Aluminum sulfate is a medication used to prevent infections and to treat minor bleeding.
- Brand Names
- Generic Name
- Aluminum sulfate
- DrugBank Accession Number
Aluminum (Al), also spelled aluminum, chemical element, a lightweight, silvery-white metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table 9.
It is a chemical agent used in water purification, the pH regulation of garden soil, and other commercial or industrial applications. Medically, it is primarily used as a coagulating agent in minor cuts and abrasions as well as deodorant 5.
Aluminum (Al) is ubiquitous and represents the third most common element in the Earth’s crust. It most commonly exists in a combined state with various other elements. Al is found in materials used in the pharmaceutical industry, and in manufactured foodstuffs, cosmetics, and tap water. By overcoming the body barriers, Al may infiltrate into the blood and lead to toxic effects in liver, bone and the central nervous system 6.
- Small Molecule
- Average: 342.151
- Chemical Formula
- Aluminium sulfate
- Aluminium sulfate anhydrous
- Aluminum sulfate anhydrous
- Aluminum sulphate anhydrous
- Dialuminum sulfate
- Dialuminum trisulfate
- External IDs
- INS NO.520
Solutions containing 5 to 10% aluminum sulfate have been used as local applications to ulcers and to arrest foul discharges from mucous surfaces. Aluminum sulfate is also used in the preparation of aluminum acetate ear drops 10. It is often purchased over the counter and is available in solid stick or powder form for minor cuts and abrasions after shaving 16, 21. Aluminum sulfate is also used as an adjuvant in vaccines 17.Reduce drug development failure ratesBuild, train, & validate machine-learning modelswith evidence-based and structured datasets.Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
- Associated Conditions
- Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
- Avoid life-threatening adverse drug eventsImprove clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Aluminum sulfate may be used as a deodorant, as well as an astringent 19. Aluminum sulfate is also known as an astringent. Astringents are substances that cause contraction or shrinkage of tissues and that dry up secretion 19.
Used as a post-shaving treatment, it can eliminate bleeding from superficial wounds 16, 21.
It has also shown in vitro anti-microbial activity 19.
- Mechanism of action
When used as a deodorant, the volume of sweat produced is reduced by narrowing sweat ducts. The inhibition of body odor causing bacteria is another important strategy for deodorization 19.
By inhibiting or deactivating odor-producing bacteria, there is little to none metabolism of sweat components thus decreasing the occurrence of body odor 19.
Recent studies suggest that the active binding of alum to the membranes of dendritic cells (DCs) result in alteration of lipid membranes structures as a key process in alum's adjuvant effect in vaccines. As new adjuvants are being developed, alum may remain as an ingredient of adjuvant combinations, or it may eventually be supplemented by other agents that more effectively provide depot and local inflammatory responses to accentuate host immune responses 17.
The degree of aluminum absorption depends on a number of factors, such as the aluminum salt ingested, pH (for aluminum speciation and solubility), bioavailability, as well as dietary conditions 10.
These facts should be taken into consideration during tissue dosimetry and response assessment to aluminum sulfate. It can be concluded that the use of currently available animal studies to develop a guideline value is inappropriate at this time due to the above specific toxicokinetic/dynamic factors that may affect results 10.
- Volume of distribution
Aluminium which is absorbed is located primarily in the heart, spleen, and bone 12.
- Protein binding
- Not Available
- Route of elimination
Aluminum is excreted predominantly via the kidneys and therefore may accumulate in patients with renal failure 14. About 2% is excreted in bile 16.
Numerous studies have actually shown that the rate of aluminum clearance in the blood decreases with time following aluminum ingestion, and therefore a single elimination half-life (t1⁄2) cannot depict the whole-body elimination of aluminum 15.
- Adverse Effects
- Improve decision support & research outcomesWith structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Aluminum Sulfate, Hydrated (ACS & FCC): ORAL (LD50): Acute: >9000 mg/kg in the mouse MSDS. >9000 mg/kg in the rat MSDS.
