Aluminum hydroxide

Identification

Name
Aluminum hydroxide
Accession Number
DB06723
Description

Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 78.0036
Monoisotopic: 77.989757403
Chemical Formula
AlH3O3
Synonyms
  • Aluminio hidróxido
  • Aluminium hydroxide
  • Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminium hydroxide, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide, dried
  • Dried aluminium hydroxide
  • Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
External IDs
  • NSC-664400

Pharmacology

Indication

For relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Gastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion.

Mechanism of action

Aluminum hydroxide is a basic inorganic salt that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Aluminum hydroxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride and water. It also inhibits the action of pepsin by increasing the pH and via adsorption. Cytoprotective effects may occur through increases in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and prostaglandins.

Absorption

Approximately 17-30% of the aluminum chloride formed is absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Absorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys in patients with normal renal function.

Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetaminophenAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetaminophen resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AcetophenazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetophenazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Alendronic acidThe serum concentration of Alendronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AlfacalcidolThe serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with Alfacalcidol.
AlimemazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alimemazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AllopurinolThe therapeutic efficacy of Allopurinol can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be increased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmprenavirAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Amprenavir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Ascorbic acidAscorbic acid can cause an increase in the absorption of Aluminum hydroxide resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
AsunaprevirAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Asunaprevir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid foods rich in citrate. Citrate may increase the absorption of aluminum and has the potential to cause toxicity.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Algeldrate03J11K103C1330-44-5SMYKVLBUSSNXMV-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Almagate568Z59H7ZJ66827-12-1MTEOMEWVDVPTNN-UHFFFAOYSA-E
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Aluminum cationionic3XHB1D032B22537-23-1REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Alu-Cap (3M) / Amphojel (Wyeth)
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlternagelLiquid600 mg/5mLOralMc Neil Consumer Pharmaceuticals Co.1990-01-012012-08-31US flag
Alu-tab Tab 600mgTabletOral3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company1993-12-312001-08-01Canada flag
Aluminum HydroxideGel320 mg/5mLOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not applicableUS flag
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralAtlantic Biologicals Corps2005-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralRugby2005-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Derma GranOintment0.275 g/100gTopicalDerma Sciences2015-06-16Not applicableUS flag
Derma GranOintment0.275 g/100gTopicalMckesson Medical Surgical2013-11-12Not applicableUS flag
DermadroxOintment1.356 g/113gTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-07-31Not applicableUS flag
Dermagran OintmentOintmentTopicalCanadian Medical Supply Inc.1987-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
DermaMedOintment2 g/100gTopicalDermarite Industries, Llc2016-10-18Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acid Gone AntacidAluminum hydroxide (95 mg/15mL) + Magnesium carbonate (358 mg/15mL)LiquidOralMajor2004-12-30Not applicableUS flag
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-07-092017-05-24US flag
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-06-06Not applicableUS flag
Acidex Tc Oral SuspensionAluminum hydroxide (600 mg) + Magnesium hydroxide (300 mg)SuspensionOralGen Drug Company Ltd.Not applicable1997-05-30Canada flag
Advanced Antacid CherryAluminum hydroxide (400 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (40 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (400 mg/5mL)LiquidOralStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid MintAluminum hydroxide (400 mg/10mL) + Dimethicone (40 mg/10mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (400 mg/10mL)SuspensionOralGoodsense2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid Regular StrengthAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)LiquidOralNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Antacid Regular StrengthAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)LiquidOralStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Regular Strength AntacidAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)SuspensionOralWalgreen Company2015-01-01Not applicableUS flag
AHC Premium Intense Contour BalmAluminum hydroxide (0.45 g/50mL) + Adenosine (0.02 g/50mL) + Aluminium tristearate (0.04 g/50mL) + Arbutin (1 g/50mL) + Methicone (20 CST) (1.3 g/50mL) + Octinoxate (1.5 g/50mL) + Talc (2.05 g/50mL) + Titanium dioxide (3.96 g/50mL) + Zinc oxide (0.96 g/50mL)CreamTopicalCarver Korea Co.,Ltd.2014-01-152017-11-22US flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AHC Premium Intense Contour BalmAluminum hydroxide (0.45 g/50mL) + Adenosine (0.02 g/50mL) + Aluminium tristearate (0.04 g/50mL) + Arbutin (1 g/50mL) + Methicone (20 CST) (1.3 g/50mL) + Octinoxate (1.5 g/50mL) + Talc (2.05 g/50mL) + Titanium dioxide (3.96 g/50mL) + Zinc oxide (0.96 g/50mL)CreamTopicalCarver Korea Co.,Ltd.2014-01-152017-11-22US flag
FIRST Mouthwash BLMAluminum hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL) + Dimethicone 410 (0.315 g/236mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (.2 g/.2g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.6 g/1.6g) + Magnesium hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL)KitOralCutisPharma, Inc.2004-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Medi Hydro DP BB CreamAluminum hydroxide (0.07 mg/100mL) + Adenosine (0.00004 mg/100mL) + Nicotinamide (0.02 mg/100mL) + Stearic acid (0.05 mg/100mL) + Titanium dioxide (0.05 mg/100mL)CreamTopicalMbg Inc (Korea Institute of Science Development)2017-08-082018-08-08US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A02AB02 — AlgeldrateA02AB01 — Aluminium hydroxideA02AD03 — Almagate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Post-transition metal salts / Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides / Inorganic hydrides
Substituents
Inorganic hydride / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic post-transition metal salt / Inorganic salt / Post-transition metal hydroxide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
aluminium hydroxides (CHEBI:33130)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5QB0T2IUN0
CAS number
21645-51-2
InChI Key
WNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) trihydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]

