Identification

Summary

Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid used for the symptomatic relief of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.

Brand Names
Acid Gone, Almacone, Derma Gran, Gaviscon, Gelusil, Maalox Plus, Mi-acid, Mi-acid Double Strength, Mintox Plus, Mylanta
Generic Name
Aluminum hydroxide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB06723
Background

Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 78.0036
Monoisotopic: 77.989757403
Chemical Formula
AlH3O3
Synonyms
  • Aluminio hidróxido
  • Aluminium hydroxide
  • Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminium hydroxide, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide
  • Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide, dried
  • Dried aluminium hydroxide
  • Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
External IDs
  • NSC-664400

Pharmacology

Indication

For relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Gastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion.

Mechanism of action

Aluminum hydroxide is a basic inorganic salt that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Aluminum hydroxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride and water. It also inhibits the action of pepsin by increasing the pH and via adsorption. Cytoprotective effects may occur through increases in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and prostaglandins.

Absorption

Approximately 17-30% of the aluminum chloride formed is absorbed.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Absorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys in patients with normal renal function.

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetaminophenAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetaminophen resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AcetophenazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetophenazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Alendronic acidThe serum concentration of Alendronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AlfacalcidolThe serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with Alfacalcidol.
AlimemazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alimemazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AllopurinolThe therapeutic efficacy of Allopurinol can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be increased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmprenavirAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Amprenavir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Ascorbic acidAscorbic acid can cause an increase in the absorption of Aluminum hydroxide resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
AsunaprevirAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Asunaprevir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid foods rich in citrate. Citrate may increase the absorption of aluminum and has the potential to cause toxicity.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Algeldrate03J11K103C1330-44-5SMYKVLBUSSNXMV-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Almagate568Z59H7ZJ66827-12-1MTEOMEWVDVPTNN-UHFFFAOYSA-E
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Aluminum cationionic3XHB1D032B22537-23-1REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Alu-Cap (3M) / Amphojel (Wyeth)
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ACTAL TABLET 216 mgTablet216 mgOralA. MENARINI SINGAPORE PTE. LTD.1989-06-30Not applicable
AlternagelLiquid600 mg/5mLOralMc Neil Consumer Pharmaceuticals Co.1990-01-012012-08-31US flag
Alu-tab Tab 600mgTablet600 mg / tabOral3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company1993-12-312001-08-01Canada flag
ALU-TAB TABLET 600 mgTablet, film coated600 mgOralINOVA PHARMACEUTICALS (SINGAPORE) PTE. LIMITED1989-05-22Not applicable
ALU-TAB TABLET 600 MGTabletOraliNova Pharmaceuticals (Singapore) Pte Ltd (incorporated In Singapore) Malaysia Branch2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE TABLET 600 mgTablet, film coated600 mgOralSUNWARD PHARMACEUTICAL PRIVATE LIMITED1989-05-22Not applicable
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralRugby2005-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Aluminum HydroxideGel320 mg/5mLOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not applicableUS flag
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralAtlantic Biologicals Corps2005-02-01Not applicableUS flag
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE TABLETSTablet500 mgOralสำนักงานปลัดกระทรวงกลาโหม2004-04-20Not applicableThailand flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ACED FULL SUSPENSIONAluminum hydroxide (4 g) + Magnesium hydroxide (4 g) + Simethicone (400 mg)SuspensionOralCOASPHARMA S.A.S.2018-06-12Not applicableColombia flag
Acid Gone AntacidAluminum hydroxide (95 mg/15mL) + Magnesium carbonate (358 mg/15mL)LiquidOralMajor2004-12-30Not applicableUS flag
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-07-092017-05-24US flag
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-06-06Not applicableUS flag
Acidex Tc Oral SuspensionAluminum hydroxide (600 mg / 5 mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (300 mg / 5 mL)SuspensionOralGen Drug Company Ltd.Not applicable1997-05-30Canada flag
ACILAX®Aluminum hydroxide (4 g) + Magnesium hydroxide (4 g) + Simethicone (0.4 g)SuspensionOralFABRIFARMA S.A.2017-05-15Not applicableColombia flag
Advanced Antacid CherryAluminum hydroxide (400 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (40 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (400 mg/5mL)LiquidOralStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid MintAluminum hydroxide (400 mg/10mL) + Dimethicone (40 mg/10mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (400 mg/10mL)SuspensionOralGoodsense2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid Regular StrengthAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)LiquidOralStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid Regular StrengthAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)LiquidOralNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AHC Premium Intense Contour BalmAluminum hydroxide (0.45 g/50mL) + Adenosine (0.02 g/50mL) + Aluminium tristearate (0.04 g/50mL) + Arbutin (1 g/50mL) + Methicone (20 CST) (1.3 g/50mL) + Octinoxate (1.5 g/50mL) + Talc (2.05 g/50mL) + Titanium dioxide (3.96 g/50mL) + Zinc oxide (0.96 g/50mL)CreamTopicalCarver Korea Co.,Ltd.2014-01-152017-11-22US flag
FIRST Mouthwash BLMAluminum hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL) + Dimethicone 410 (0.315 g/236mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (.2 g/.2g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.6 g/1.6g) + Magnesium hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL)KitOralCutisPharma, Inc.2004-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Medi Hydro DP BB CreamAluminum hydroxide (0.07 mg/100mL) + Adenosine (0.00004 mg/100mL) + Nicotinamide (0.02 mg/100mL) + Stearic acid (0.05 mg/100mL) + Titanium dioxide (0.05 mg/100mL)CreamTopicalMbg Inc (Korea Institute of Science Development)2017-08-082018-08-08US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A02AB02 — AlgeldrateA02AB01 — Aluminium hydroxideA02AD03 — Almagate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Post-transition metal salts / Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides / Inorganic hydrides
Substituents
Inorganic hydride / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic post-transition metal salt / Inorganic salt / Post-transition metal hydroxide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
aluminium hydroxides (CHEBI:33130)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5QB0T2IUN0
CAS number
21645-51-2
InChI Key
WNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) trihydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]

