Plantago seed

Identification

Summary

Plantago seed is an ingredient used in a variety of natural health products.

Brand Names
Konsyl, Metamucil, Reguloid
Generic Name
Plantago seed
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11097
Background

Platango seeds refer to the seeds collected from various species of plantago trees. It is found in some laxatives for treating occasional constipation and restoring regularity in bowel movements. Its potential benefit in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis has been studied 1.

Regardless, this agent is most predominantly used as a gentle laxative agent in many parts of the world that is more commonly referred as psyllium or psyllium husk.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Synonyms
  • Psyllium
  • Psyllium husk

Pharmacology

Indication

Indications include the treatment of patients needing a high fibre regime, perhaps for: (a) the relief of constipation, including constipation in pregnancy and the maintenance of regularity; (b) the management of bowel function in patients with colostomy, ileostomy, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, chronic diarrhea with diverticular disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and ulcerative colitis 3.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

The active ingredient psyllium husk is comprised of the episperm and collapsed adjacent layers removed from the seeds of Plantago afar L. or Plantago indica L. 3. Psyllium husk is abundant in alimentary fibres and mucilages, with its mucilage content in particular being higher than that of other plantago species 3. Specifically, psyllium husk is capable of absorbing up to 40 times its own weight in water 3. Psyllium husk consists of 85% water-soluble fibre - it is subsequently partly fermentable (in vitro 72% unfermentable residue) and acts by hydration in the bowel 3.

Gastrointestinal tract motility and transit rate is capable of being modified by psyllium husk via mechanical stimulation of the gut wall as a result of the increase in intestinal bulk by water and the decrease in viscosity of the luminal contents 3. Taken with an adequate amount of liquid (at least 30 ml per 1 g of the agent), psyllium husk produces an increased volume of intestinal contents as a result of its highly bulking properties and therefore a stretch stimulus which triggers a defecation 3. Concurrently, the swollen mass of mucilage generates a lubricating layer that makes the transit of the intestinal contents easier 3.

Mechanism of action

Psyllium seeds are comprised of dietary fibre which, when mixed with water forms a gel-like mass that works as a mild laxative Label. This gel-like mass subsequently moves down a patient's digestive system and makes stools softer by increasing their water contents Label. At the same time psyllium seed lubricates the intestine, which improves the transit of stools Label. Moreover, as the presence of the gel-like mass increases the stool bulk it also increases the tension and/or the stretch stimulus in the bowel wall which serves to trigger bowel movements Label.

The dietary fibre of which psyllium husk is comprised is fermented to various degrees by bacteria in the colon, resulting in production of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, water, and short chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and brought into the hepatic circulation 3. In humans, such fibre reaches the large bowel in a highly polymerized form that is fermented to a limited extent, resulting in increased fecal concentration and excretion of short chain fatty acids 3.

Absorption

Psyllium husk is capable of hydration and swelling to form a mucilage because it is only partially solubilized 3. The polysaccharide dietary fibres of which psyllium husk is comprised of need to be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides before intestinal absorption can occur 3. The sugar residues of the xylan backbone and side chains are joined by beta-linkages however, which cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes 3.

Less than 10% of the mucilage gets hydrolyzed in the stomach, with formation of free arabinose 3. Intestinal absorption of the free arabinose is about 85% to 93% 3. As a consequence, psyllium remains predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract as a 'bulk' agent that passes largely unchanged throughout the gut 4. The agent has remarkable water holding capacity because of its high hemicellulose content 4.

Volume of distribution

Psyllium husk when administered as intended largely undergoes little absorption into the body and plasma.

Protein binding

The protein binding of psyllium husk is not formally documented at this time. Regardless, because psyllium husk is largely not adsorbed when administered, it is believed that the drug may not exhibit any kind of protein binding 2.

Metabolism

As psyllium remains largely in the gut as a 'bulk' agent that passes predominantly unchanged throughout the gastrointestinal tract, there is little opportunity for marked absorption into or metabolism by the body 4.

Route of elimination

Psyllium husk when administered as indicated is usually excreted in the faeces 2.

Half-life

The half-life of psyllium husk is not formally documented at this time. Regardless, because psyllium husk is largely not adsorbed when administered, it is believed that the drug may not exhibit any kind of half-life 2.

Clearance

Psyllium husk when administered as intended largely undergoes little absorption into the body and plasma.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Overdose with psyllium husk can cause abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and/or intestinal obstruction 3.

