Benzoyl peroxide

Identification

Summary

Benzoyl peroxide is an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent used for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and rosacea.

Brand Names
Acanya, Aktipak, Benzac, Benzaclin, Benzamycin, Benzefoam, Benzepro, Clean and Clear, Clean and Clear Advantage Mark Treatment, Clearasil, Clindoxyl, Duac, Epiduo, Neobenz Micro Wash, Neuac, Onexton, Oxy Daily Wash, Panoxyl, Persa-gel, Relovox, Riax, SkinMedica Acne Treatment, Tactupump, Vanoxide-HC
Generic Name
Benzoyl peroxide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09096
Background

Benzoyl peroxide is a commonly used drug in topical treatments for acne.7,9,10,11,12 It has been formulated as products with either a single active ingredient,7,11 or with erythromycin,9 clindamycin,10 or adapalene.12 After administration, the peroxide bond is cleaved, allowing benzoyloxy radicals to nonspecifically interact with proteins.1,2 This treatment decreases keratin and sebum around follicles, as well as increasing turnover of epithelial cells.3,4,5

Benzoyl peroxide, in combination with erythromycin, was granted FDA approval on 26 October 1984.9

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 242.2268
Monoisotopic: 242.057908808
Chemical Formula
C14H10O4
Synonyms
  • Benzoyl benzenecarboperoxoate
  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Bepio
  • Peróxido de benzoilo
External IDs
  • NSC-671
  • NSC-675

Pharmacology

Indication

Benzoyl peroxide is formulated with antibiotics such as erythromycin9 and clindamycin10 for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Benzoyl peroxide is formulated as a number of topical products for the treatment of acne.7,11

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Benzoyl peroxide is a topical treatment for acne that generates free radicals to break down comedones and increase the rate of epithelial cell turnover.1,3,4,5,9,10,11,12 It has a short duration of action as its active free radical metabolites quickly react to form inactive metabolites.1 The therapeutic index is wide, as overdoses are rare, however patients may still experience skin peeling.9,10,11,12 Patients should be counselled regarding increased risks of skin irritation, dryness, and sunburn.9,10,11,12

Mechanism of action

Acne vulgaris is caused by inflammation in the pilosebaceous gland.4 Acne is generally caused by increased excretion of sebum from pilosebaceous glands, endocrine factors such as androgenic hormones, keratin developing around follicles, bacterial growth, and inflammation.4 These factors contribute to the formation of comedones (whiteheads and blackheads).4

The peroxide bond of benzoyl peroxide is cleaved to form 2 benzoyloxy radicals.1 These radicals interact nonspecifically with bacterial proteins, interfering with their function, and survival of the bacteria.2 Over time, free radical interactions with bacterial proteins lead to decreased keratin and sebum around follicles.3,4

Benzoyl peroxide can also increase the turnover rate of epithelial cells, leading to skin peeling, and breaking down comedones.5

TargetActionsOrganism
UCatalase
inhibitor
Humans
UGlutathione peroxidase
inhibitor
UArginine decarboxylase
activator
Humans
UProtein kinase C
inhibitor
Humans
USuperoxide Dismutases
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

In a sample of excised skin, 1.9% of a radiolabelled topical dose fully penetrates the skin, and 2.6% remains in the skin.2,6 The radiolabelled dose that fully penetrates the skin is recovered as benzoic acid, while the dose in the skin is approximately half benzoic acid and half benzoyl peroxide.6 95.5% of a radiolabelled dose is not absorbed or metabolized after 8 hours.6

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

The peroxide bond of benzoyl peroxide is cleaved to form 2 benzoyloxy radicals.1 The benzyoyloxy radicals may interact with other molecules, forming benzoic acid; alternatively, benzoyloxy radicals can break down further to release carbon dioxide and a phenyl radical.1

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Benzoyl peroxide's metabolite benzoic acid, is eliminated in the urine.2 Data regarding fecal elimination is not readily available.