References

Synthesis Reference

Richard H. Goheen, William A. Nigro, Paul J. The, "Process for producing aluminum hydroxide of improved whiteness." U.S. Patent US4915930, issued November, 1933.

US4915930
General References
Not Available
KEGG Compound
C13391
PubChem Compound
10176082
PubChem Substance
175427087
ChemSpider
8351587
RxNav
81948
ChEBI
33130
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200706
Wikipedia
Aluminum_hydroxide
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04.00 — Antacids and Adsorbents
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionVaccine Responsiveness During Allergy De-sensitization Treatment / Vaccine Responsiveness in Allergy1
4CompletedTreatmentDyspepsia1
4CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3CompletedPreventionPapillomavirus Infections / Papillomavirus Vaccines1
3CompletedTreatmentDyspepsia / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
3CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)2
3CompletedTreatmentRhinoconjunctivitis, Allergic1
3TerminatedOtherGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentRadiation-induced Oesophagitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionOral13.45 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral2.39 g
SuspensionOral200 ml
LiquidOral
Tablet, chewableOral
SuspensionOral200 mg/5mL
LiquidOral600 mg/5mL
TabletOral
TabletOral600 MG
SuspensionOral102 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral1.25 g/5mL
SuspensionOral275 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral275.33 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral45.9 mg/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral273 mg
SuspensionOral61.25 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral2.15 g/5mL
TabletOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableOral500 mg
GelOral320 mg/5mL
LiquidOral320 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral305 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral370 mg/5mL
Tablet330 mg
TabletOral230 mg
Tablet, chewableOral320 mg
Tablet250 mg
TabletOral120 mg
SuspensionOral112.2 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral153 mg/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral350 mg
Tablet200 mg
Tablet191.25 mg
SuspensionOral320 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral220 mg/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral220 mg
SuspensionOral306 mg/5mL
Tablet400 mg
Tablet, chewableOral30 mg
GranuleOral400 mg
SuspensionOral0.4 g
TabletOral129.6 mg
Tablet, chewableOral250 mg
TabletOral350 mg
OintmentTopical2.5 g/25g
OintmentTopical0.275 g/100g
OintmentTopical1.356 g/113g
OintmentTopical
OintmentTopical2 g/100g
SuspensionOral32.501 g
Capsule, liquid filledOral100 mg
Tablet40 mg
Tablet, chewableBuccal470 mg
TabletOral300 mg
SolutionOral
PowderOral
KitOral
SuspensionOral4 g
SuspensionOral4000 mg
SuspensionOral6 g
GranuleOral
LiquidTopical
TabletOral100 mg
Powder, for suspensionOral6 g
SuspensionOral3.65 %
SuspensionOral4 %
SuspensionOral460 mg
TabletOral200 MG
TabletOral250 mg
TabletOral400 MG
Tablet, chewableOral300 mg
Tablet, chewableOral400 mg
Tablet120 mg
SuspensionOral76.67 mg/5mL
TabletOral240 mg
SuspensionOral400 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral225 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral250 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral
SuspensionOral10 mg/5ml
SuspensionOral8 g
SuspensionOral204 mg/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral234 mg
SuspensionOral6.15 g
SuspensionOral0.6 g
OintmentTopical
TabletOral
SuspensionOral83.35 mg
CreamTopical
SuspensionOral57.97 g
SuspensionOral86.67 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral172.33 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral600 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral300 mg/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral200 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5922
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8181
Caco-2 permeable-0.5094
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9433
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8282
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8206
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9584
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9447
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9578
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8393
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5918
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.81
Rat acute toxicity1.7247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9592
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9742
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Drug created on August 09, 2010 11:11 / Updated on November 23, 2020 09:08

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