Belladonna

Identification

Generic Name
Belladonna
DrugBank Accession Number
DB13913
Background

Belladonna, also known as atropa belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain Hyoscyamine, Scopolamine, and mostly, Atropine. These alkaloids are naturally-occurring muscarinic antagonists. Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist that is mainly used as an adjunct for anaesthesia. The name "belladonna" originates from the Italian words "beautiful woman" and the historical use of herb eye-drops by women to dilate the pupils of the eyes for aesthetic purposes. Belladonna is a poisonous plant and belladonna intoxication from accidental ingestion may result in a severe anticholinergic syndrome, which is associated with both central and peripheral manifestations 1.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Synonyms
  • Atropa belladona
  • Atropa belladonna
  • Deadly nightshade

Pharmacology

Indication

No therapeutic indications.

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Used in combination for symptomatic treatment ofAcid refluxCombination Product in combination with: Aluminium glycinate (DB13626)••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••
Used in combination to treatBloatingCombination Product in combination with: Activated charcoal (DB09278), Magnesium hydroxide (DB09104), Peppermint oil (DB11198)••• •••••••••
Used in combination to treatHeartburnCombination Product in combination with: Peppermint oil (DB11198), Activated charcoal (DB09278), Magnesium hydroxide (DB09104)••• •••••••••
Used in combination to manageMenopausal symptomsCombination Product in combination with: Phenobarbital (DB01174), Ergotamine (DB00696)•••••••••••••••••
Used in combination to treatPoisoning of the intestineCombination Product in combination with: Magnesium hydroxide (DB09104), Peppermint oil (DB11198), Activated charcoal (DB09278)••• •••••••••
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

The active components of belladonna mediate anticholinergic actions. The main effects include inhibition of secretions such as dry mouth, tachycardia, pupillary dilation and paralysis of accommodation, relaxation of smooth muscles in the gut, bronchi, biliary tract and bladder (urinary retention), and inhibition of gastric acid secretion 3. Atropine is a stimulant of the central nervous system 3.

Mechanism of action

The active components of belladonna act as competitive antagonists at muscarinic receptors and block the binding of acetylcholine to the central nervous system and parasympathetic postganglionic muscarinic receptors 1.

Absorption

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Volume of distribution

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Protein binding

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Metabolism

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Route of elimination

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Half-life

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Clearance

For pharmacokinetic information of the active ingredients, refer to Atropine, Hyoscyamine, or Scopolamine.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 of atropine is 75 mg/kg in mouse. Clinical manifestations of anticholinergic syndrome include both central and peripheral effects. Central symptoms, which are dose-dependent and anticholinergic agent-specific, include ataxia, disorientation, short-term memory loss, confusion, hallucinations, psychosis, agitated delirium, seizures, coma, respiratory failure or cardiovascular collapse 1. Peripheral effects include mydriasis with cycloplegia, dry mucous membranes, hyperreflexia, flushed skin, diminished bowel sounds or ileus, urinary retention, tachycardia, and hypertension or hypotension 1. Management of anticholinergic intoxication should be symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal 1. The antidote for belladonna poisoning is Physostigmine, which is the same as for atropine 1. Physosigmine crosses the blood-brain barrier and reversibly inhibits anticholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are frequently used for sedation to control anticholinergic effects including delirium and agitation 2.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Belladonna is combined with Aclidinium.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Belladonna is combined with Alfentanil.
AmantadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Belladonna.
AmbenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Belladonna can be decreased when used in combination with Ambenonium.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Belladonna is combined with Amitriptyline.
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Belladone TctTincture.03 %OralLaboratoire Atlas Inc1951-12-312006-06-14Canada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
HE WEI PILLPill0.00045 gห้างหุ้นส่วนจำกัด ห้างขายยาลี้บ้วนซัว (ตราตกเบ็ด)2010-07-09Not applicableThailand flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bellergal SpacetabsBelladonna (0.2 mg) + Ergotamine tartrate (0.6 mg) + Phenobarbital (40.0 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralPaladin Labs Inc1959-01-012018-06-05Canada flag
Bellergal TabBelladonna (.1 mg / tab) + Ergotamine tartrate (.3 mg / tab) + Phenobarbital (20 mg / tab)TabletOralSandoz1951-12-311997-08-12Canada flag
BIOGASTRIN TOZ, 60 GBelladonna (20 mg) + Anise oil (5 mg) + Calcium carbonate (500 mg) + Kaolin (300 mg) + Sodium bicarbonate (250 mg)OralBİOFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.1968-05-24Not applicableTurkey flag
Cafergot Pb SupBelladonna (0.25 mg / sup) + Caffeine (100 mg / sup) + Ergotamine tartrate (2 mg / sup) + Pentobarbital (60 mg / sup)SuppositoryRectalNovartis1958-12-312003-01-15Canada flag
Cafergot Pb TabBelladonna (0.125 mg / tab) + Caffeine (100 mg / tab) + Ergotamine tartrate (1 mg / tab) + Pentobarbital Sodium (30 mg / tab)TabletOralNovartis1951-12-311999-08-04Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Belladonna and OpiumBelladonna (16.2 mg/1) + Opium (30 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalbryant ranch prepack1994-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Belladonna and OpiumBelladonna (16.2 mg/1) + Opium (60 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalLegacy Pharma Inc.2020-04-29Not applicableUS flag
Belladonna and OpiumBelladonna (16.2 mg/1) + Opium (30 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalbryant ranch prepack1994-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Belladonna and OpiumBelladonna (16.2 mg/1) + Opium (30 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalPadagis US LLC1994-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Belladonna and OpiumBelladonna (16.2 mg/1) + Opium (30 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalLegacy Pharma Inc.2020-04-29Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
WQZ3G9PF0H
CAS number
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Berdai MA, Labib S, Chetouani K, Harandou M: Atropa belladonna intoxication: a case report. Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:72. Epub 2012 Apr 17. [Article]
  2. Demirhan A, Tekelioglu UY, Yildiz I, Korkmaz T, Bilgi M, Akkaya A, Kocoglu H: Anticholinergic Toxic Syndrome Caused by Atropa Belladonna Fruit (Deadly Nightshade): A Case Report. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2013 Dec;41(6):226-8. doi: 10.5152/TJAR.2013.43. Epub 2013 May 23. [Article]
  3. 13. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 159-161). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
RxNav
89781
Wikipedia
Belladonna

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionNeurogenic Bladder / Overactive Bladder Syndrome (OABS) / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS) / Urinary Urge Incontinence1
4CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentKidney Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentPain1
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infection1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral
TinctureOral.03 %
SuppositoryRectal
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral6 mg
Tablet
Pill0.00045 g
TabletOral
Suspension
Pill
Tablet
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Drug created at September 22, 2017 20:50 / Updated at February 25, 2024 21:03