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Data regarding overdoses of benzoyl peroxide are not readily available.7,9,10,11,12 During an overdose patients may experience and increased risk or severity of adverse effects such as skin itching, burning, peeling, inflammation, and erythema.9,10,11,12

The oral LD50 in rats is 490 mg/kg.8

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzoyl peroxide is combined with Dapsone.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Benzoic acidunknown8SKN0B0MIM65-85-0WPYMKLBDIGXBTP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
10 Benzagel Gel - 10%Gel10 %TopicalDermik Laboratories1998-12-012005-10-05Canada flag
Acetoxyl 10 GelGel10 %TopicalValeo Pharma Corp.1978-12-312006-07-31Canada flag
Acetoxyl 20acne GelGel20 %TopicalStiefel Laboratories, Inc.1978-12-311998-07-09Canada flag
BenoxylLotion10 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1976-12-312011-12-22Canada flag
BenoxylLotion20 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1970-12-312012-12-10Canada flag
Benoxyl 10% WashLiquid10 %TopicalStiefel Laboratories, Inc.1980-12-311998-07-09Canada flag
BenproxLotion52.5 mg/1gTopicalKylemore Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-03-012011-03-16US flag
BenproxGel27.5 mg/1gTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-11-012011-03-31US flag
BenproxLiquid52.5 mg/1gTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-11-012012-01-31US flag
BenproxGel52.5 mg/1gTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-11-012009-10-31US flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
111 Medco Benzoyl PeroxideSoap100 mg/1gTopical111 Medco2019-04-02Not applicableUS flag
2.5 Benzagel 2.5%Gel2.5 %TopicalRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311997-08-13Canada flag
2.5 Benzagel 2.5% Acne GelGel2.5 %TopicalNovartis1996-09-291999-07-21Canada flag
2.5 Benzagel Acne Lotion 2.5%Lotion2.5 %TopicalNovartis1996-09-301999-07-21Canada flag
2.5 Benzagel Acne Lotion 2.5%Lotion2.5 %TopicalRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311997-08-13Canada flag
24 Hour Acne SerumGel5 g/100gTopicalNeutraderm, Inc.2019-02-08Not applicableUS flag
5 Benzagel Liquid Acne Soap 5%Liquid5 %TopicalRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
5 Benzagel Lotion 5%Lotion5 %TopicalRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311997-08-13Canada flag
5% BP Face and Body WashLiquid50 mg/1mLTopicalCosMedical Technologies2015-11-042018-12-10US flag
AB Skincare Acne Spot TreatmentCream28.3 g/100gTopicalNorris Ltd2017-10-09Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
3 Step Acne System Well at WalgreensBenzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL)KitTopicalWalgreens2014-07-15Not applicableUS flag
3 Step Acne System Well at WalgreensBenzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL)KitTopicalWalgreens2014-07-15Not applicableUS flag
AcanyaBenzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g) + Clindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalDow Pharmaceuticals Sciences2009-02-032014-04-30US flag
AcanyaBenzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g) + Clindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g)GelTopicalBausch Health US, LLC2010-07-26Not applicableUS flag
Acne Clearning Treatment FaceBenzoyl peroxide (.006 mg/.024mg) + Octasulfur (.012 mg/.024mg) + Salicylic acid (.0048 mg/.024mg)LiquidTopicalCare Pluss Pharma S.A. De C.V.2012-08-06Not applicableUS flag
Acne Treatment Kit Prescription CareBenzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL)KitTopicalBlue Cross Laboratories2009-11-012016-12-05US flag
Acne Treatment Kit Prescription CareBenzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100mL)KitTopicalBlue Cross Laboratories2009-11-012016-12-05US flag
Acne Treatment SystemBenzoyl peroxide (5 % w/w) + Salicylic acid (2 % w/w)Kit; Liquid; LotionTopicalVivier Canada Incorporated2013-11-15Not applicableCanada flag
Acne Treatment SystemBenzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1mL) + Salicylic acid (20 mg/1mL)KitTopicalVivier Pharma, Inc.2017-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Acne Vanishing Gel- 10% with SulfurBenzoyl peroxide (10 g/100mL) + Octasulfur (3 g/100mL)GelTopicalOnly Yourx, Inc.2014-03-28Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Adapalene 0.1% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1%Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.1 g/100g) + Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-10Not applicableUS flag
Adapalene 0.1% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Niacinamide 4%Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.1 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (4 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-10Not applicableUS flag
Adapalene 0.3% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1%Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.3 g/100g) + Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Adapalene 0.3% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Niacinamide 4%Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.3 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (4 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide SwabBenzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g) + Adapalene (1 mg/1g)GelTopicalBiomes Pharmaceuticals2020-12-01Not applicableUS flag
BencortBenzoyl peroxide (350 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone (5 mg/1g)KitTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-10-012011-01-13US flag
BencortBenzoyl peroxide (350 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone (5 mg/1g)KitTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-10-012011-01-13US flag
BenoxylDoxy 30 KitBenzoyl peroxide (44 mg/1mL) + Doxycycline monohydrate (100 mg/1)KitOral; TopicalElorac, Inc.2014-07-012014-08-07US flag
BenoxylDoxy 60 KitBenzoyl peroxide (44 mg/1mL) + Doxycycline monohydrate (100 mg/1)KitOral; TopicalElorac, Inc.2014-07-012015-07-18US flag
BenproxBenzoyl peroxide (52.5 mg/1g)GelTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-11-012009-10-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
D10AE01 — Benzoyl peroxideD10AE51 — Benzoyl peroxide, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoyl peroxides. These are organic compounds containing two benzoyl groups O-linked to each other via a peroxide group. Their skeleton has the general formula [C6H5C(O)]2O2.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoyl peroxides
Direct Parent
Benzoyl peroxides
Alternative Parents
Peroxybenzoic acids and derivatives / Benzoyl derivatives / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Peroxycarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acid salts / Organooxygen compounds / Organic salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Benzoic acid or derivatives / Benzoyl / Benzoyl peroxide / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid salt / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carbonyl compound (CHEBI:82405)
Affected organisms
  • Propionibacterium acnes