References

Synthesis Reference

Richard H. Goheen, William A. Nigro, Paul J. The, "Process for producing aluminum hydroxide of improved whiteness." U.S. Patent US4915930, issued November, 1933.

US4915930
General References
Not Available
KEGG Compound
C13391
PubChem Compound
10176082
PubChem Substance
175427087
ChemSpider
8351587
RxNav
81948
ChEBI
33130
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200706
Wikipedia
Aluminum_hydroxide

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionVaccine Responsiveness During Allergy De-sensitization Treatment / Vaccine Responsiveness in Allergy1
4CompletedTreatmentDyspepsia1
4CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSoft Tissue Sarcoma (STS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEsophageal Neoplasms Malignant / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedPreventionPapillomavirus Infections / Papillomavirus Vaccines1
3CompletedSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
3CompletedTreatmentRhinoconjunctivitis, Allergic1
3TerminatedOtherGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionIntra-articular; Oral
Tablet; tablet, chewableOral
TabletOral216 mg
SuspensionOral2.39 g
TabletOral300 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidOral600 mg/5mL
TabletOral600 mg / tab
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg
GelOral320 mg/5mL
LiquidOral320 mg/5mL
Tablet
TabletOral250 mg
OintmentTopical0.275 g/100g
OintmentTopical1.356 g/113g
OintmentTopical0.275 %
OintmentTopical2 g/100g
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, chewableBuccal470 mg
SolutionOral
PowderOral
KitOral
SuspensionOral6.3 g
SuspensionOral50 mg/ml
SuspensionOral6 g
Tablet, chewableBuccal
GelBuccal; Oral
GranuleOral
GranuleOral525 mg/1.8g
LiquidTopical
Suspension
Powder, for suspensionOral
SuspensionOral3.5 %
Tablet, chewableOral200 MG
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral120 mg
Injection, powder, for suspensionIntramuscular
SuspensionOral
SuspensionOral400 mg/5ml
Tablet, chewableOral234 mg
SuspensionOral6.15 g
OintmentTopical
TabletOral
GelOral
CreamTopical
SuspensionOral57.97 g
Powder
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral300 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5922
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8181
Caco-2 permeable-0.5094
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9433
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8282
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8206
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9584
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9447
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9578
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8393
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5918
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.81
Rat acute toxicity1.7247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9592
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9742
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Drug created at August 09, 2010 17:11 / Updated at October 26, 2021 21:40