- Cardiovascular Agents
- Accession Number
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Drug Drug Description Lepirudin A protein-based direct thrombin inhibitor used to reverse and prevent thrombus formation in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Alteplase A recombinant form of human tissue plasminogen activator used in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and pulmonary emboli. Reteplase A purified form of human tissue plasminogen activator used in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and pulmonary emboli. Anistreplase A form of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator used in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction and pulmonary emboli. Tenecteplase A modified form of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator used in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction and pulmonary emboli. Desmopressin A synthetic analog of vasopressin used to reduce renal excretion of water in central diabetes insipidus and nocturia. Vasopressin A peptide hormone used to increase blood pressure in patients with vasodilatory shock who are resistant to fluid and catecholamine therapy. Streptokinase A purified fibrinolytic bacterial protein used to breakdown thrombosis in myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and venous thromboembolism. Felypressin For use as an alternative to adrenaline as a localising agent, provided that local ischaemia is not essential. Valsartan An angiotensin-receptor blocker used to manage hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents and to manage heart failure in patients who are intolerant to ACE inhibitors. Ramipril An ACE inhibitor used for the management of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular mortality following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable patients with clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Betaxolol A cardioselective beta blocking agent commonly used to treat hypertension and elevated intraocular pressure (when administered ophthalmically). Sildenafil A phosphodiesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Dofetilide A class III antiarrhythmic drug used for the maintenance of normal sinus rhythm and cardioversion in cases of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Reserpine For the treatment of hypertension Ticlopidine A platelet aggregation inhibitor used in the prevention of conditions associated with thrombi, such as stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Midodrine An alpha-adrenergic antagonist used to treat orthostatic hypotension. Remikiren For the treatment of hypertension and heart failure Torasemide A diuretic used to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure, renal failure, or liver disease. Bethanidine For the treatment of hypertension. Glimepiride A sulfonylurea drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Guanadrel Used to treat and control hypertension. Methyclothiazide A diuretic drug used to treat hypertension and edema caused by heart failure, renal conditions, treatment with corticosteroids, and estrogen therapy. Milrinone An inotropic vasodilator agent used to treat acute, decompensated heart failure. Ranolazine An anti-anginal drug used for the treatment of chronic angina. Methysergide An ergot alkaloid used for the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. Anagrelide A platelet-reducing agent used to treat thrombocythemia, and its related complications, secondary to myeloproliferative neoplasms. Metoprolol A beta-blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina, and used to reduce mortality due to myocardial infarction. Isradipine A dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. Olmesartan An angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) used in the treatment of hypertension. Theophylline A xanthine used to manage the symptoms of asthma, COPD, and other lung conditions caused by reversible airflow obstruction. Disopyramide A class 1A antiarrhythmic agent used to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Lidocaine A local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures. Ibutilide A class III antiarrhythmic agent used to correct atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, which can be considered as an alternative to cardioversion. Chlorthalidone A diuretic used to treat hypertension or edema caused by heart failure, renal failure, hepatic cirrhosis, estrogen therapy, and other conditions. Ethoxzolamide For use in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, as a diuretic, and in the treatment of glaucoma, and may also be useful in the treatment of seizures associated with epilepsy. Dihydroergotamine An ergot alkaloid used in the acute treatment of migraine headache and cluster headache. Nitroprusside A direct acting vasodilator used to treat hypertension, to induce controlled hypotension to reduce postoperative bleeding, and to manage acute heart failure. Indomethacin A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) used for symptomatic management of chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions and to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Atenolol A synthetic beta-1 selective blocker used in the management of hypertension and chronic angina, and to reduce mortality in known or suspected myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable patients. Diltiazem A calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and to manage chronic stable angina. Minoxidil An antihypertensive vasodilating agent used for resistant hypertension that is symptomatic or has caused end organ damage. Norepinephrine A sympathomimetic used in the control of blood pressure during various hypotensive states and as an adjunct treatment during cardiac arrest. Timolol A non-selective beta adrenergic blocker used in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma. Treprostinil A prostacyclin vasodilator for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension to relieve exercise associated symptoms and to prevent clinical deterioration after stopping epoprostenol. Mexiletine A class 1B antiarrhythmic agent used in the treatment of documented ventricular arrhythmias that warrant treatment. Dexrazoxane A cytoprotective drug used to prevent and improve cardiomyopathy associated with doxorubicin treatment for metastatic breast cancer. Amlodipine A calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and angina. Triamterene A potassium-sparing diuretic used in the treatment of edema and in the management of hypertension. Phenylephrine An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used in the management