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
W9WZN9A0GM
CAS number
94-36-0
InChI Key
OMPJBNCRMGITSC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H10O4/c15-13(11-7-3-1-4-8-11)17-18-14(16)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H
IUPAC Name
benzoyl benzenecarboperoxoate
SMILES
O=C(OOC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1

References

Synthesis Reference
  1. Zenz, C. Occupational Medicine - Principles and Practical Applications. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Yearbook Inc.; 1988: 712.
  2. Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc.; 1996: 187.
  3. Ashford, RD. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd.; 1994: 119.
General References
  1. Swauger JE, Dolan PM, Zweier JL, Kuppusamy P, Kensler TW: Role of the benzoyloxyl radical in DNA damage mediated by benzoyl peroxide. Chem Res Toxicol. 1991 Mar-Apr;4(2):223-8. [Article]
  2. Matin T, Goodman MB: Benzoyl Peroxide . [Article]
  3. Fuchs CSK, Ortner VK, Hansen FS, Philipsen PA, Haedersdal M: Subclinical effects of adapalene-benzoyl peroxide: a prospective in vivo imaging study on acne micromorphology and transfollicular delivery. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Jan 28. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17140. [Article]
  4. Kurokawa I, Nakase K: Recent advances in understanding and managing acne. F1000Res. 2020 Jul 29;9. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.25588.1. eCollection 2020. [Article]
  5. Russell JJ: Topical therapy for acne. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jan 15;61(2):357-66. [Article]
  6. Nacht S, Yeung D, Beasley JN Jr, Anjo MD, Maibach HI: Benzoyl peroxide: percutaneous penetration and metabolic disposition. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981 Jan;4(1):31-7. [Article]
  7. BASG: Benzaknen Wash (Benzoyl Peroxide) Topical Suspension [Link]
  8. Fisher Scientific: Benzoyl Peroxide MSDS [Link]
  9. FDA Approved Drug Products: Benzamycin (Benzoyl Peroxide and Erythromycin) Topical Gel [Link]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Duac (Benzoyl Peroxide and Clindamycin) Topical Gel [Link]
  11. DailyMed: 111 Medco (Benzoyl Peroxide) Topical Soap [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Epiduo (Benzoyl Peroxide and Adapalene) Topical Gel [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0032040
KEGG Drug
D03093
KEGG Compound
C19346
PubChem Compound
7187
PubChem Substance
310265023
ChemSpider
6919
RxNav
1418
ChEBI
82405
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200370
ZINC
ZINC000000001016
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Benzoyl_peroxide
AHFS Codes
  • 84:28.00 — Keratolytic Agents
MSDS
Download (37.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticOsteoarthritis, Degenerative1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPropionibacterium Acnes1
4CompletedNot AvailableP Acnes Colonization1
4CompletedOtherAcne Vulgaris1
4CompletedPreventionAcne Vulgaris / Atrophic Acne Scars1
4CompletedSupportive CareAcne1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne5
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris26