The LD50 of psyllium husk administered orally to mice has been observed in some studies to occur in doses up to 2940 mg/kg or 3360 mg/kg in rats 5.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Plantago seed.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AlfentanilThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
AlloinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Plantago seed is combined with Alloin.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Amantadine.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Plantago seed.
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Amobarbital.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Products
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bekunis Light GranulesTablet531 mg / gOralRoha Arzneimittel Gmbh1992-12-311999-03-04Canada flag
Best Choice Fiber LaxativeCapsule0.52 g/1OralBest Choice (Valu Merchandisers Company)2019-05-16Not applicableUS flag
Best Choice Fiber Therapy Orange FlavorPowder3.4 g/12gOralBest Choice (Valu Merchandisers Company)2019-05-15Not applicableUS flag
Best Choice Fiber Therapy original coarsePowder3.4 g/7gOralBest Choice (Valu Merchandisers Company)2019-05-14Not applicableUS flag
Bulk-forming LaxativePowder, for suspension3.4 g/7gOralHealth Mart2012-04-19Not applicableUS flag
CareoneCapsule0.52 g/1OralFoodhold Usa2019-04-16Not applicableUS flag
CAREONE Orange FlavoredPowder3.4 g/5.8gOralFoodhold Usa2019-04-18Not applicableUS flag
ClaraGranule2.45 g/5gOralHandock Cosmetics Co., Ltd.2017-03-03Not applicableUS flag
ClaraGranule3.25 g/5gOralHandock Cosmetics Inc2011-08-26Not applicableUS flag
ClaraGranule3.25 g/5gOralHandock Cosmetics Inc2011-11-112017-08-01US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClaraPlantago seed (2.45 g/5g) + Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit (0.45 g/5g)GranuleOralHandock Cosmetics Co., Ltd.2017-03-03Not applicableUS flag
FloralaxPlantago seed (2.8 g / 5 g) + Wheat (1 g / 5 g)PowderOralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-08-292006-08-03Canada flag
Konsyl Overnight Relief Senna PromptPlantago seed (500 mg/1) + Sennosides (9 mg/1)CapsuleOralKonsyl Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-04-012018-07-01US flag
Metamucil Therapy for RegularityPlantago seed (3.4 g/5.8g) + Plantago seed (3.4 g/5.8g)KitOralProcter And Gamble1994-12-152016-08-11US flag
Metamucil Therapy for RegularityPlantago seed (3.4 g/12g) + Plantago seed (3.4 g/12g)KitOralProcter And Gamble1989-03-312016-08-11US flag
Metamucil Therapy for RegularityPlantago seed (3.4 g/5.8g) + Plantago seed (3.4 g/5.8g)KitOralProcter And Gamble1994-12-152016-08-11US flag
Metamucil Therapy for RegularityPlantago seed (3.4 g/12g) + Plantago seed (3.4 g/12g)KitOralProcter And Gamble1989-03-312016-08-11US flag
Multilax 1 CapPlantago seed (378 mg) + Sennosides (92 mg)CapsuleOralNature's Way Of Canada Ltd.1984-12-312004-07-26Canada flag
Prodiem PlusPlantago seed (542 mg) + Sennosides (124 mg)PowderOralNovartis1996-07-302006-07-04Canada flag
Prodiem Plus PowderPlantago seed (542 mg) + Sennosides (124 mg)PowderOralRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311997-08-13Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClaraPlantago seed (3.25 g/5g)GranuleOralHandock Cosmetics Inc2011-08-26Not applicableUS flag
ClaraPlantago seed (3.25 g/5g)GranuleOralHandock Cosmetics Inc2011-11-112017-08-01US flag
ClaraPlantago seed (2.45 g/5g) + Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit (0.45 g/5g)GranuleOralHandock Cosmetics Co., Ltd.2017-03-03Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
9C60Y73166
CAS number
8063-16-9