of hypotension, generally in the surgical setting associated with the use of anesthetics. Digoxin A cardiac glycoside used in the treatment of mild to moderate heart failure and for ventricular response rate control in chronic atrial fibrillation. Nimodipine A calcium channel blocker used to improve neurological outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Phenylpropanolamine A sympathomimetic that was previously used in nasal decongestants and weight loss products, but has been withdrawn by the FDA due to safety risks and lack of efficacy. Nisoldipine A calcium channel blocker used as monotherapy or combined with other drugs for the treatment of hypertension. Ardeparin For prevention of deep vein thrombosis, which may result in pulmonary embolism, following knee surgery. Carbamoylcholine A direct acting miotic agent administered ophthalmically to decrease intraocular pressure after cataract surgery, and to induce miosis during surgery. Spironolactone An aldosterone receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension, hyperaldosteronism, edema due to various conditions, hirsutism (off-label) and hypokalemia. Hyoscyamine For treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Also used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease... Nitric Oxide A vasodilating agent used in the treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure in premature neonates. Bendroflumethiazide A diuretic used to suppress lactation and to treat hypertension and edema. Prazosin An alpha-blocker that causes a decrease in total peripheral resistance and is used to treat hypertension. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate An anionic surfactant used to treat varicose veins of the lower extremities. Brimonidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat glaucoma and ocular hypertension, as well as facial erythema in rosacea. Sotalol A methane sulfonanilide beta adrenergic antagonist used to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and to maintain sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation or flutter. Fosinopril An ACE inhibitor used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, congestive heart failure, and to slow the progression of renal disease in hypertensive diabetics. Acetyldigitoxin Used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure. Trandolapril A prodrug of an ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and to improve survival following a myocardial infarction. Carteolol A beta adrenergic antagonist used to treat arrhythmia, angina, hypertension, and glaucoma. Metolazone A thiazide-like diuretic used to treat hypertension. Lercanidipine For the treatment of Hypertension, management of angina pectoris and Raynaud's syndrome Benazepril An ACE inhibitor prodrug used to treat hypertension. Bosentan A dual endothelin receptor antagonist used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cinnarizine For the treatment of vertigo/meniere's disease, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness and also useful for vestibular symptoms of other origins. Propranolol A non-selective beta adrenergic antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, migraine, essential tremor, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, and pheochromocytoma. Atropine A muscarinic antagonist used to treat poisoning by muscarinic agents, including organophosphates and other drugs. Clonidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension and severe cancer pain, among other conditions, and to treat withdrawal symptoms from various substances. It is also used to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and to prevent migraines. Enalapril A prodrug of an ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. Doxazosin An alpha-1 adrenergic receptor used to treat mild to moderate hypertension and urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Amiloride A pyrizine compound used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. Ulobetasol A lipocortin corticosteroid used to treat inflammatory and pruritic corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. Labetalol An alpha and beta adrenergic antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina, and sympathetic overactivity syndrome. Cyclothiazide Cyclothiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It is also indicated in the management of hypertension either... Metaraminol For the treatment and prevention of hypotension due to hemorrhage, spinal anesthesia, and shock associated with brain damage Bisoprolol A beta-1 adrenergic blocking agent used to prevent myocardial infarction and heart failure and to treat mild to moderate hypertension. Candoxatril Candoxatril is the orally-active prodrug of candoxatrilat (UK-73967), a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor. Nicardipine A calcium channel blocker used for the short-term treatment of hypertension and chronic stable angina. Niacin A B vitamin used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and pellagra. Guanabenz An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension. Adenosine A medication used in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Dyphylline A theophylline derivative used to treat asthma, bronchospasm, and COPD. Magnesium sulfate A drug used to treat convulsions during pregnancy, nephritis in children, magnesium deficiency, and tetany. Mecamylamine A nicotine antagonist used to treat moderate to severe essential hypertension and uncomplicated malignant hypertension. Verapamil A non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of angina, arrhythmia, and hypertension. Epinephrine A hormone and neurotransmitter used to treat allergic reactions, to restore cardiac rhythm, and to control mucosal congestion, glaucoma, and asthma. Sumatriptan A serotonin receptor agonist used to treat migraines and cluster headaches. Losartan An angiotensin receptor blocker used to treat hypertension and diabetic nephropathy, and is used to reduce the risk of stroke. Moricizine An antiarrhythmic used to treat arrhythmias. Moexipril An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor prodrug used to treat hypertension. Phentolamine An alpha adrenergic antagonist used to reverse soft tissue anesthesia. Furosemide A loop diuretic used to treat hypertension and edema in congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, renal disease, and hypertension. Ergotamine A alpha-1 selective adrenergic agonist vasoconstrictor used to treat migraines with or without aura and cluster headaches. Nicergoline For the treatment of senile dementia, migraines of vascular origin, transient ischemia, platelet hyper-aggregability, and