There is little indication that aluminum is acutely toxic by oral exposure despite it is widely found in foods, drinking water, and many antacid preparations 10. In 1988, a population of about 20 000 citizens of Camelford, England, was exposed to increased levels of aluminum for 5 days. The aluminum was accidentally ingested by the population from a water supply facility using aluminum sulfate for water treatment 10.
Some adverse effects observed were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth ulcers, skin ulcers, skin rashes, and arthritis-type pain were observed. It was concluded in one study that the adverse effects of aluminum sulfate were primarily mild and transient. No long-lasting effects on health could be attributed to the exposures from aluminum in the drinking water during this period 10.
In humans, excess exposure to aluminum via dialysis water (aluminum sulfate) is a known etiological factor in several pathological conditions in patients treated with hemodialysis. Clinical symptoms and signs of aluminum toxicity include hypercalcemia, anemia, vitamin D refractory osteodystrophy, and a dialysis encephalopathy. Bone pain, pathological fractures, and proximal myopathy may occur. Aluminum has also been suggested as an etiology of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer senile and pre-senile dementia, as well amyotrophic sclerosis. Despite this, the most recent investigations have failed to confirm this hypothesis. A study in man has verified a number of possible deleterious interactions of aluminum salts with phosphorous metabolism, especially in long-term ingestion of aluminum-containing antacids 12.
It has been suggested that aluminum exposure is a risk factor for the development or acceleration of onset of Alzheimer disease (AD) in humans. The world health organization has completed a meta-analysis of 20 epidemiological studies done to test the hypothesis that aluminum in drinking-water is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Six studies on populations in Norway were considered of sufficiently high quality to meet the general criteria for exposure and outcome assessment and the adjustment for at least some confounding variables 10.
Of six studies that examined the relationship between aluminum in drinking- water and dementia, three found a positive relationship, but three did not. However, each of the studies had significant deficiencies in the study design (e.g. ecological exposure assessment; failure to consider aluminum exposure from all sources and to control for important confounders, such as education, socioeconomic status, and family history; the use of surrogate outcome measures for AD; and selection bias) 10.
In general, the relative risks determined were less than 2, with large confidence intervals, when the total aluminum concentration in drinking-water was 0.1 mg/L or higher. Due to the pathogenesis of AD and knowledge obtained from studies, it was concluded that the present epidemiological evidence does not support a causal association between AD and aluminum in drinking-water 10.
In addition to the epidemiological studies that examined the relationship between AD and aluminum in drinking-water, two studies studied cognitive dysfunction in elderly populations in relation to the levels of aluminum in drinking water. The results proved conflicting. A study of 800 male subjects, age 80-89, drinking water containing aluminum concentrations up to 98 μg/L found no relationship. The second study used “any evidence of mental impairment” as an outcome measure and found a relative risk of 1.72 at aluminum drinking-water concentrations above 85 μg/L in 250 males. Such data are insufficient to show that aluminum is a cause of cognitive impairment in the elderly 10.
Note on possible risk of breast cancer
Widespread concern has been raised regarding the exposure to aluminum in deodorant/antiperspirant products, with inconclusive results 22, 23, 24, 25. Results from a more recent case-control study suggest an association between underarm cosmetic use and aluminum concentration in breast tissue and breast cancer. The observed association of underarm cosmetic use with breast cancer was, however, limited to women who report using the products multiple times a day before age of 30 4.
- Not Available
- Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
- Not Available
- Drug Interactions
- This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
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Carbamazepine Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbamazepine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Chenodeoxycholic acid Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Chenodeoxycholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Cholic Acid Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Deferasirox Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferasirox resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Dehydrocholic acid Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Dehydrocholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Deoxycholic acid Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deoxycholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Dolutegravir The serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum sulfate. Eltrombopag Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Eltrombopag resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Halofantrine Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Halofantrine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. Mephenytoin Aluminum sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Mephenytoin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Identify potential medication risksEasily compare up to 40 drugs with our drug interaction checker.Get severity rating, description, and management advice.Learn more
- Food Interactions
- No interactions found.
