Identification

Name
Enoxaparin
Accession Number
DB01225
Description

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin. Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa. Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, so enoxaparin's inhibition of this process results in decreased thrombin and ultimately the prevention of fibrin clot formation. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism, and also for the prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Enoxaparin is a highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from 3800 to 5000 daltons. Enoxaparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Enoxaparin is a well known and commonly used anticoagulant which has antithrombotic properties. Enoxaparin inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood and the formation of fibrin clots both in vitro and in vivo. Enoxaparin acts at multiple sites in the normal coagulation system. Small amounts of enoxaparin in combination with antithrombin III (enoxaparin cofactor) can inhibit thrombosis by inactivating activated Factor X and inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Once active thrombosis has developed, larger amounts of enoxaparin can inhibit further coagulation by inactivating thrombin and preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Enoxaparin also prevents the formation of a stable fibrin clot by inhibiting the activation of the fibrin stabilizing factor. Its use should be avoided in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 20mL/min. In these patients, unfractionated heparin should only be used. As for monitoring, active partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) will only increase at high doses of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Therefore, monitoring aPTT is not recommended. However, anti-Xa activity can be measured to monitor the efficacy of the LMWH.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of enoxaparin is antithrombin-dependent. It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of enoxaparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Enoxaparin interacts with Antithrombin III, Prothrombin and Factor X. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAntithrombin-III
potentiator
Humans
ACoagulation factor X
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Mean absolute bioavailability of enoxaparin, after 1.5 mg/kg given subcutaneously, based on anti-Factor Xa activity is approximately 100% in healthy volunteers.

Volume of distribution
  • 4.3 L
Protein binding

80% bound-albumin

Metabolism

Undergoes desulfation and polymerization via the liver

Route of elimination

Enoxaparin sodium is primarily metabolized in the liver by desulfation and/or depolymerization to lower molecular weight species with much reduced biological potency. Renal clearance of active fragments represents about 10% of the administered dose and total renal excretion of active and non-active fragments 40% of the dose.

Half-life

4.5 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Mouse, median lethal dose greater than 5000 mg/kg. Another side effect is heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT syndrome). HIT is caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets form clots within the blood vessels, thereby using up coagulation factors.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Enoxaparin.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Enoxaparin.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Enoxaparin.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Enoxaparin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Albutrepenonacog alfaThe therapeutic efficacy of Albutrepenonacog alfa can be decreased when used in combination with Enoxaparin.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Enoxaparin.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Aldesleukin.
AlemtuzumabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Alemtuzumab.
Additional Data Available
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  • Severity
    Severity
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  • Evidence Level
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid herbs and supplements with anticoagulant/antiplatelet activity. Examples include garlic, ginger, bilberry, danshen, piracetam, and ginkgo biloba.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Enoxaparin sodium8NZ41MIK1O679809-58-6Not applicable
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Clexane
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
LovenoxInjection80 mg/0.8mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-292017-12-31US flag
LovenoxInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC1993-03-29Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxInjection30 mg/0.3mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-292020-04-30US flag
LovenoxInjection100 mg/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-29Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxInjection120 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC1993-03-29Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxInjection80 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC1993-03-29Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxInjection40 mg/0.4mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-10-06Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxInjection40 mg/0.4mLSubcutaneoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC1993-03-29Not applicableUS flag
LovenoxSolution100 mgSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis2012-09-21Not applicableCanada flag
LovenoxInjection80 mg/0.8mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-292015-10-31US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection30 mg/0.3mLSubcutaneousApotex Corp.2019-01-31Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection120 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2019-07-15Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection150 mg/1mLSubcutaneousNorthStar Rx LLC2019-12-01Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection30 mg/0.3mLSubcutaneousActavis Pharma Company2012-01-272018-05-31US flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-232018-06-30US flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousBluePoint Laboratories2020-10-19Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection, solution120 mg/0.8mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-12-22Not applicableUS flag
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection80 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2019-07-15Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
B01AB05 — Enoxaparin
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
E47C0NF7LV
CAS number
9005-49-6

References

Synthesis Reference

Jorgen I. Nielsen, "Process of using light absorption to control enzymatic depolymerization of heparin to produce low molecular weight heparin." U.S. Patent US5106734, issued May, 1981.