macular degeneration. Eplerenone An aldosterone receptor antagonist used to improve survival of patients with symptomatic heart failure and to reduce blood pressure. Methazolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat open angle glaucoma and acute angle closure glaucoma. Lisinopril An ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Methoxamine An alpha adrenergic agonist used to treat hypotension. Nitroglycerin A nitrate vasodilator used to treat or prevent angina, treat hypertension, control heart failure in myocardial infarction, and to induce hypotension intraoperatively. Mannitol A sugar alcohol used to test for asthma, to reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure, to measure glomerular filtration rate, and to manage pulmonary symptoms associated with cystic fibrosis. Alprostadil A medication used to treat erectile dysfunction. Hydroflumethiazide A thiazide diuretic used to treat hypertension as well as edema due to congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. Tirofiban A platelet aggregation inhibitor used to prevent thrombotic events in non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome. Cryptenamine For the treatment of hypertension. Perindopril An ACE inhibitor prodrug used to treat hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction. Candesartan cilexetil An angiotensin receptor blocker used to treat hypertension, systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tolazoline A vasodilator used to treat pulmonary artery anomalies. Fenoldopam A dopamine D1 receptor agonist used for the short term management of hypertension. Pentoxifylline A methylxanthine derivative used to treat intermittent claudication caused by chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs. Indapamide A thiazide diuretic used to treat hypertension as well as edema due to congestive heart failure. Acetazolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat edema from heart failure or medications, certain types of epilepsy, and glaucoma. Tadalafil A phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dobutamine A beta-1 agonist used to treat cardiac decompensation in patients with organic heart disease or from cardiac surgery. Pseudoephedrine An alpha and beta adrenergic agonist used to treat nasal and sinus congestion, as well as allergic rhinitis. Vardenafil A phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction. Alprenolol For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and arrhythmia Dorzolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat high intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma. Conivaptan An antidiuretic hormone inhibitor used to raise serum sodium levels. Eprosartan An ARB used to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and congestive heart failure. Chlorothiazide A thiazide diuretic used to treat hypertension and edema in congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. Quinapril An ACE inhibitor prodrug used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and slow rate of progression of renal disease. Isosorbide dinitrate A vasodilator used to treat angina in coronary artery disease. Risedronic acid A bisphosphonate used to treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease. Omapatrilat For the treatment of hypertension. Bumetanide A sulfamyl diuretic used to treat edema in congestive heart failure, hepatic and renal disease, and nephrotic syndrome. Etacrynic acid A diuretic used to treat ascites and edema in congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and renal disease. Bimatoprost A prostaglandin analog used to treat hypotrichosis of the eyelashes and intraocular pressure in open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Cocaine An ester local anesthetic used during diagnostic procedures and surgeries in or through the nasal cavities. Quinidine A medication used to restore normal sinus rhythm, treat atrial fibrillation and flutter, and treat ventricular arrhythmias. Levosimendan For short term treatment of acutely decompensated severe chronic heart failure (CHF). Also being investigated for use/treatment in heart disease. Phenoxybenzamine An alpha adrenergic agonist used to treat pheochromocytoma and episodes of hypertension and sweating. Oxymetazoline An alpha-1A adrenoceptor agonist used to treat nasal congestion, allergic reactions of the eye, and facial erythema associated with rosacea. Acetylsalicylic acid A salicylate used to treat pain, fever, inflammation, migraines, and reducing the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Naratriptan A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. Pindolol A beta adrenoceptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, edema, ventricular tachycardias, and atrial fibrillation. Telmisartan An ARB used to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and congestive heart failure. Methyldopa An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension. Dipyridamole A phosphodiesterase inhibitor used to prevent postoperative thromboembolic events. Dopamine A catecholamine neurotransmitter used to treat hemodynamic imbalances, poor perfusion of vital organs, low cardiac output, and hypotension. Hydrochlorothiazide A thiazide diuretic used to treat edema associated with a number of conditions, and hypertension. Guanfacine An alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat ADHD. Isosorbide mononitrate A nitrate used to prevent and treat angina and to treat angina caused by coronary artery disease. Trichlormethiazide Used in the treatment of oedema (including that associated with heart failure) and hypertension. Felodipine A calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension. Irbesartan An angiotensin receptor blocker used to treat hypertension, delay progression of diabetic nephropathy, and treat congestive heart failure. Procainamide A medication used to treat life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Ergoloid mesylate A nootropic with an unknown mechanism of action indicated in individuals over sixty who manifest signs and symptoms of an idiopathic decline in mental capacity. Nitrendipine For the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension Tocainide An orally active class 1b antiarrhythmic agent that interferes with cardiac sodium channels and typically used to treat ventricular arrhythmias. Isoprenaline A non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist typically used to treat bradycardia and heart block; it is structurally related to epinephrine. Perhexiline For the management of severe angina pectoris. Deslanoside For the treatment and management of Congestive cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmias and heart failure. Iloprost A synthetic prostacyclin analog indicated to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pentolinium Used to produce controlled hypotension during surgical procedures and in hypertensive crises. Ouabain For the treatment of atrial fibrillation and flutter and heart failure Arbutamine Used to elicit acute cardiovascular responses (cardiac stumulant), similar to those produced by exercise, in order to aid in diagnosing the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in... Heparin An anticoagulant indicated for thromboprophylaxis and to treat thrombosis associated with a variety of conditions such as pulmonary embolism and atrial fibrillation. Papaverine An alkaloid used to treat many types of smooth muscle spasms such as "vascular spasms" associated with acute myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, as well as "visceral spasms". Nifedipine A dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the management of several subtypes of angina pectoris, and hypertension. Trimethaphan For the controlled reduction of blood pressure during surgery and in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Amiodarone A class III antiarrhythmic indicated for the treatment of recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia and recurrent ventricular fibrillation. Diazoxide A non diuretic benzothiadiazine indicated for the management of hypoglycemia in patients who produce an excess of insulin caused by a variety of conditions. Carvedilol A non selective beta-adrenergic antagonist used to treat mild to severe chronic heart failure, hypertension, and left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction in clinically stable patients. Bretylium A norepinephrine release inhibitor used for the prophylaxis and therapy of ventricular fibrillation, as well as the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Cilostazol An antiplatelet agent and vasodilator used for the symptomatic relief of intermittent claudication. Guanethidine An antihypertensive agent used in the management of moderate and severe hypertension, either alone or as an adjunct, and for the management of renal hypertension. Propafenone A Class 1C antiarrhythmic agent used in the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation/flutter and ventricular arrhythmias. Acebutolol A selective β1-receptor antagonist used for the management of hypertension and ventricular premature beats in adults. Flecainide A class Ic antiarrhythmic agent used to manage atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Captopril An ACE inhibitor used for the management of essential or renovascular hypertension, congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction, and nephropathy. Nadolol A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist used for the management of arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Metipranolol A beta-adrenergic antagonist used for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Aminophylline A bronchodilator consisting of theophylline that is used for the treatment of bronchospasm due to asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Enoxaparin A low molecular weight heparin used for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin. Encainide A voltage-gated sodium channel blocker used for management of atrial or ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia, that is no longer used due to proarrhythmic adverse effects. Epoprostenol A vasodilator and platelet aggregation inhibitor used for the management of primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure. Bepridil For the treatment of hypertension, and chronic stable angina (classic effort-associated angina). Hydralazine An antihypertensive agent used for the management of essential hypertension or severe hypertension associated with conditions requiring immediate action, heart failure, and pre-eclampsia or eclampsia . Pirbuterol A beta-2 adrenergic agonist and bronchodilator used for the symptomatic treatment of asthma. Practolol Used in the emergency treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Polythiazide A thiazide diuretic used in the management of hypertension and treatment of edema. Quinethazone Used to treat hypertension. Cilazapril An ACE inhibitor used for the management of hypertension and heart failure. Saprisartan Saprisartan is used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Spirapril Spirapril is an ACE inhibitor class drug used to treat hypertension. Penbutolol A beta-adrenergic antagonist used for the management of mild to moderate arterial hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. Ephedrine An alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist indicated to treat hypotension under anesthesia, allergic conditions, bronchial asthma, and nasal congestion. Mephentermine A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of hypotension. Mibefradil For the treatment of angina and high blood pressure. Digitoxin A cardiac glycoside used in the treatment and management of congestive cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmias and heart failure. Theobromine theobromine is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension. Ajmaline For use as an antiarrhythmic agent. Amrinone A positive inotropic agent and phosphodiesterase inhibitor used in the management of treatment of congestive heart failure. Aprindine Aprindine is a cardiac depressant used in arrhythmias. Oxprenolol A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety. Amyl Nitrite A fast acting vasodilator used for rapid relief of angina pectoris. Erythrityl tetranitrate For the prevention of angina. Pargyline For the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension. Platelet Activating Factor Not Available Colforsin Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities;... Terlipressin Commonly used to stop bleeding of varices in the food pipe (oesophagus). Calyculin A Not Available Piretanide Piretanide (INN, trade names Arelix, Eurelix, Tauliz) has been synthesized in 1973 at Hoechst AG (Germany) as a loop diuretic compound by using a then-new method for introducing cyclic amine... Acetylcholine A parasympathomimetic neurotransmitter used to induce miosis of the iris in seconds after delivery of the lens in cataract surgery, in penetrating keratoplasty, iridectomy and other anterior segment surgery where rapid miosis may be required. Phenol An antiseptic and disinfectant used in a variety of settings. N-(6-Aminohexyl)-5-Chloro-1-Naphthalenesulfonamide Not Available Prenylamine Prenylamine was withdrawn from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1988 due to concerns regarding cardiac arrhythmias. Tienilic acid For the treatment of hypertension. Cyclandelate A vasodilator used for the treatment of various blood vessel diseases, such as claudication and arteriosclerosis. Debrisoquine For the treatment of moderate and severe hypertension, either alone or as an adjunct, and for the treatment of renal hypertension. Flunarizine A selective calcium-entry blocker used as migraine prophylaxis in patients with severe and frequent episodes who have not responded adequately to more common treatments. Celiprolol Celiprolol is indicated for the management of mild to moderate hypertension and effort-induced angina pectoris. Nebivolol A beta blocking agent used to treat hypertension and aid in the management of heart failure. Enoximone For the treatment of congestive heart failure. Nesiritide A recombinant natriuretic peptide used for the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated congestive heart failure who have dyspnea at rest or with minimal activity. Clevidipine A dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker used to lower blood pressure when oral antihypertensive therapy is not feasible or not desirable. Desmoteplase Investigated for use/treatment in cerebral ischemia and strokes. Defibrotide A mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotides used in the treatment of severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Lofexidine A centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist used for the symptomatic treatment of acute opioid withdrawal syndrome to facilitate abrupt opioid discontinuation in adults. Azimilide Investigated for use/treatment in arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Ularitide Investigated for use/treatment in congestive heart failure. Ancrod An anticoagulant purified from the venom of the Malayan pit viper that functions by inactivating circulating plasma fibrinogen. Not currently approved for use or marketed in any country. Beraprost For the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Tetrodotoxin For the treatment of chronic and breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients as well as for the treatment of opioid dependence. Fibrinolysin Fibrinolysin assists with the healing of minor burns, superficial wounds, ulcers, surgical wounds, and superficial hematomas. Ibudilast For the treatment of multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cerebrovascular disease. Canertinib Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer and lung cancer. Oglufanide Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C). Nylidrin A vasodilator used to treat patients with peripheral vascular disorders, and elderly patients with symptoms associated with organic mental disorders. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate Used for the treatment of angina pectoris . Tedisamil Investigated for use/treatment in arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, and angina. Tolvaptan A selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist to slow kidney function decline in patients at risk for rapidly progressing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Also used to treat hypervolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia. Sulodexide Sulodexide has been used clinically for the prophylaxis and treatment of vascular diseases with increased risk of thrombosis, including intermittent claudication, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and post-myocardial infarc-tion. Also investigated... Calcitonin gene-related peptide Investigated for use/treatment in myocardial infarction, heart disease, and asthma. Dexanabinol Investigated for use/treatment in traumatic brain injuries and neurologic disorders. Diethylnorspermine Investigated for use/treatment in renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, and lung cancer. Dotarizine Investigated for use/treatment in migraine and cluster headaches. Cariporide Investigated for use/treatment in cardiac surgery. Tezosentan Investigated for use/treatment in congestive heart failure, liver disease, and heart disease. Dalfampridine A potassium channel blocker used for the improvement of motor function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Naproxcinod Investigated for use/treatment in pain (acute or chronic), inflammatory disorders (unspecified), osteoarthritis, and arthritis and arthritic pain. Ethanolamine oleate A mild sclerosing agent used in the treatment of esophageal varices with recent bleeding episodes. Xylometazoline A direct acting sympathomimetic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion and minor inflammation due to allergies or colds. Levonordefrin A topical sympathomimetic amine found in local anesthetic products that is used for nasal decongestion or vasoconstriction during dental procedures. Naphazoline A sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor used for the symptomatic relief of redness and itching of the eye, and nasal congestion. Nilvadipine For the management of vasospastic angina, chronic stable angina and hypertension. Sparteine Sparteine is a plant alkaloid derived from Cytisus scoparius and Lupinus mutabilis which may chelate calcium and magnesium. It is a sodium channel blocker so it falls under the category... Drotaverine Used in the treatment of functional bowel disorders and alleviating pain in renal colic. Danaparoid A heparinoid with anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities used for the treatment of acute episode of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT), and for prophylaxis in patients with a history of HIT. Pinacidil Pinacidil is a cyanoguanidine drug that acts by opening ATP-sensitive potassium channels, leading to peripheral vasodilatation of arterioles and decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. The above processes result in reduced blood... Tetryzoline An alpha-adrenergic agonist used in the temporary symptomatic relief of discomfort and redness of the eyes due to minor irritations. Dalteparin A low molecular weight heparin used for the prophylaxis of thrombotic events in certain patients and prevent acute cardiac ischemic events in patients with unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Polidocanol A sclerosing agent used for the treatment of uncomplicated spider veins and uncomplicated reticular veins, all less than 3 mm in diameter, in the lower extremity. Tinzaparin A low molecular weight heparin used for the treatment of acute symptomatic deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism when administered in conjunction with warfarin. Unoprostone A prostaglandin analogue used to lower intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are