- Drug product information from 10+ global regionsOur datasets provide approved product information including:dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
- Product Ingredients
Ingredient UNII CAS InChI Key Aluminum sulfate hydrate 34S289N54E 17927-65-0 BUACSMWVFUNQET-UHFFFAOYSA-H Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate E3UT66504P 16828-12-9 GUNGYIXTFIIJDK-UHFFFAOYSA-H
- Active Moieties
Name Kind UNII CAS InChI Key Aluminum cation ionic 3XHB1D032B 22537-23-1 REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N Sulfate ion ionic 7IS9N8KPMG 14808-79-8 QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
- Brand Name Prescription Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Pascord 7 0.48mg/2.54cm Packing 0.48 mg / 2.54 cm Dental Pascal International Corporation 1992-12-31 1998-07-23
- Over the Counter Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Assured Powder 56 g/100g Topical Greenbrier International, Inc. 2016-04-20 Not applicable Gingi-Aid MAX Z-Twist 00 Solution 54 mg/1 Dental; Oral; Periodontal Gingi-Pak a Division of the Belport 1995-01-13 Not applicable Gingi-Aid MAX Z-Twist 1 Solution 54 mg/1 Dental; Oral; Periodontal Gingi-Pak a Division of the Belport 1995-01-13 Not applicable Gingi-Aid MAX Z-Twist 2 Solution 54 mg/1 Dental; Oral; Periodontal Gingi-Pak a Division of the Belport 1995-01-13 Not applicable Gingi-Aid MAX Z-Twist 3 Solution 54 mg/1 Dental; Oral; Periodontal Gingi-Pak a Division of the Belport 1998-07-31 Not applicable HIS Styptic Pencil Stick 5.6 g/10g Topical Pacific World Corporation 2002-11-01 Not applicable KutKit Swab 0.05 g/1 Topical Centrix, Inc. 2019-05-01 Not applicable KutKit Swab 0.05 g/1 Topical Majestic Drug Co., INC. 2019-05-01 Not applicable KutKit Swab 0.047 g/1 Topical Majestic Drug Co., INC. 2020-11-07 2023-12-31 Nick Relief Stick 46 mg/1mL Topical 220 Laboratories Inc. 1997-11-27 Not applicable
- Mixture Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image ACETATODE ALUMINIO Aluminum sulfate (51.8 mg) + Calcium acetate (36.45 mg) Powder Topical SANOFI AVENTIS DE COLOMBIA S.A. 2006-11-10 Not applicable Aluminum Acetate Astringent Aluminum sulfate hydrate (1191 mg/2030mg) + Calcium acetate (839 mg/2030mg) Powder, for solution Topical Epic Pharma, LLC 2011-02-28 2013-04-30 Aluminum Acetate Astringent Aluminum sulfate hydrate (1191 mg/2030mg) + Calcium acetate (839 mg/2030mg) Powder, for solution Topical Tagi Pharma Incorporated 2011-06-15 Not applicable Astringent Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate (1347 mg/2299mg) + Calcium acetate monohydrate (952 mg/2299mg) Powder, for solution Topical TAGI Pharma Inc. 2012-06-01 2024-09-30 Domeboro Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate (1347 mg/1) + Calcium acetate monohydrate (952 mg/1) Powder, for solution Topical Advantice Health, LLC. 2012-06-26 Not applicable Kerasal Athletes Foot Rapid Symptom Relief Medicated Soak Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate (1347 mg/1) + Calcium acetate monohydrate (952 mg/1) Powder, for solution Topical Advantice Health, LLC. 2012-06-26 Not applicable
- Unapproved/Other Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Styptocaine Aluminum sulfate hydrate (46 g/100mL) Solution Topical Pedinol Pharmacal, Inc. 2011-09-14 2013-11-30
- Drug Categories
- Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
- This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
- Inorganic compounds
- Super Class
- Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
- Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
- Sub Class
- Post-transition metal sulfates
- Direct Parent
- Post-transition metal sulfates
- Alternative Parents
- Post-transition metal salts / Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
- Inorganic oxide / Inorganic post-transition metal salt / Inorganic salt / Post-transition metal sulfate
- Molecular Framework
