin AReceptor for retinol uptake STRA6transporter
ImiquimodToll-like receptor 7target
ImiquimodToll-like receptor 8target
ImiquimodCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LevamisoleNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
LevamisoleAlkaline phosphatase, germ cell typetarget
LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-38target
LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63target
LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type lev-1target
LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type unc-29target
PrasteroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
PrasteronePeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
PrasteroneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
PrasteroneSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
PrasteroneEstrogen receptor betatarget
PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3target
PrasteroneGABA(A) Receptortarget
PrasteroneNMDA receptortarget
PrasteroneAndrogen receptortarget
PrasteroneEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1enzyme
PrasteroneBile salt sulfotransferaseenzyme
PrasteroneSulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1enzyme
Prasterone3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1enzyme
PrasteroneCholesterol oxidaseenzyme
PrasteroneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
PrasteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
PrasteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
PrasteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
PrasteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
PrasteroneMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
PrasteroneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
PrasteroneMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DitiocarbCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DitiocarbCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DitiocarbCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
Keyhole limpet hemocyaninInterleukin-2target
Hyaluronic acidCD44 antigentarget
Hyaluronic acidIntercellular adhesion molecule 1target
Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan mediated motility receptortarget
Hyaluronic acidNeurocan core proteintarget
Hyaluronic acidVersican core proteintarget
Hyaluronic acidComplement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrialtarget
Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1target
Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3target
Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan-binding protein 2target
Hyaluronic acidLayilintarget
Hyaluronic acidStabilin-2target
Hyaluronic acidTumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 proteintarget
Hyaluronic acidInterphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2target
Hyaluronic acidIntracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4target
Hyaluronic acidHyaluronidase enzymesenzyme
Hyaluronic acidMultidrug resistance-associated protein 5transporter
Hyaluronic acidLymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1target
Bryostatin 1Cytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
Bryostatin 1Protein kinase C alpha typetarget
Bryostatin 1Protein kinase C epsilon typetarget
Bryostatin 1Caspase-8target
Bryostatin 1Protein unc-13 homolog Btarget
Bryostatin 1Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1target
Bryostatin 1T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86target
Bryostatin 1Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2target
Bryostatin 1G1/S-specific cyclin-D1target
Bryostatin 1Tumor necrosis factortarget
Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Peginterferon alfa-2aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon alfa-n1Cytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
PegfilgrastimNeutrophil elastaseenzyme
SargramostimGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphatarget
SargramostimBone marrow proteoglycantarget
SargramostimInterleukin-3 receptor subunit alphatarget
SargramostimCytokine receptor common subunit betatarget
Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
Interferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon alfa-2aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
OprelvekinInterleukin-11 receptor subunit alphatarget
AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit betatarget
AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit alphatarget
AldesleukinCytokine receptor common subunit gammatarget
AldesleukinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
AldesleukinCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
AldesleukinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
AldesleukinXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
AldesleukinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon alfacon-1Cytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Interferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Albinterferon Alfa-2BCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Sipuleucel-TProstatic acid phosphatasetarget
PlerixaforC-X-C chemokine receptor type 4target
AncestimMast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kittarget
Peginterferon beta-1aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Peginterferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Atarget
TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Btarget
Cepeginterferon alfa-2BCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
LipegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
HistamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
HistamineHistamine H2 receptortarget
HistamineHistamine H3 receptortarget
HistamineHistamine N-methyltransferaseenzyme
HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
HistamineHistamine H4 receptortarget
HistamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
Aluminium phosphateSerotransferrintarget
Aluminium phosphateSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
Aluminium phosphateSerum albumincarrier
Aluminium phosphateKallikrein-1target
Aluminium phosphateAmyloid beta A4 proteintarget
IpilimumabCytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4target
NivolumabProgrammed cell death protein 1target
NivolumabProgrammed cell death 1 ligand 1target
Potassium alumSerum albumincarrier
PegademaseGrowth factor receptor-bound protein 2target
Ropeginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Ropeginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
Ropeginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
Ropeginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR)target
ISS-1018Toll-like receptor 9target
ColforsinP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 2target
ColforsinGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms shorttarget
ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 5target
ColforsinCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
ColforsinAdenylate cyclasetarget
ColforsinCalcium-activated potassium channeltarget
ColforsinCREB-binding proteintarget
ColforsinExtracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)target
ColforsinPlasminogen activator inhibitor 1target
Arsanilic acidLysozyme Ctarget
UbenimexBacterial leucyl aminopeptidasetarget
UbenimexLeukotriene A-4 hydrolasetarget
UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
UbenimexDipeptidase 1enzyme
BropirimineDihydroneopterin aldolasetarget
LisofyllineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Efbemalenograstim alfaGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
EflapegrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
LeniolisibCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
LeniolisibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
LeniolisibSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
LeniolisibSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
LeniolisibP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LeniolisibPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoformtarget
LeniolisibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LeniolisibCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
LeniolisibCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LeniolisibCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme