Bevacizumab

Identification

Name
Bevacizumab
Accession Number
DB00112
Description

There is a great deal of evidence indicating that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important for the survival and proliferation of cancer cells.14,6,8,24 VEGF plays an important role in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor growth, which are all factors that contribute to its attractiveness as a therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapies.5,7,6,8,9

In 2004, bevacizumab (Avastin) gained FDA approval for specific types of cancer, and became the first antiangiogenic agent introduced to the market.23,24 It is a humanized monoclonal IgG antibody, and inhibits angiogenesis by binding and neutralizing VEGF-A.7,14 Bevacizumab is generally indicated for use in combination with different chemotherapy regimens which are specific to the type, severity, and stage of cancer.25

Interestingly, researchers have identified higher VEGF expression in patients with COVID-19, which may contribute to lung pathologies including acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI).26 As such, bevacizumab is being investigated for the treatment of lung complications associated with severe cases of COVID-19.26

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)
Protein Structure
Db00112
Protein Chemical Formula
C6538H10034N1716O2033S44
Protein Average Weight
149000.0 Da
Sequences
>"Bevacizumab light chain"
DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCSASQDISNYLNWYQQKPGKAPKVLIYFTSSLHSGVPS
RFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQYSTVPWTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPP
SDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT
LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
>"Bevacizumab heavy chain"
EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGYTFTNYGMNWVRQAPGKGLEWVGWINTYTGEPTY
AADFKRRFTFSLDTSKSTAYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKYPHYYGSSHWYFDVWGQGTLVT
VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVL
QSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEL
LGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE
QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPS
REEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDK
SRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Anti-VEGF Humanized Monoclonal Antibody
  • Anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody
  • Bevacizumab
  • bevacizumab-awwb
  • rhuMAb-VEGF
External IDs
  • ABP 215
  • ABP-215
  • R-435

Pharmacology

Indication

As a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, bevacizumab is used in several chemotherapy regimens to treat metastatic colorectal cancer; metastatic, unresectable, locally advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer; metastatic renal cell carcinoma; metastatic, persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer; primary peritoneal cancer; epithelial ovarian cancer; and fallopian tube cancer.25 It can also be used to treat recurrent glioblastoma.25

Interestingly, bevacizumab is currently under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19 complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI).26

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Bevacizumab binds circulating vascular endothelial-derived growth factor (VEGF) and blocks it from binding to its associated receptors, effectively blunting downstream signaling.19 The effects of bevacizumab have been shown to re-establish normal vasculature at the tumor site resulting in increased nutrient and oxygen supply, while also improving the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the target area.14,18 On the other hand, VEGF signaling is a vital component of several processes including angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, blood pressure regulation, wound healing, coagulation, and renal filtration.5,7,19 Although blocking VEGF may inhibit metastatic disease progression, it may also result in unintended effects due to the role of VEGF in several other physiologic processes.25

Mechanism of action

Transcription of the VEGF protein is induced by 'hypoxia inducible factor' (HIF) in a hypoxic environment.14 When circulating VEGF binds to VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) located on endothelial cells, various downstream effects are initiated.5,14 It should be noted that VEGF also binds to the neuropilin co-receptors (NRP-1 and NRP-1), leading to enhanced signaling.14,17

Cancer cells promote tumor angiogenesis by releasing VEGF, resulting in the creation of an immature and disorganized vascular network.9,10 The hypoxic microenvironment promoted by cancer cells favors the survival of more aggressive tumor cells, and gives rise to a challenging environment for immune cells to respond appropriately.10,11,12 As a result, VEGF has become a well-known target for anti-cancer drugs like bevacizumab.6 Bevacizumab is a mAb that exerts its effects by binding and inactivating serum VEGF.14 When bound to the mAb, VEGF is unable to interact with its cell surface receptors, and proangiogenic signalling is inhibited.14 This prevents formation of new blood vessels, decreases tumor vasculature, and reduces tumor blood supply.14,25

There is also evidence to suggest that VEGF is upregulated in COVID-19 patients, hence, bevacizumab is being investigated for the treatment of associated complications.26 Higher levels of VEGF may contribute to pulmonary edema, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI).26 Researchers are hopeful that by inhibiting VEGF, bevacizumab may effectively treat ARDS and ALI - both common features of severe COVID-19 cases.26

TargetActionsOrganism
AVascular endothelial growth factor ANot AvailableHumans
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit ANot AvailableHumans
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit BNot AvailableHumans
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit CNot AvailableHumans
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-ANot AvailableHumans
UHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor INot AvailableHumans
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-aNot AvailableHumans
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-bNot AvailableHumans
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-cNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are large in size, do not readily cross cell membranes, and are unable to withstand proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract.16,21,22 Given these characteristics, mAbs are poorly absorbed via the oral route and are instead administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously.16,22

In a single dose (1mg/kg) pharmacokinetic study assessing the bioequivalence of bevacizumab and TAB008 (a biosimilar product), the pharmacokinetic parameters of Avastin (bevacizumab) were as follows20: Geometric mean Cmax = 17.38 ug/mL Geometric mean AUCinf = 5,358 ugxh/mL Geometric mean Tmax = 2.50 hrs

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of bevacizumab is approximately 3.29 L and 2.39 L for the average male and female, respectively.14

Protein binding

>97% of serum VEGF is bound to bevacizumab.14

Metabolism

There are several pathways through which monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may be cleared.15 Non-specific clearance of mAbs refers to target independent pinocytosis, and proteolysis of the protein into small amino acids and peptides in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and the liver.15,16 Target-mediated clearance is a result of specific interactions between the mAb and its target antigen.15 Once bound, the antibody-antigen complex may be cleared via lysosomal degradation.15,16 Additionally, the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), which are a result of an immunogenic response to mAb-based treatment, can form complexes with mAb’s and may impact the rate of mAb clearance.15

Route of elimination

Due to their size, monoclonal antibodies are not renally eliminated under normal physiological conditions.16 Catabolism or excretion are the primary processes of elimination.16

Half-life

The half-life of bevacizumab is estimated to be 20 days (range of 11-50 days).25,13

Clearance

The clearance (CL) of bevacizumab is approximately 0.207 L/day.14 The CL of bevacizumab can increase or decrease by 30% in patients who weigh >114 kg or <49 kg respectively.14 Males tend to clear bevacizumab at a faster rate than females (26% faster on average).14 Other factors including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum albumin, and tumor burden may cause the CL to fluctuate.14

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Bevacizumab toxicities are distinct from the effects of cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy, and are normally linked to impaired VEGF function.18,19 Common toxicities associated with bevacizumab include hypertension, gastrointestinal perforation, arterial thromboembolism, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), venous thromboembolism, proteinuria, bleeding/hemorrhage, and wound-healing complications.18

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Bevacizumab Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevacizumab is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Bevacizumab.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Bevacizumab.
AdalimumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adalimumab is combined with Bevacizumab.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine liveThe risk or severity of infection can be increased when Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live is combined with Bevacizumab.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Bevacizumab.
AlefaceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alefacept is combined with Bevacizumab.
AlemtuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alemtuzumab is combined with Bevacizumab.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of jaw osteonecrosis and anti-angiogenesis can be increased when Bevacizumab is combined with Alendronic acid.
AlirocumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevacizumab is combined with Alirocumab.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AvastinInjection, solution100 mg/4mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.2004-02-26Not applicableUS flag
AvastinSolution25 mgIntravenousHoffmann La Roche2005-11-02Not applicableCanada flag
AvastinInjection, solution400 mg/16mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.2004-02-26Not applicableUS flag
MvasiSolution25 mgIntravenousAmgen2019-08-01Not applicableCanada flag
MvasiInjection, solution100 mg/4mLIntravenousAMGEN INC2018-06-01Not applicableUS flag
MvasiSolution25 mgIntravenousAmgen2019-08-01Not applicableCanada flag
MvasiInjection, solution400 mg/16mLIntravenousAMGEN INC2018-06-01Not applicableUS flag
ZirabevSolution100 mgIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc2019-09-25Not applicableCanada flag
ZirabevInjection, solution400 mg/16mLIntravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2020-01-13Not applicableUS flag
ZirabevInjection, solution100 mg/4mLIntravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2020-01-13Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01XC07 — Bevacizumab
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
2S9ZZM9Q9V
CAS number
216974-75-3

References

General References
  1. Velcheti V, Viswanathan A, Govindan R: The proportion of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer potentially eligible for treatment with bevacizumab: a single institutional survey. J Thorac Oncol. 2006 Jun;1(5):501. [PubMed:17409907]
  2. Rosen LS, Jacobs IA, Burkes RL: Bevacizumab in Colorectal Cancer: Current Role in Treatment and the Potential of Biosimilars. Target Oncol. 2017 Oct;12(5):599-610. doi: 10.1007/s11523-017-0518-1. [PubMed:28801849]
  3. Han K, Peyret T, Marchand M, Quartino A, Gosselin NH, Girish S, Allison DE, Jin J: Population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in cancer patients with external validation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;78(2):341-51. doi: 10.1007/s00280-016-3079-6. Epub 2016 Jun 21. [PubMed:27329360]
  4. Apsangikar PD, Chaudhry SR, Naik MM, Deoghare SB, Joseph J: Comparative pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of bevacizumab biosimilar to reference bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Indian J Cancer. 2017 Jul-Sep;54(3):535-538. doi: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_394_17. [PubMed:29798953]
  5. Karaman S, Leppanen VM, Alitalo K: Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in development and disease. Development. 2018 Jul 20;145(14). pii: 145/14/dev151019. doi: 10.1242/dev.151019. [PubMed:30030240]
  6. Verheul HM, Pinedo HM: The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor angiogenesis and early clinical development of VEGF-receptor kinase inhibitors. Clin Breast Cancer. 2000 Sep;1 Suppl 1:S80-4. doi: 10.3816/cbc.2000.s.015. [PubMed:11970755]
  7. Stacker SA, Achen MG: The VEGF signaling pathway in cancer: the road ahead. Chin J Cancer. 2013 Jun;32(6):297-302. doi: 10.5732/cjc.012.10319. Epub 2013 Feb 19. [PubMed:23419196]
  8. Siveen KS, Prabhu K, Krishnankutty R, Kuttikrishnan S, Tsakou M, Alali FQ, Dermime S, Mohammad RM, Uddin S: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling in Tumour Vascularization: Potential and Challenges. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;15(4):339-351. doi: 10.2174/1570161115666170105124038. [PubMed:28056756]
  9. Lee SH, Jeong D, Han YS, Baek MJ: Pivotal role of vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in tumor angiogenesis. Ann Surg Treat Res. 2015 Jul;89(1):1-8. doi: 10.4174/astr.2015.89.1.1. Epub 2015 Jun 11. [PubMed:26131438]
  10. Viallard C, Larrivee B: Tumor angiogenesis and vascular normalization: alternative therapeutic targets. Angiogenesis. 2017 Nov;20(4):409-426. doi: 10.1007/s10456-017-9562-9. Epub 2017 Jun 28. [PubMed:28660302]
  11. Rodriguez PC, Zea AH, Ochoa AC: Mechanisms of tumor evasion from the immune response. Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif. 2003;21:351-64. doi: 10.1016/s0921-4410(03)21018-8. [PubMed:15338755]
  12. Petrova V, Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli M, Melino G, Amelio I: The hypoxic tumour microenvironment. Oncogenesis. 2018 Jan 24;7(1):10. doi: 10.1038/s41389-017-0011-9. [PubMed:29362402]
  13. Lu JF, Bruno R, Eppler S, Novotny W, Lum B, Gaudreault J: Clinical pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;62(5):779-86. doi: 10.1007/s00280-007-0664-8. Epub 2008 Jan 19. [PubMed:18205003]
  14. Kazazi-Hyseni F, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Bevacizumab. Oncologist. 2010;15(8):819-25. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0317. Epub 2010 Aug 5. [PubMed:20688807]
  15. Ovacik M, Lin K: Tutorial on Monoclonal Antibody Pharmacokinetics and Its Considerations in Early Development. Clin Transl Sci. 2018 Nov;11(6):540-552. doi: 10.1111/cts.12567. Epub 2018 Aug 7. [PubMed:29877608]
  16. Ryman JT, Meibohm B: Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies. CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol. 2017 Sep;6(9):576-588. doi: 10.1002/psp4.12224. Epub 2017 Jul 29. [PubMed:28653357]
  17. Herzog B, Pellet-Many C, Britton G, Hartzoulakis B, Zachary IC: VEGF binding to NRP1 is essential for VEGF stimulation of endothelial cell migration, complex formation between NRP1 and VEGFR2, and signaling via FAK Tyr407 phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Aug 1;22(15):2766-76. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E09-12-1061. Epub 2011 Jun 8. [PubMed:21653826]
  18. Randall LM, Monk BJ: Bevacizumab toxicities and their management in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2010 Jun;117(3):497-504. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2010.02.021. Epub 2010 Apr 2. [PubMed:20363017]
  19. Brandes AA, Bartolotti M, Tosoni A, Poggi R, Franceschi E: Practical management of bevacizumab-related toxicities in glioblastoma. Oncologist. 2015 Feb;20(2):166-75. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0330. Epub 2015 Jan 7. [PubMed:25568148]
  20. Wang J, Qi L, Liu L, Wang Z, Chen G, Wang Y, Liu X, Liu Y, Liu H, Tong Y, Liu C, Lei C, Wang X: A Phase I, Randomized, Single-Dose Study Evaluating the Biosimilarity of TAB008 to Bevacizumab in Healthy Volunteers. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 15;10:905. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00905. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31474863]
  21. Yang NJ, Hinner MJ: Getting across the cell membrane: an overview for small molecules, peptides, and proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1266:29-53. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2272-7_3. [PubMed:25560066]
  22. Keizer RJ, Huitema AD, Schellens JH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacokinetics of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Aug;49(8):493-507. doi: 10.2165/11531280-000000000-00000. [PubMed:20608753]
  23. Goodman L: Persistence--luck--Avastin. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr;113(7):934. doi: 10.1172/JCI21507. [PubMed:15057295]
  24. Al-Husein B, Abdalla M, Trepte M, Deremer DL, Somanath PR: Antiangiogenic therapy for cancer: an update. Pharmacotherapy. 2012 Dec;32(12):1095-111. doi: 10.1002/phar.1147. [PubMed:23208836]