clinically unresponsive to other ocular antihypertensive agents. Tranilast For the treatment of bronchial asthma, keloid and hypertrophic scar, and allergic disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Ferulic acid Not Available Bupranolol Used to manage hypertension and tachycardia. Also used to treat glaucoma. Nadroparin A low molecular weight heparin used for the prophylaxis of thrombotic events and deep vein thrombosis, and prevent unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Temocapril Temocapril is an ACE inhibitor primarily indicated in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, diabetic nephropathy, and improvement of prognosis for coronary artery diseases (including acute myocardial infarction). Tetraethylammonium Tetraethylammonium is an experimental drug with no approved indication. Isoxsuprine A beta-adrenergic agonist used in the symptomatic treatment of cerebrovascular insufficiency, peripheral vascular disease of arteriosclerosis obliterans, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) and Raynaud's disease. Inositol nicotinate A vasodilator and source of niacin found in dietary supplements. Indoramin Indoramin is a discontinued piperidine antiadrenergic drug with the trade names Baratol and Doralese. It is a selective alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist with no reflex tachycardia and direct myocardial depression action. Indenolol Indenolol is a drug of the beta-adrenergic blocker class. Ifenprodil N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, with key roles in brain development and neurological function.[A220118, A220128] NMDARs are heterotetramers that typically involve a dimer... Hexamethonium A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been... Azosemide Azosemide is a loop diuretic used to treat hypertension, edema, and ascites. Fendiline Fendiline is a coronary vasodilator which inhibits calcium function in muscle cells in excitation-contraction coupling. It has been proposed as an antiarrhythmic and antianginal agent. Fendiline is non-selective. Etilefrine Etilefrine is an adrenergic agonist that appears to interact with beta-2 and some alpha adrenergic receptors. It has been used as a vasoconstrictor agent. Eperisone Eperisone is an antispasmodic drug which relaxes both skeletal muscles and vascular smooth muscles, and demonstrates a variety of effects such as reduction of myotonia, improvement of circulation, and suppression... Batroxobin No approved indications. Batroxobin is a defibrongenating agent which has been observed to reduce fibrinogen levels and thus reduce clot risk when used intravenously. Canrenoic acid Canrenoic acid (as the salt potassium canrenoate) is an aldosterone antagonist. Like spironolactone, it is a prodrug, which is metabolized to canrenone in the body. Trimetazidine Trimetazidine is indicated for use in angina pectoris. Tibolone For the relief of post-menopausal symptoms and for the prevention of osteoporosis . Ivabradine A HCN channel blocker used to reduce the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in adult patients and for treatment of stable symptomatic heart failure as a result of dilated cardiomyopathy in pediatric patients. Pinaverium A spasmolytic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional disorders of the biliary tract. Xanthinol A vasodilatory niacin found in diet supplements. Potassium citrate An agent used to manage renal tubular acidosis, hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, and uric acid lithiasis with or without calcium stones. Cirazoline Cirazoline acts on a number of α adrenergic receptors. It is an agonist of α1A, partial agonist of α1B and α1D, and a nonselective antagonist of α2. It is believed... Synephrine Synephrine, also referred to as, p-synephrine, is naturally occurring alkaloid. It is present in approved drug products as neo-synephrine, its m-substituted analog. p-synephrine and m-synephrine are known for their longer... Moxisylyte By the WHO, moxisylyte is indicated for the symptomatic management of sequelae of cerebral infarction or hemorrhage. The cerebral infarction is characterized by the blockage of the artery either by... Trimazosin Trimazosin is a sympatholytic alpha blocker. Tolfenamic acid In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults. Nicorandil Indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and reduction in the risk of acute coronary syndromes. Barnidipine Indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension and management of chronic stable angina. Benidipine Benidipine is a potent and long-lasting drug indicated for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, renoparenchymal hypertension and angina pectoris. Cilnidipine Cilnidipine is indicated for the management of hypertension for end-organ protection. It is reported to be useful in elderly patients and in those with diabetes and albuminuria. Cilnidipine has been... Darodipine Darodipine is a calcium channel blocker. Efonidipine For the treatment of hypertension. Lacidipine Indicated for the treatment of hypertension either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, including β-adrenoceptor antagonists, diuretics, and ACE-inhibitors . Manidipine For the treatment of hypertension. Niguldipine Niguldipine is a calcium channel blocker drug (CCB) with a1-adrenergic antagonist properties. Niludipine Niludipine is a calcium channel blocker. Moxonidine For the treatment of mild to moderate essential or primary hypertension . Effective as most first-line antihypertensives when used as monotherapy . Reviparin By the FDA, reviparin is indicated for the treatment of deep vein which may lead to pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. It is also indicated for the long-term treatment of... Molsidomine The indications for use of molsidomine include ischemic heart disease, angina, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension [L1370, L1371]. Trapidil Used in the treatment of chronic stable angina . Imolamine Imolamine is indicated for the treatment of angina pectoris. The hydrochloride form is used as a local anesthetic. Isosorbide A vasodilator used for the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease. Enalaprilat An antihypertensive agent used for the management of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical. Desirudin Indicated as prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis for patients undergoing hip replacement surgery. Racepinephrine A bronchodilator used to treat intermittent asthma. Protein C A medication used to treat protein C deficiency leading to purpura fulminans or coumarin-induced skin necrosis. Selexipag A non