US5106734
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14551
KEGG Drug
D07510
PubChem Substance
46507450
ChemSpider
751
RxNav
67108
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201685
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000616
PharmGKB
PA449463
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Enoxaparin_sodium
AHFS Codes
  • 20:12.04.16 — Heparins
FDA label
Download (1.44 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
4CompletedPreventionAnticoagulants / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Thrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedPreventionAntiphospholipid Syndrome / Recurrent Miscarriages1
4CompletedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism / Venous Thromboembolic Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionEnoxaparin / Placental Insufficiency1
4CompletedPreventionFemur Head Necrosis / Fracture of Neck of Femur / Osteoarthritis in the Hip Joint1
4CompletedPreventionImpaired kidney function / Venous Thromboembolism1
4CompletedPreventionInflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedPreventionInjuries, Brain / Thrombosis, Venous1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Cardinal Health
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionSubcutaneous2000 IU/0.2mL
InjectionSubcutaneous4000 IU/0.4mL
InjectionSubcutaneous6000 IU/0.6mL
InjectionSubcutaneous8000 IU/0.8mL
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg
Injection, solution40 mg/0.4mL
Injection, solution60 mg/0.6mL
Injection, solutionParenteral10.000 IE
InjectionSubcutaneous100 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral100 MG/1ML
Injection, solutionParenteral10000 IE/1ML
InjectionSubcutaneous120 mg
InjectionSubcutaneous20 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral20 MG/0.2ML
Injection, solutionParenteral2000 IE/0.2ML
Injection, solutionParenteral4.000 IE
SolutionIntra-arterial; Intravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous4000 IU/0.4mL
InjectionSubcutaneous40 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral4000 IE/0.4ML
Injection, solutionParenteral40 MG/0.4ML
Injection, solutionParenteral4000 IE
Injection, solutionParenteral
Injection, solutionParenteral6.000 IE
InjectionSubcutaneous60 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral6000 I.E./0.6ML
Injection, solutionParenteral60 MG/0.6ML
Injection, solutionParenteral6000 IE
Injection, solutionParenteral6000 IE/0.6ML
Injection, solutionParenteral8.000 IE
InjectionSubcutaneous80 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral80 MG/0.8ML
Injection, solutionParenteral8000 IE/0.8ML
SolutionIntra-arterial; Intravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg
Injection, solution150 mg/1mL
SolutionIntra-arterial; Intravenous; Subcutaneous20 mg
SolutionIntra-arterial; Intravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral30000 IU/3ml
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous10000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous60 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous80 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral1 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral0.2 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral0.4 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral0.6 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral0.8 ml
Injection, solution80 mg/0.8mL
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous20 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral10000 IE
Injection, solutionParenteral2000 IE
Injection, solutionParenteral8000 IE
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous300 mg/3mL
InjectionSubcutaneous100 mg/1mL
InjectionSubcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
InjectionSubcutaneous150 mg/1mL
InjectionSubcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
InjectionSubcutaneous300 mg/3mL
InjectionSubcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
InjectionSubcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
InjectionSubcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous150 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
SolutionSubcutaneous0.4 mL
SolutionSubcutaneous20 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous60 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous80 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral12000 IU/0.8ml
Injection, solutionParenteral15000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionParenteral10000 IU
Injection, solutionParenteral2000 IU
Injection, solutionParenteral4000 IU
Injection, solutionParenteral6000 IU
Injection, solutionParenteral8000 IU
Injection, solutionCutaneous; Parenteral100 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous; Parenteral20 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous; Parenteral40 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous; Parenteral60 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous; Parenteral80 MG
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral10000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral12000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral15000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral2000 IU/0.2ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral30000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral4000 IU/0.4ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral50000 IU/ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral6000 IU/0.6ml
Injection, solutionExtracorporeal; Parenteral8000 IU/0.8ml
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous2000 IU/0.2ml
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous4000 IU/0.4ml
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous6000 IU/0.6ml
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous8000 IU/0.8ml
Injection, solution100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral100 mg/ml
Injection
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
SolutionSubcutaneous100 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous30 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous40 mg
Injection, solution10 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral10000 IU/mL
Injection, solutionParenteral100 MG/1.0ML
Injection, solutionParenteral2000 IU/0.2mL
Injection, solution3 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral4000 IU/0.4mL
Injection, solution5 ml