  25. FDA Approved Drug Products: Avastin (bevacizumab) injection [Link]
  26. ClinicalTrials.gov: Bevacizumab in Severe or Critical Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia (BEST-CP) [Link]
PubChem Substance
46504473
RxNav
253337
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201583
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000393
PharmGKB
PA130232992
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Bevacizumab
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
FDA label
Download (133 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Unresectable Metastasis Originating in Colonic Cancer1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
4CompletedOtherEye Diseases / Premature Births / Retinal Diseases / Retinopathy of Prematurity Both Eyes1
4CompletedOtherHER2/Neu-negative Carcinoma of Breast / Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast / Recurrent Breast Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer2
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers3
4CompletedTreatmentCorneal Neovascularization1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Roche Pharmaceuticals
Packagers
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Genentech Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous100 mg/4ml
SolutionIntravenous400 mg/16ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous100 mg/4mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral100 mg/4ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral400 mg/16ml
Injection
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous400 mg
Solution, concentrateIntravenous100 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.25 g/100mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 g/100mL
Injection, solution2.5 g/100mL
Injection, solution2.5 mg/0.1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/16mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous25 MG/ML
Injection, solution
SolutionIntravenous25 mg
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
SolutionIntravenous400 mg
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/4ml
InjectionIntravenous400 mg/16ml
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avastin 400 mg/16ml Solution 16ml Vial2786.78USD vial
Avastin 100 mg/4ml Solution 4ml Vial696.7USD vial
Avastin 100 mg/4 ml vial167.48USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2286330No2008-06-102018-04-03Canada flag
CA2145985No2003-09-162012-10-28Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °C (FAB fragment), 71 °C (whole mAb)Vermeer, A.W.P. & Norde, W., Biophys. J. 78:394-404 (2000)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding
Specific Function
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of...
Gene Name
VEGFA
Uniprot ID
P15692
Uniprot Name
Vascular endothelial growth factor A
Molecular Weight
27042.205 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Gerber HP, Ferrara N: Pharmacology and pharmacodynamics of bevacizumab as monotherapy or in combination with cytotoxic therapy in preclinical studies. Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 1;65(3):671-80. [PubMed:15705858]
  3. Han K, Peyret T, Marchand M, Quartino A, Gosselin NH, Girish S, Allison DE, Jin J: Population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in cancer patients with external validation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;78(2):341-51. doi: 10.1007/s00280-016-3079-6. Epub 2016 Jun 21. [PubMed:27329360]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QA
Uniprot ID
P02745
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit A
Molecular Weight
26016.47 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QB
Uniprot ID
P02746
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit B
Molecular Weight
26721.62 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QC
Uniprot ID
P02747
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
Molecular Weight
25773.56 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of IgG. Binds complexed or aggregated IgG and also monomeric IgG. Mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and other antibody-dependent responses, such as...
Gene Name
FCGR3A
Uniprot ID
P08637
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A
Molecular Weight
29088.895 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
High affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Gene Name
FCGR1A
Uniprot ID
P12314
Uniprot Name
High affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I
Molecular Weight
42631.525 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. By binding to IgG it initiates cellular responses against pathogens and soluble antigens. Promotes phagocytosis of opsonized ...
Gene Name
FCGR2A
Uniprot ID
P12318
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a
Molecular Weight
35000.42 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of complexed or aggregated immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Involved in a variety of effector and regulatory functions such as phagocytosis of immune complex...
Gene Name
FCGR2B
Uniprot ID
P31994
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b
Molecular Weight
34043.355 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of complexed immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Involved in a variety of effector and regulatory functions such as phagocytosis of immune complexes and modulat...
Gene Name
FCGR2C
Uniprot ID
P31995
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-c
Molecular Weight
35577.96 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fei D, Vanderlaan M, Song A: Biological activity of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody in vitro. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):335-45. doi: 10.1007/s10456-004-8272-2. Epub 2005 May 9. [PubMed:15886877]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 29, 2020 19:25

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