- Not Available
- External Descriptors
- aluminium sulfate (CHEBI:74768)
- Affected organisms
- Humans and other mammals
- CAS number
- InChI Key
- IUPAC Name
- dialuminium(3+) trisulfate
- General References
- Wu YH, Zhou ZM, Xiong YL, Wang YL, Sun JH, Liao HB, Luo XD: Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Nov;19(6):509-12. [Article]
- Cabus N, Oguz EO, Tufan AC, Adiguzel E: A histological study of toxic effects of aluminium sulfate on rat hippocampus. Biotech Histochem. 2015 Feb;90(2):132-9. doi: 10.3109/10520295.2014.965277. Epub 2014 Oct 14. [Article]
- Cunat L, Lanhers MC, Joyeux M, Burnel D: Bioavailability and intestinal absorption of aluminum in rats: effects of aluminum compounds and some dietary constituents. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000 Jul;76(1):31-55. doi: 10.1385/BTER:76:1:31. [Article]
- Darbre PD: Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. J Inorg Biochem. 2005 Sep;99(9):1912-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2005.06.001. [Article]
- Aluminum sulfate PubChem [Link]
- Aluminium sulphate exposure increases oxidative stress and suppresses brain development in Ross broiler chicks [Link]
- Aluminum Sulfate [Link]
- Aluminum Sulfate, Brittanica online [Link]
- Aluminum Sulfate Excipient [Link]
- Aluminum in Drinking Water [Link]
- HIS STYPTIC PENCIL- aluminum sulfate stick [Link]
- EMA document [Link]
- ToxNet, Aluminum sulfate [Link]
- InChem, Aluminum Sulfate [Link]
- PRIORITY SUBSTANCES LIST ASSESSMENT REPORT [Link]
- Aluminium Toxicokinetics: An Updated MiniReview [Link]
- Aluminum Sulfate Overview [Link]
- Hazardous Materials Sheet, NJ [Link]
- Formulation and evaluation of potash alum as deodorant lotion and after shaving astringent as cream and gel [Link]
- Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study [Link]
- ASSURED- aluminum sulfate powder [Link]
- Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer [Link]
- Underarm antiperspirants/deodorants and breast cancer [Link]
- BREAST CANCER AND DEODORANTS/ ANTIPERSPIRANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW [Link]
- Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk [Link]
- External Links
- PubChem Compound
- PubChem Substance
- Download (50.2 KB)
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Dosage Forms
Form Route Strength Powder Topical Powder, for solution Topical Powder Topical 56 g/100g Solution Dental; Oral; Periodontal 54 mg/1 Swab Topical 0.047 g/1 Swab Topical 0.05 g/1 Stick Topical 46 mg/1mL Packing Dental 0.48 mg / 2.54 cm Liquid Dental 250 mg / mL Powder Topical 2.2 g Powder Topical 2.189 g Stick Topical 9 mL/10mL Packing Dental 1.45 mg / 2.5 cm Packing Dental 0.19 mg / cm Spray Topical 373 mg / mL Gel Topical 20 % Stick Topical 42 % Solution Topical 46 g/100mL Stick Topical 5.6 g/10g
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Experimental Properties
Property Value Source melting point (°C) 700 http://www.nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0068.pdf boiling point (°C) 1600 http://www.nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0068.pdf water solubility 86.9 g/ 100 ml MSDS
- Predicted Properties
Property Value Source logP -0.84 Chemaxon pKa (Strongest Acidic) -3 Chemaxon Physiological Charge -2 Chemaxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 4 Chemaxon Hydrogen Donor Count 0 Chemaxon Polar Surface Area 80.26 Å2 Chemaxon Rotatable Bond Count 0 Chemaxon Refractivity 11.53 m3·mol-1 Chemaxon Polarizability 5.81 Å3 Chemaxon Number of Rings 0 Chemaxon Bioavailability 1 Chemaxon Rule of Five Yes Chemaxon Ghose Filter No Chemaxon Veber's Rule No Chemaxon MDDR-like Rule No Chemaxon
- Predicted ADMET Features
- Not Available
- Mass Spec (NIST)
- Not Available
Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available
Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated at June 08, 2023 09:16