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris / Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation1
4CompletedTreatmentSkin Diseases1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical2.5 %
CreamTopical28.3 g/100g
CreamTopical104 mg/10g
LotionTopical0.025 g/100mL
LotionTopical2.5 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical
GelTopical5 mL/100mL
Shampoo, suspensionTopical25 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 % w/w
GelTopical100 mg/1g
LotionTopical100 mg/1000mL
GelTopical50 mg/1g
LotionTopical50 mg/1000mL
CreamCutaneous
Aerosol, foamTopical2.5 mg/1g
LotionTopical2.5 mL/100mL
CreamTopical10 g/100mL
LotionTopical30 mg/1g
SolutionTopical5.0 % w/w
GelTopical1 mg/1g
LotionTopical3.5 % w/w
GelTopical3.5 g/100mL
Kit; liquid; lotionTopical
CreamTopical25 mg/1mL
KitTopical25 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical4.25 g/170g
CreamTopical3.4 g/136g
LiquidTopical25 mg/1mL
CreamTopical2.5 mg/100mL
LotionTopical10 mg/100mL
LotionTopical
Kit; lotionTopical
GelTopical2.5 % / g
Gel; kit; lotionTopical
Aerosol, foamTopical2.5 g/100g
SuspensionOral
GelTopical
GelCutaneous
Aerosol, foamTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5.5 g/100mL
LotionTransdermal5.5 g/100mL
CreamTopical0.026 mg/1mg
CreamTopical1.4 g/28g
GelTopical25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
GelTopical2.5 %w/w
LotionTopical20 %
Liquid, extended releaseTopical44 mg/1mL
GelTopical27.5 mg/1g
LiquidTopical52.5 mg/1g
SolutionTopical2.6 g/100mL
GelTopical2.6 % w/w
GelTopical10 %
GelTopical5 %
SolutionTopical5 %
LiquidTopical5 %
GelTopical2.5 % w/w
SuspensionTopical
CreamTopical100 mg/1g
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
AerosolTopical5.3 g/100g
AerosolTopical9.8 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical3.18 g/60g
ClothTopical60 mg/1
SoapTopical7 g/100g
Gel
KitOral; Topical
LotionTopical3 g/100mL
Gel
SoapTopical2.5 g/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical53 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical98 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical45 mg/1mL
EmulsionTopical65 mg/1mL
EmulsionTopical85 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 g/100g
GelTopical25 mg/1000mg
LiquidTopical10 g/100g
LiquidTopical2.5 g/100g
LiquidTopical30 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical57.5 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical60 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical70 mg/1g
LiquidTopical70 g/1mL
LiquidTopical90 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical3 g/100mL
SolutionTopical4 g/100g
SolutionTopical45 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical6 g/100mL
SolutionTopical65 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical8 g/100g
SolutionTopical85 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical9 g/100mL
GelTopical50 mg/1000mg
SuspensionTopical
SolutionTopical2.5 % w/w
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
GelTopical35 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical8 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical5.3 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical9.8 g/100g
EmulsionTopical57.5 mg/1mL
EmulsionTopical70 mg/1mL
CreamTopical3.29 g/56g
GelTopical100 mg/1mL
