Identification

Generic Name
Irofulven
DrugBank Accession Number
DB05786
Background

A novel anti-cancer compound synthesized by scientists at the University of California, San Diego more than a decade ago from toxins of the poisonous jack-o-lantern mushroom, has been granted “fast track” status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after demonstrating promise against one of the most deadly cancers.

MGI-114 (Irofulven) is currently being developed by MGI PHARMA, Inc., an emerging oncology-focused pharmaceutical company based in Minneapolis. Phase III clinical trials involving the drug have been underway since early 2001 at sites in the U.S. and Europe.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 246.3016
Monoisotopic: 246.125594442
Chemical Formula
C15H18O3
Synonyms
  • 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene
  • HMAF
  • Irofulven
External IDs
  • MGI 114
  • MGI-114
  • NSC-683863

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in brain cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, pediatric indications, prostate cancer, and sarcoma.

Pharmacology
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action

MGI-114(Irofulven) has unique mechanism of action as an anti-tumor agent is due to its ability to be rapidly absorbed by tumor cells. Once inside the cells, the compound binds to DNA and protein targets. This binding interferes with DNA replication and cell division of tumor cells, leading to tumor-specific apoptotic cell death, or “cell suicide.” During this process, tumor cells tend to automatically shut themselves down when they sense their function is compromised.

TargetActionsOrganism
UFar upstream element-binding protein 1Not AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Darbepoetin alfaThe risk or severity of Thrombosis can be increased when Darbepoetin alfa is combined with Irofulven.
ErythropoietinThe risk or severity of Thrombosis can be increased when Erythropoietin is combined with Irofulven.
Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin betaThe risk or severity of Thrombosis can be increased when Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta is combined with Irofulven.
PeginesatideThe risk or severity of Thrombosis can be increased when Peginesatide is combined with Irofulven.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

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International/Other Brands
Irofulven

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexenones. These are compounds containing a cylohexenone moiety, which is a six-membered aliphatic ring that carries a ketone and has one endocyclic double bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbonyl compounds
Direct Parent
Cyclohexenones
Alternative Parents
Acyloins / Tertiary alcohols / Primary alcohols / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Acyloin / Alcohol / Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound / Cyclohexenone / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Primary alcohol / Tertiary alcohol
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
6B799IH05A
CAS number
158440-71-2
InChI Key
NICJCIQSJJKZAH-AWEZNQCLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H18O3/c1-8-6-10-12(11(8)7-16)9(2)15(4-5-15)14(3,18)13(10)17/h6,16,18H,4-5,7H2,1-3H3/t14-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(6'R)-6'-hydroxy-3'-(hydroxymethyl)-2',4',6'-trimethyl-6',7'-dihydrospiro[cyclopropane-1,5'-indene]-7'-one
SMILES
CC1=C(CO)C2=C(C)C3(CC3)[C@@](C)(O)C(=O)C2=C1

References

General References
  1. Kelner MJ, McMorris TC, Estes L, Samson KM, Trani NA, MacDonald JR: Anti-leukemic action of the novel agent MGI 114 (HMAF) and synergistic action with topotecan. Leukemia. 2000 Jan;14(1):136-41. [Article]
  2. Leggas M, Stewart CF, Woo MH, Fouladi M, Cheshire PJ, Peterson JK, Friedman HS, Billups C, Houghton PJ: Relation between Irofulven (MGI-114) systemic exposure and tumor response in human solid tumor xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Sep;8(9):3000-7. [Article]
PubChem Compound
148189
PubChem Substance
175427030
ChemSpider
130640
BindingDB
50410835
ChEBI
135002
ChEMBL
CHEMBL118218
ZINC
ZINC000003916310
Wikipedia
Irofulven

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients1
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentCervical Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentFallopian Tubes Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Melanoma of Skin1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.52 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.19ALOGPS
logP0.67ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity70.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8897
Caco-2 permeable+0.6632
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6081
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8341
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7901
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7904
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8237
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8562
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6744
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5914
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7017
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8684
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7898
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8441
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5946
Ames testAMES toxic0.8571
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9225
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9325
Rat acute toxicity2.0258 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9857
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8462
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
Regulates MYC expression by binding to a single-stranded far-upstream element (FUSE) upstream of the MYC promoter. May act both as activator and repressor of transcription.
Gene Name
FUBP1
Uniprot ID
Q96AE4
Uniprot Name
Far upstream element-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
67560.205 Da

Drug created at November 18, 2007 18:27 / Updated at February 21, 2021 18:51