References

General References
  1. Fernandez-Banares F, Hinojosa J, Sanchez-Lombrana JL, Navarro E, Martinez-Salmeron JF, Garcia-Puges A, Gonzalez-Huix F, Riera J, Gonzalez-Lara V, Dominguez-Abascal F, Gine JJ, Moles J, Gomollon F, Gassull MA: Randomized clinical trial of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Spanish Group for the Study of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GETECCU). Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Feb;94(2):427-33. [Article]
  2. Jennifer J. Yeager, Mary Beth Winton, Linda E. McCuistion, Kathleen DiMaggio (2018). Pharmacology: A Patient-Centered Nursing Process Approach. Elsevier Health Sciences. [ISBN:9780323399166]
  3. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Fybogel Orange Monograph [Link]
  4. Sigma Aldrich: Psyllium Profile [Link]
  5. European Medicines Agency: Community Herbal Monograph on Plantago afar L. et. Plantago indica L., semen [Link]
  6. DailyMed: Metamucil (psylllium husk) fiber therapy [Link]
PubChem Substance
347911115
RxNav
8928
AHFS Codes
  • 56:12.00 — Cathartics and Laxatives
  • 92:01.00* — Herbs and Natural Products
FDA label
Download (85.2 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionConstipation / Incontinence1
4CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedSupportive CareConstipation-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFecal Incontinence1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherConstipation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionFunctional Disorder of Intestine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColonic Diseases, Functional1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral500 mg / cap
TabletOral531 mg / g
GranuleOral
GranuleOral2.45 g/5g
GranuleOral3.25 g/5g
PowderOral6 g / tsp
PowderOral6 g/6.0g
PowderOral3.4 g/7.2g
PowderOral3.4 g/5.89g
PowderOral3.4 g/5.78g
PowderOral480 mg / g
Powder, for solutionOral100 %
Granule, for solutionOral3.4 g/7g
Granule, for solutionOral3.4 g/12g
Granule, for solutionOral3.5 g/5.8g
CapsuleOral0.52 g/1
CapsuleOral520 mg/1
Powder, for suspensionOral3.4 g/7g
Granule, for solutionOral3.4 g/5.4g
PowderOral7 g / 15 mL
PowderOral3 g / 15 g
PowderOral3.5 g / 7 g
PowderOral3.5 g / 6 g
PowderOral3.4 g / 7 g
PowderOral2.4 g / 5 g
PowderOral100 %
Powder, for solutionOral6 g / 5 mL
CapsuleOral610 mg / cap
PowderOral33 %
Granule, effervescentOral
Granule, effervescentOral
Granule, for solutionOral
GranuleOral
LiquidOral
PowderOral136 g / 240 g
PowderOral16 g / 20 g
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g/7g
CapsuleOral.52 g/1
GranuleOral2.75 g/5g
Powder, for suspensionOral3.4 g/5.8g
CapsuleOral435 mg / cap
PowderOral1 g/1g
PowderOral50 %
CapsuleOral20 mg/1
PowderOral6 g/6g
GranuleOral4.3 g/6g
GranuleOral3.4 g/6.5g
GranuleOral6 g/9g
PowderTopical60 mg/1g
GranuleOral3.4 g/11g
GranuleOral3.4 g/12g
GranuleOral6 g/6g
CapsuleOral
PowderOral3.5 g/5.8g
GranuleOral3.5 g/5.8g
PowderTopical3.5 g/5.8g
PowderOral475 mg / g
PowderOral484 mg / g
PowderOral5270 mg
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g / 5 mL
PowderOral3.4 g / 12 g
PowderOral3.4 g / 5.8 g
KitOral
PowderOral3.3 g/5.95g
PowderOral3.4 g/12g
PowderOral2.45 g/5g
PowderOral3.5 g/5g
CapsuleOral600 mg / cap
PowderOral3400 mg/1g
GranuleOral3.4 g/100g
PowderOral300 mg / g
PowderOral600 mg / g
PowderOral3 g / 6.2 g
PowderOral3.4 g/11g
PowderOral3.4 g/5.8g
PowderOral3.4 g/7g
PowderOral3.4 g/5.4g
LiquidOral3 g / 5 mL
PowderOral15 g/99g
PowderOral5312 mg / 5.5 g
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g/100g
PowderOral3.4 g/5.79g
Powder, for suspensionOral3.4 g/11g
PowderOral672 mg / g
PowderOral
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g/5.8g
PowderOral
PowderOral1.5 g / 5 mL
PowderOral2.4 g/12g
Powder, for suspensionOral
Powder, for solutionOral750 mg / g
CapsuleOral630 mg / cap
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g/5g
Powder, for solutionOral3.4 g/12g
Granule, for solutionOral3.4 g/100g
Powder, for solutionOral0.486 g/1g
Powder, for solutionOral0.604 g/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral3.4 g/12g
PowderOral85.92 g
Powder, for solutionOral
PowderOral4.67 g / 6 g
Granule
CapsuleOral520 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on May 15, 2021 12:14