GelTopical5.0 %
EmulsionTopical42.5 mg/1mL
GelTopical55 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical100 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical50 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical52.5 mg/1g
LotionTopical52.5 mg/1g
GelTopical4 mg/100mg
GelTopical8 mg/100mg
SolutionTopical5 % w/w
ClothTopical3.2 g/100g
ClothTopical9 g/100g
LotionTopical5 mL/100mL
CreamTopical13.6 g/170.1g
CreamTopical6.8 g/170.1g
GelTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical80 mg/1g
CreamTopical1.125 g/15g
GelTopical5.00 %
AerosolTopical2.5 %
CreamTopical5.0 % w/w
LotionTopical5 %
LiquidTopical5.57 mg/1g
LiquidTopical.006 mg/.024mg
CreamTopical5.0 %
LotionTopical
SolutionTopical3 % w/w
CreamTopical30 mg/1mL
CreamTopical7.5 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical3.7 %
LotionTopical3.5 %
LiquidTopical3.5 %
CreamTopical
CreamTopical5 % w/w
ClothTopical
Kit; lotionTopical5 % w/w
LotionTopical50 mg/1mL
GelTopical70 mg/1g
LotionTopical2.5 % w/w
LotionTopical5.0 %
CreamTopical0.8 mg/29.6mg
GelTopical61.62 mg/1mL
GelTopical60 mg/1mL
SoapTopical100 mg/1g
LotionTopical5 % w/w
LiquidTopical35 mg/1g
LotionTopical35 mg/1g
GelTopical50 mg/1mL
GelTopical2.5 %
GelTopical20 %
SolutionTopical10 mg/1g
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical5 mg/1g
SolutionTopical5 mg/1mL
LotionTopical10 %
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
LotionTopical2.5 g/100mL
Gel; lotionTopical2.5 % w/w
CreamTopical58.7 mg/1g
ClothTopical2.5 % w/w
Aerosol, foamTopical9.8 g/1g
GelCutaneous
Liquid, extended releaseTopical4.5 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical0.1 mg/1g
GelTopical135 mg/1g
LiquidTopical3 g/120g
LotionTopical1.5 g/60g
LotionTopical25 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical5 % w/w
GelTopical
CreamTopical4 % w/w
LiquidTopical5 g/100g
GelTopical5.6 g/56g
GelTopical3 mL/60mL
GelTopical2.8 g/56.7g
LotionTopical45 mg/1mL
GelTopical51.9 mg/100mL
CreamTopical10 g/100g
CreamTopical60 mg/1g
LotionTopical70 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical70 mg/1mL
Lotion / shampooTopical25 mg/1mL
CreamTopical10 %
CreamTopical20 %
CreamTopical2.5 %
LotionTopical0.0625 kg/1kg
CreamTopical5.3 g/100g
GelTopical10 g/100mL
SuspensionTopical10 g/100g
SoapTopical10 g/100g
LotionTopical55 mg/1mL
KitTopical7 mg/1g
GelTopical52.5 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical25 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical80 mg/1g
GelTopical5 % w/w
CreamTopical5 mg/100mL
GelTopical25 mg/1g
CreamTopical1 g/100g
CreamTopical5 g/100mL
CreamTopical35 mg/1g
CreamTopical55 mg/1g
CreamTopical85 mg/1g
SolutionTopical70 mg/1g
KitTopical
LotionTopical70 mg/1g
PasteTopical5 %
GelTopical3.5 %
GelTopical35 mg/1mL
LotionTopical35 mg/1mL
CreamTopical37 mg/1mL
SuspensionTopical37 mg/1mL
JellyTopical2.5 %
CreamTopical2.5 mg/1g
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
CreamTopical35 mg/1mL
LotionTopical5.0 % w/w
LotionTopical5 g/100mL
GelTopical7 mg/1g
SolutionTopical2.5 g/100mL
CreamTopical2.5 g/100g
PasteTopical3.5 % w/w
GelTopical0.102 g/1g
LotionTopical3.0 %
GelTopical10 g
LotionTopical100 mg/1g
CreamTopical5 %
LotionTopical50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical100 mg/1mL