prostanoid IP prostacyclin receptor agonist used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pimobendan Not Annotated Rilmenidine Rilmenidine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease. Talinolol Talinolol has been investigated for the basic science of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder. Imidapril Imidapril has been investigated for the treatment of Kidney, Polycystic, Autosomal Dominant. Anisodamine Anisodamine has been investigated for the treatment of Intestinal Diseases. Angiotensin II A peptide hormone of the RAAS system used to raise blood pressure in septic or other forms of shock. Carboxyamidotriazole Carboxyamidotriazole has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lymphoma, Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Kidney Cancer, and Ovarian Cancer, among others. Ozagrel Ozagrel has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dry Eye Syndromes. BQ-123 BQ-123 has been investigated for the basic science and treatment of Coronary Artery Disease, Aorto-coronary Bypass Grafting, and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Vesnarinone Vesnarinone has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections and Sarcoma, Kaposi. Naftopidil Naftopidil has been investigated for the treatment of Disorder of Urinary Stent. Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02118610 (Treatment of Schizophrenia With L-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP): a Novel Dopamine Antagonist With Anti-inflammatory and Antiprotozoal Activity). Bradykinin Bradykinin has been investigated for the basic science and treatment of Hypertension and Diabetes Type 2. Vinpocetine Vinpocetine has been investigated for the treatment of Epilepsy. Sarpogrelate Sarpogrelate has been investigated for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Nephropathy, Coronary Artery Disease, and Renal Insufficiency, Chronic. Landiolol Landiolol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study. Canrenone Canrenone has been used in trials studying the diagnostic of Heart Failure. Simendan Simendan is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00527059 (Renal Effects of Levosimendan in Patients Admitted With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure). Puerarin Puerarin has been investigated for the treatment of Alcohol Abuse. Dopexamine Dopexamine has been used in trials studying the diagnostic and treatment of Free Flap, Oral Cancer, Hypotension, Septic Shock, and Head and Neck Cancer. Nitroaspirin Nitroaspirin has been investigated for the treatment of Intermittent Claudication. Ketanserin Ketanserin has been investigated for the treatment of Septic Shock, Severe Sepsis, and Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Urapidil Urapidil has been investigated for the treatment of Hypertension During Pre-Eclampsia. Rolofylline Rolofylline is under clinical development by pharmaceutical company NovaCardia for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Spiradoline Spiradoline has been investigated for the basic science of Bipolar Depression. Pilsicainide Pilsicainide has been investigated for the treatment of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. Bucindolol Bucindolol has been investigated in Heart Failure. Cicletanine Cicletanine is under investigation for the treatment of Diabetes, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, and Arterial Hypertension. Higenamine Higenamine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01451229 (Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Higenamine in Chinese Healthy Subjects). Gallopamil Gallopamil has been used in trials studying the treatment of Asthma. Cafedrine Cafedrine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01311414 (Effect of Cafedrine/Theodrenaline and Urapidil on Cerebral Oxygenation). Theodrenaline Theodrenaline is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01311414 (Effect of Cafedrine/Theodrenaline and Urapidil on Cerebral Oxygenation). Dihydralazine Dihydralazine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00311974 (The Effect of Dihydralazine on Kidney Function and Hormones in Healthy Individuals). Zofenopril Zofenopril is employed as both a cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive agent. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Phosphocreatine Phosphocreatine is a naturally occuring substance that is found predominantly in the skeletal muscles of vertebrates. Its primary utility within the body is to serve in the maintanence and recycling... Brinase Not Annotated Bamifylline Bamifylline is a selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist. Bamethan Not Annotated Flosequinan Flosequinan was approved in the USA and the UK for a year prior to being withdrawn from the market due to increased mortality in chronic heart failure patients, found in... Cymarin Not Annotated Octopamine Octopamine is structurally similar to norepinephrine. It has been used as a nootropic, and therefore it and all of its enantiomer are prohibited by the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) as... Hexobendine Hexobendine is a medication used to cause vasodilation, to treat several conditions including angina pectoris. It has not been approved in the United States or the United Kingdom, but has... Carbocromen Carbocromen was marketed for use in Germany as a vasodilator, however, it has been discontinued due to the risk of arrhythmia development . Proscillaridin Proscillaridin is a cardiac glycoside that is derived from plants of the genus Scilla and in Drimia maritima (Scilla maritima). Studies suggest the potential cytotoxic and anticancer property of proscillaridin,... Delapril Not Annotated Ibopamine Not Annotated Suloctidil Not Annotated Dihydroergocristine An ergot alkaloid used to delay progressive mental decline in conditions like Alzheimer's. Cibenzoline Not Annotated Vincamine Vincamine is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Vinca minor with a vasodilatory property. Studies indicate that vincamine increases the regional cerebral blood flow. Dihydroergocryptine Not Annotated Adrenalone Not Annotated Oxyfedrine Not Annotated Linsidomine Not Annotated Metildigoxin Not Annotated Mefruside Not Annotated Nicofuranose Not Annotated Endralazine Not Annotated Cadralazine Not Annotated Ornipressin Not Annotated Bencyclane A vasodilator agent found to be effective in a variety of peripheral circulation disorders. It has various other potentially useful pharmacological effects. Its mechanism may involve block of calcium channels. Otilonium Not Annotated Cloranolol Not Annotated Buflomedil Not Annotated Angiotensinamide Not Annotated Cyclopenthiazide