Injection, solutionParenteral6000 IU/0.6mL
Injection, solutionParenteral8000 IU/0.8mL
SolutionSubcutaneous
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionSubcutaneous10000 IU/mL
SolutionSubcutaneous12000 IU/0.8mL
SolutionSubcutaneous2000 IU/0.2mL
SolutionSubcutaneous4000 IU/0.4mL
SolutionSubcutaneous6000 IU/0.6mL
SolutionSubcutaneous8000 IU/0.8mL
Injection, solutionCutaneous100 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous20 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous40 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous60 MG
Injection, solutionCutaneous80 MG
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lovenox 300 mg/3ml Solution 3ml Vial281.47USD vial
Lovenox 150 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe140.94USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe93.93USD syringe
Lovenox 80 mg/0.8ml Solution 0.8ml Syringe75.14USD syringe
Lovenox 60 mg/0.6ml Solution 0.6ml Syringe56.36USD syringe
Lovenox 40 mg/0.4ml Solution 0.4ml Syringe37.53USD syringe
Lovenox Hp (0.8Ml/1Ml Syringe) 150 mg/ml Syringe34.63USD syringe
Lovenox 30 mg/0.3ml Solution 0.3ml Syringe28.15USD syringe
Lovenox (0.4 - 1 Ml Syringe) 100 mg/ml Syringe23.09USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml23.09USD syringe
Lovenox (0.3 Ml Syringe) 30 mg/syr Syringe6.97USD syringe
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5389618No1995-02-142012-02-14US flag
CA2045433No2002-07-302011-06-25Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility> 200 mg/mLNot Available
logP-13.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9215
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8366
Caco-2 permeable-0.6496
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.698
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5818
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9771
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9454
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6694
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8196
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5842
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8157
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.771
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8869
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7655
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9194
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9232
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5957
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.694
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.851
Rat acute toxicity2.3846 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9589
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7157
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin, matriptase-3/TMPRSS7, as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory a...
Gene Name
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID
P01008
Uniprot Name
Antithrombin-III
Molecular Weight
52601.935 Da
References
  1. Peng K, Wang C, Pang BS, Yang YH: [Effects of thrombolysis and anticoagulation on the functions of vascular endothelial cells and coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;28(9):596-9. [PubMed:16207425]
  2. Lee S, Gibson CM: Enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 May;5(3):387-99. [PubMed:17489664]
  3. Bisio A, Vecchietti D, Citterio L, Guerrini M, Raman R, Bertini S, Eisele G, Naggi A, Sasisekharan R, Torri G: Structural features of low-molecular-weight heparins affecting their affinity to antithrombin. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Nov;102(5):865-73. doi: 10.1160/TH09-02-0081. [PubMed:19888521]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting.
Gene Name
F10
Uniprot ID
P00742
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor X
Molecular Weight
54731.255 Da
References
  1. Graff J, Picard-Willems B, Harder S: Monitoring effects of direct FXa-inhibitors with a new one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) assay: comparative in vitro investigation with heparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux and DX 9065a. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr;45(4):237-43. [PubMed:17474542]
  2. Berges A, Laporte S, Epinat M, Zufferey P, Alamartine E, Tranchand B, Decousus H, Mismetti P: Anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin administered at prophylactic dosage to patients over 75 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;64(4):428-38. Epub 2007 May 17. [PubMed:17509040]
  3. Sanchez-Pena P, Hulot JS, Urien S, Ankri A, Collet JP, Choussat R, Lechat P, Montalescot G: Anti-factor Xa kinetics after intravenous enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a population model analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;60(4):364-73. [PubMed:16187968]
  4. Dalmora SL, Junior LB, Schmidt CA, Vaccari SF, Oliveira PR, Codevilla CF: Validation of the anti-factor Xa assay for the potency assessment of enoxaparin in pharmaceutical formulations. J AOAC Int. 2004 Nov-Dec;87(6):1305-8. [PubMed:15675440]
  5. Paige JT, Gouda BP, Gaitor-Stampley V, Scalia PG, Klainer TE, Raum WJ, Martin LF: No correlation between anti-factor Xa levels, low-molecular-weight heparin, and bleeding after gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Jul-Aug;3(4):469-75. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [PubMed:17567541]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production o...
Gene Name
MPO
Uniprot ID
P05164
Uniprot Name
Myeloperoxidase
Molecular Weight
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Rudolph TK, Rudolph V, Witte A, Klinke A, Szoecs K, Lau D, Heitzer T, Meinertz T, Baldus S: Liberation of vessel adherent myeloperoxidase by enoxaparin improves endothelial function. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Apr 1;140(1):42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.10.035. Epub 2008 Dec 2. [PubMed:19049846]
  2. Baldus S, Eiserich JP, Mani A, Castro L, Figueroa M, Chumley P, Ma W, Tousson A, White CR, Bullard DC, Brennan ML, Lusis AJ, Moore KP, Freeman BA: Endothelial transcytosis of myeloperoxidase confers specificity to vascular ECM proteins as targets of tyrosine nitration. J Clin Invest. 2001 Dec;108(12):1759-70. doi: 10.1172/JCI12617. [PubMed:11748259]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 29, 2020 19:25

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