LotionTopical100 mg/1mL
CreamTopical100 mg/1mL
CreamTopical50 mg/1mL
SwabTopical25 mg/1
StickTopical50 mg/1g
ClothTopical70 mg/1g
ClothTopical42.5 mg/1g
SolutionTopical42.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical146.7 mg/1g
CreamTopical30 mg/1g
SoapTopical0.5 g/10g
SoapTopical1 g/10g
SoapTopical11.3 g/1
SoapTopical5.65 g/1
CreamTopical117.3 mg/1g
SoapTopical10 %
SoapTopical5 %
LiquidTopical4 %
LiquidTopical10 %
Kit; lotion; solutionTopical
CreamTopical5 g/100g
AerosolTopical
GelTopical5 g/100g
LotionTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical10 % w/w
SolutionTopical0.063 mg/2.5mL
LotionTopical0.063 mg/2.5mL
CreamTopical25 mg/1g
GelTopical5 g/100mL
Gel; kitTopical
CreamTopical0.06 g/1g
LotionTopical7 mg/100mL
GelTopical8.5 mg/100mL
CreamTopical7 mg/100mL
LotionTopical7 g/100mL
CreamTopical0.025 g/1000mL
CreamTopical0.25 g/1000mL
GelTopical2.5 mg/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/100mL
LotionTopical2.5 mg/100mL
LotionTopical3 % w/w
CreamTopical52.5 mg/1mL
EmulsionTopical25 mg/1g
LiquidTopical7.5 mL/100mL
CreamTopical2.95 mL/59mL
Aerosol, foamTopical55 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical95 mg/1g
LotionTopical2.50 %
CreamTopical2.5 mL/100mL
Cream; kit; lotionTopical
Cream; gel; kit; lotionTopical2.5 % w/w
KitTopical0.5 mg/1g
LiquidTopical2.5 %
CreamTopical2.5 % w/w
PasteTopical3.5 %
SwabTopical25 mg/1mL
LotionTopical25 mg/1g
LotionTopical10 g/100mL
GelTopical4 %
GelTopical8 %
OintmentTopical9.48 mg/100mg
GelTopical3 % w/w
LotionTopical4 % w/w
LotionTopical2.5 g/100g
LotionTopical10 g/100g
LotionTopical0.025 g/1mL
CreamTopical0.05 g/1mL
Gel; kit; pasteTopical
CreamTopical
CreamTopical0.05 g/1g
LotionTopical2.50 g/100g
SoapTopical5 g/100mL
CreamTopical2.5 g/100mL
SoapTopical60 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical
ClothTopical30 mg/1g
ClothTopical60 mg/1g
ClothTopical90 mg/1g
GelTopical5 g/99.8g
CreamTopical3.7 mL/100mL
SwabTopical2.75 mg/1
GelTopical8.5 mg/100g
GelTopical8.5 g/100g
LotionTopical40 mg/1g
LotionTopical80 mg/1g
OintmentTopical100 mg/1g
GelTopical45 mg/1mL
GelTopical5 %w/w
CreamTopical10 %w/w
CreamTopical5 %w/w
GelTopical10 %w/w
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US8909305No2014-12-092022-12-23US flag
US8703820No2014-04-222023-03-12US flag
US7964202No2011-06-212024-09-01US flag
US8071644No2011-12-062027-07-18US flag
US8080537No2011-12-202027-07-18US flag
US8105618No2012-01-312022-12-23US flag
US8129362No2012-03-062027-07-18US flag
US8445543No2013-05-212027-07-12US flag
US8809305No2014-08-192022-12-23US flag
US8936800No2015-01-202022-12-23US flag
US8241649No2012-08-142022-12-23US flag
US7820186No2010-10-262025-11-23US flag
US8288434No2012-10-162029-08-05US flag
US8663699No2014-03-042029-06-03US flag
US8895070No2014-11-252029-06-03US flag
US9078870No2015-07-142029-06-03US flag
US8785420No2014-07-222022-12-23US flag
US8729127No2014-05-202023-03-12US flag
US9504704No2016-11-292029-06-03US flag
US9561208No2017-02-072029-06-03US flag
US9381179No2016-07-052023-03-12US flag
US9387187No2016-07-122023-03-12US flag
US9814690No2017-11-142022-12-23US flag
US10137142No2018-11-272029-06-03US flag
US10220049No2019-03-052029-06-03US flag
US10624918No2009-06-032029-06-03US flag

