Lactose

Identification

Summary

Lactose is an additive and filler found in various products to maintain structure and consistency.

Generic Name
Lactose
DrugBank Accession Number
DB04465
Background

A disaccharide of glucose and galactose in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 342.2965
Monoisotopic: 342.116211546
Chemical Formula
C12H22O11
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Not Available

Pharmacology
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Drug Discovery
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UGlycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1Not AvailableHumans
UGlycolipid transfer proteinNot AvailableHumans
UHydrolaseNot AvailableStreptomyces olivaceoviridis
UEndo-1,4-beta-xylanase ANot AvailableStreptomyces lividans
UBeta-galactosidaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UGalectin-3Not AvailableHumans
USialidaseNot AvailableMicromonospora viridifaciens
UBeta-galactosidaseNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation CDG-IIdDisease
GalactosemiaDisease
GLUT-1 Deficiency SyndromeDisease
Galactose MetabolismMetabolic
Lactose SynthesisMetabolic
Lactose DegradationMetabolic
Lactose IntoleranceDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Lac-tol Pwr 50gm/pckPowder50 g / pckOralEndovations Inc.1988-12-311997-07-15Canada flag
LactolSuspension50 g / doseOralBallard Medical Products1997-03-012002-07-22Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
METADONA CLORHIDRATO 40 MG TABLETALactose (342 mg) + Magnesium stearate (18 mg) + Methadone hydrochloride (40 mg) + Microcrystalline cellulose (204 mg) + Silicon dioxide (12 mg)TabletOralBLISTECO S.A.S.2018-06-22Not applicableColombia flag
SERECOR® FORTE DPI 100Lactose (12327.5 mcg) + Fluticasone propionate (100 mcg) + Salmeterol xinafoate (50 mcg)PowderRespiratory (inhalation)LABORATORIOS LICONSA S.A2016-05-17Not applicableColombia flag
SYNTHROID® 112 MCG TABLETASLactose (62.87 mg) + Levothyroxine sodium (112 cg)TabletOral2006-11-10Not applicableColombia flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
O-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Disaccharides / Oxanes / Secondary alcohols / Hemiacetals / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Acetals / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Acetal / Alcohol / Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Disaccharide / Hemiacetal / Hydrocarbon derivative / O-glycosyl compound / Organoheterocyclic compound / Oxacycle / Oxane
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycosylglucose (CHEBI:17716) / Disaccharides (C00243)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3SY5LH9PMK
CAS number
63-42-3
InChI Key
GUBGYTABKSRVRQ-QKKXKWKRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)6(16)9(19)12(22-3)23-10-4(2-14)21-11(20)8(18)7(10)17/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5+,6+,7-,8-,9-,10-,11?,12+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](O[C@H]2[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C(O)O[C@@H]2CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O

References

Synthesis Reference

James P. Danehy, "Synthesis of ascorbic acid from lactose." U.S. Patent US4259443, issued December, 1956.

US4259443
General References
Not Available
KEGG Drug
D00046
KEGG Compound
C00243
PubChem Compound
440995
PubChem Substance
46505218
ChemSpider
389820
RxNav
6211
ChEBI
17716
PharmGKB
PA450161
Wikipedia
Lactose

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionBronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) / Lymphocytic Bronchiolitis / Rejection, Transplant / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4CompletedPreventionLong qt Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependency1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Liver Diseases (CLD)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)3
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hyperkalemia1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Forest Pharmaceuticals
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderOral50 g / pck
SuspensionOral50 g / dose
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)
TabletOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)201-202 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.95E+005 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8748
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6207
Caco-2 permeable-0.8836
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5394
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7589
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9142
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8144
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8451
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8853
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.658
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.961
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9376
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9399
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9083
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9645
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8898
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8628
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9551
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6632
Rat acute toxicity1.0242 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9517
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8283
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GLT6D1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z4J2
Uniprot Name
Glycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1
Molecular Weight
36273.575 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid binding
Specific Function
Accelerates the intermembrane transfer of various glycolipids. Catalyzes the transfer of various glycosphingolipids between membranes but does not catalyze the transfer of phospholipids. May be inv...
Gene Name
GLTP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD2
Uniprot Name
Glycolipid transfer protein
Molecular Weight
23849.6 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces olivaceoviridis
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q7SI98
Uniprot Name
Beta-xylanase
Molecular Weight
46749.175 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces lividans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase activity
Specific Function
Contributes to hydrolyze hemicellulose, the major component of plant cell-walls. XLNA and XLNB seem to act sequentially on the substrate to yield xylobiose and xylose as carbon sources.
Gene Name
xlnA
Uniprot ID
P26514
Uniprot Name
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase A
Molecular Weight
51162.3 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
lacZ
Uniprot ID
P00722
Uniprot Name
Beta-galactosidase
Molecular Weight
116482.045 Da
Details
6. Galectin-3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Galactose-specific lectin which binds IgE. May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. Together with DMBT1, required for terminal differen...
Gene Name
LGALS3
Uniprot ID
P17931
Uniprot Name
Galectin-3
Molecular Weight
26152.165 Da
References
  1. Seidel RD 3rd, Zhuang T, Prestegard JH: Bound-state residual dipolar couplings for rapidly exchanging ligands of His-tagged proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Apr 18;129(15):4834-9. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Micromonospora viridifaciens
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Exo-alpha-(2->8)-sialidase activity
Specific Function
To release sialic acids for use as carbon and energy sources for this non-pathogenic bacterium while in pathogenic microorganisms, sialidases have been suggested to be pathogenic factors.
Gene Name
nedA
Uniprot ID
Q02834
Uniprot Name
Sialidase
Molecular Weight
68829.78 Da
References
  1. Newstead SL, Watson JN, Bennet AJ, Taylor G: Galactose recognition by the carbohydrate-binding module of a bacterial sialidase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Nov;61(Pt 11):1483-91. doi: 10.1107/S0907444905026132. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Isoform 1 Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans.
Specific Function
Beta-galactosidase activity
Gene Name
GLB1
Uniprot ID
P16278
Uniprot Name
Beta-galactosidase
Molecular Weight
76074.22 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on April 30, 2021 13:05