Cyclopenthiazide is a thiazide diuretic with antihypertensive properties. In a double blind, randomized crossover study, cyclopenthiazide was effective in reducing diastolic blood pressure in mildly hypertensive non-insulin dependent diabetic patients... Nizofenone Not Annotated Prajmaline Not Annotated Bietaserpine Not Annotated Naftidrofuryl Not Annotated Tiracizine Not Annotated Ethacizine Not Annotated Saruplase Not Annotated Lorajmine Not Annotated Bunaftine Not Annotated Lorcainide Not Annotated Butalamine Not Annotated Fenquizone Not Annotated Dilazep Not Annotated Hydroquinine Not Annotated Meldonium Not Annotated Terodiline Not Annotated Cetiedil Not Annotated Epanolol Epanolol is an beta blocker. Lidoflazine Not Annotated Tertatolol Tertatolol is a beta blocker. Prenalterol Not Annotated Clopamide Clopamide is an oral diuretic agent with antihypertensive activity. Like thiazide diuretics, it has an aromatic sulfonamide base but with no double-ring structure. Vinburnine Not Annotated Muzolimine Not Annotated Xipamide Not Annotated Linopirdine Not Annotated Bufylline Not Annotated Caroverine Not Annotated Etafenone Etafenone is a vasodilator. Fosfructose Not Annotated Candesartan Candesartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used alone or with other agents to treat hypertension. It is available as a prodrug in the form of candesartan cilexetil. WIN 55212-2 WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical described as an aminoalkylindole derivative, which produces effects similar to those of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but has an entirely different chemical structure. It... Dexverapamil Not Annotated Emopamil Prevents renal injury after warm & cold ischemia. Lomerizine Used to treat migraines. Tetrandrine Not Annotated Morrhuic acid Morrhuic acid is a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids obtained from cod liver oil. Tocopherylquinone Not Annotated Fondaparinux An anticoagulant used to prevent venous thromboembolism, to treat deep vein thrombosis, and to improve survival following myocardial infarction. Benazeprilat Not Annotated Fosinoprilat Fosinoprilat is the active phosphinic acid metabolite of prodrug fosinopril, which is activated by esterases in vivo. It binds zinc with phosphinic acid group. Ramiprilat The active metabolite of the prodrug Ramipril. Perindoprilat The active metabolite of the prodrug Perindopril. Quinaprilat The active metabolite of the prodrug quinapril. Lypressin Not Annotated Eslicarbazepine acetate An anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct to treat partial-onset seizures in patients with inadequate clinical response to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Eslicarbazepine Adjunctive Therapy for Adults with Partial-Onset Seizures S-Ethylisothiourea S-Ethylisothiourea is a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Dexpropranolol Not Available Nicotinyl alcohol A direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened gangrene. [PubChem] Fasudil Fasudil has been investigated in Carotid Stenosis. Amifampridine A voltage gated potassium channel blocker used to treat Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Eplivanserin Eplivanserin has been used in trials studying the treatment of Sleep, Insomnia, Chronic Pain, Fibromyalgia, and Primary Insomnia, among others. Ginkgo biloba Appears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged... Satavaptan Satavaptan is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00359437 (Satavaptan in the Prevention of Ascites Recurrence in Patients With Ascites Due to Cirrhosis of the Liver). Hydroquinidine Hydroquinidine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00927732 (Hydroquinidine Versus Placebo in Patients With Brugada Syndrome). Carbamazepine An anticonvulsant used to treat various types of seizures and pain resulting from trigeminal neuralgia. Ethotoin A hydantoin antiepileptic used to control tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures. Zonisamide A sulfonamide anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures. Fosphenytoin An antiepileptic agent used for the management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. Dronedarone An antiarrhythmic agent used in the reduce the risk of hospitalization in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. Rufinamide An antiepileptic drug used as adjunctive therapy to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). Lacosamide An antiepileptic drug used to treat partial onset seizures in adults. Trafermin Investigated for use/treatment in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, periodontal disease, bone fractures, entero-related fistulae, and diabetic foot ulcers. Semuloparin Investigated for use/treatment in thrombosis. Ambrisentan A selective type A endothelin receptor antagonist used to treat primary pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension based on diagnostic classifications. Parnaparin Used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and in the treatment of myocardial infarction. Angiotensin 1-7 TXA127 has been investigated for the treatment of Miscellaneous Peripheral Blood Cell Abnormalities. Cinepazide Cinepazide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Ischemic Stroke. Monteplase Monteplase has been used in trials studying the treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. Peruvoside Not Annotated SOR-C13 SOR-C13 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01578564 (Safety and Tolerability Study of SOR-C13 in Subjects With Advanced Cancers Commonly Known to Express the TRPV6 Channel). Cilazaprilat Not Annotated Atrial natriuretic peptide Not Annotated Y-27632 Y-27632 is an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase. It inhibits calcium sensitization to affect smooth muscle relaxation. Erythritol Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator. Buthiazide Not Annotated Escin Not Annotated Raubasine Not Annotated Tripamide Not Annotated Nifekalant Nifekalant is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03855826 (Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Nifekalant Hydrochloride (NIF) Injection). BMS-813160 BMS-813160 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03496662 (BMS-813160 With Nivolumab and Gemcitabine and Nab-paclitaxel in Borderline Resectable and Locally Advanced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC)). Oxymatrine Oxymatrine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02202473 (Oxymatrine Plus Lamivudine Combination Therapy Versus Lamivudine Monotherapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Infected Subjects).
- Drugs & Drug Targets