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)103 - 106 Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc.; 1996: 187.
boiling point (°C)Decomposes explosively above melting point. Does not reach boiling point.United States Department of Labor. OSHA Occupational Chemical Database. Occupational Safety and Health Administration website. https://www.osha.gov/chemicaldata/chemResult.html?RecNo=748. Accessed February 22, 2017.
water solubility<1%United States Department of Labor. OSHA Occupational Chemical Database. Occupational Safety and Health Administration website. https://www.osha.gov/chemicaldata/chemResult.html?RecNo=748. Accessed February 22, 2017.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0294 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.75ALOGPS
logP3.95ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity64.77 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.16 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia c...
Gene Name
CAT
Uniprot ID
P04040
Uniprot Name
Catalase
Molecular Weight
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Zhao J, Lahiri-Chatterjee M, Sharma Y, Agarwal R: Inhibitory effect of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin on benzoyl peroxide-induced tumor promotion, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):811-6. doi: 10.1093/carcin/21.4.811. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidas...

Components:
References
  1. Zhao J, Lahiri-Chatterjee M, Sharma Y, Agarwal R: Inhibitory effect of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin on benzoyl peroxide-induced tumor promotion, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):811-6. doi: 10.1093/carcin/21.4.811. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Putrescine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Antizyme inhibitor protein that positively regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake by counteracting the negative effect of antizymes OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 on ODC1 activi...
Gene Name
AZIN2
Uniprot ID
Q96A70
Uniprot Name
Antizyme inhibitor 2
Molecular Weight
49979.185 Da
References
  1. Saleem M, Alam A, Arifin S, Shah MS, Ahmed B, Sultana S: Lupeol, a triterpene, inhibits early responses of tumor promotion induced by benzoyl peroxide in murine skin. Pharmacol Res. 2001 Feb;43(2):127-34. doi: 10.1006/phrs.2000.0710. [Article]
  2. Saleem M, Alam A, Sultana S: Attenuation of benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response by the prophylactic treatment of mice with spearmint (Mentha spicata). Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Oct;38(10):939-48. doi: 10.1016/s0278-6915(00)00088-0. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...

Components:
References
  1. Gopalakrishna R, Gundimeda U, Anderson WB, Colburn NH, Slaga TJ: Tumor promoter benzoyl peroxide induces sulfhydryl oxidation in protein kinase C: its reversibility is related to the cellular resistance to peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Mar 15;363(2):246-58. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1999.1100. [Article]
  2. Hegemann L, Toso SM, Kitay K, Webster GF: Anti-inflammatory actions of benzoyl peroxide: effects on the generation of reactive oxygen species by leucocytes and the activity of protein kinase C and calmodulin. Br J Dermatol. 1994 May;130(5):569-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1994.tb13101.x. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
Specific Function
Copper ion binding

Components:
References
  1. Zhao J, Lahiri-Chatterjee M, Sharma Y, Agarwal R: Inhibitory effect of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin on benzoyl peroxide-induced tumor promotion, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):811-6. doi: 10.1093/carcin/21.4.811. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia c...
Gene Name
CAT
Uniprot ID
P04040
Uniprot Name
Catalase
Molecular Weight
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Horozova E, Dimcheva N, Jordanova Z: Enzyme-catalyzed decomposition of dibenzoyl peroxide in organic solvents. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(7-8):553-8. doi: 10.1515/znc-2001-7-813. [Article]

Drug created on September 16, 2015 18:04 / Updated on May 15, 2021 12:14