Identification

Name
Levamlodipine
Accession Number
DB09237
Description

Levamlodipine, also known as S-amlodipine, is a pharmacologically active enantiomer of amlodipine, an antihypertensive medication.8 Levamlodipine belongs to the dihydropyridine group of calcium channel blockers.8 This medication was first marketed in Russia and India before being granted FDA approval.9 The names S-amlodipine and levamlodipine may be used interchangeably as both substances are the same, however.8 As a racemic mixture, amlodipine contains (R) and (S)-amlodipine isomers, but only (S)-amlodipine as the active moiety possesses therapeutic activity.7

Levamlodipine was granted FDA approval on 19 December 2019.8

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 408.88
Monoisotopic: 408.1451996
Chemical Formula
C20H25ClN2O5
Synonyms
  • Levamlodipine
  • Levoamlodipine
  • S-amlodipine

Pharmacology

Indication

Levamlodipine is indicated alone or in combination to treat hypertension in adults and children.8

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Levamlodipine inhibits L-type calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.8 It is given once daily in doses of 1.25-2.5mg in children and 2.5-5mg in adults.8 Patients should be counselled regarding the risk of symptomatic hypotension, worsening angina, and myocardial infarction.8

Mechanism of action

Levamlodipine blocks the transmembrane influx of calcium through L-type calcium channels into the vascular and cardiac smooth muscles resulting in vasodilation and a subsequent decrease in blood pressure.4,8 Levamlodipine inhibits calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle to a greater degree than in cardiac muscle, leading to decreased peripheral vascular resistance and lowered blood pressure.8 In vitro studies have shown a negative inotropic effect but this is unlikely to be clinically relevant.8

TargetActionsOrganism
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
antagonist
Humans
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D
antagonist
Humans
UNitric oxide synthase, endothelial
agonist
Humans
UNitric oxide synthase, inducible
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Oral levamlodipine has a Tmax of 6-12h and a bioavailability of 64-90%.8 Absorption of levamlodipine is not significantly affected by food.8

20mg or oral s-amlodipine besylate reaches a Cmax of 6.13±1.29ng/mL with a Tmax of 8.4±3.6h and an AUC of 351±72h*ng/mL.3 20mg or oral s-amlodipine maleate reaches a Cmax of 5.07±1.09ng/mL with a Tmax of 10.7±3.4h and an AUC of 330±88h*ng/mL.3

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of levamlodipine is similar to amlodipine.3 The volume of distribution of amlodipine is 21L/kg.5,6

Protein binding

Levamlodipine is 93% protein bound in plasma,8 largely to human serum albumin.2

Metabolism

Levamlodipine is 90% metabolized to inactive metabolites.8 Incubation with liver microsomes has shown that this metabolism is primarily mediated by CYP3A4.1 Levamlodipine's dehydrogenation to a pyridine metabolite (M9) is the most important metabolic pathway in human liver microsomes.1 This derivative can be further oxidatively deaminated or O-dealkylated, but does not appear to undergo O-demethylation like racemic amlodipine.1

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Levamlodipine is 60% eliminated in urine with 10% eliminated as the unmetabolized drug.8

Half-life

Levamlodipine has a half life of 30-50h.8

Clearance

The oral clearance of S-amlodipine besylate is 6.9±1.6mL/min/kg and the oral clearance of S-amlodipine maleate is 7.3±2.1mL/min/kg.3

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with hypotension and reflex tachycardia.8 Treat overdose with cardiac and respiratory monitoring, frequent blood pressure measurement, elevation of extremities to treat hypotension, and possible administration of vasopressors.8 Hemodialysis is not expected to be useful as levamlodipine is highly protein bound.8

Affected organisms
  • Humans
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Levamlodipine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AcalabrutinibThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetazolamideThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Acetazolamide.
AdalimumabThe metabolism of Levamlodipine can be increased when combined with Adalimumab.
AldesleukinThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Levamlodipine can be decreased when combined with Alfentanil.
AlpelisibThe serum concentration of Levamlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Alpelisib.
AlprazolamThe metabolism of Levamlodipine can be decreased when combined with Alprazolam.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Co-administration with food does not affect bioavailability.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Levamlodipine maleate12WW9T2ITA135969-53-8TZNOWAJJWCGILX-HNUXRKMMSA-N
International/Other Brands
Asomex (Emcure Pharmaceutical Ltd) / Conjupri / EsCordi Cor (Actavis Pharma) / Eslo (Zuventus Healthcare Ltd.) / Espin (Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ConjupriTablet1.25 mg/1.25mgOralCSPC Ouyi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
ConjupriTablet5 mg/5mgOralCSPC Ouyi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
ConjupriTablet5 mg/1OralBurke Therapeutics, LLC2020-09-01Not applicableUS flag
ConjupriTablet2.5 mg/2.5mgOralCSPC Ouyi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
ConjupriTablet2.5 mg/1OralBurke Therapeutics, LLC2020-09-01Not applicableUS flag
ConjupriTablet1.25 mg/1OralBurke Therapeutics, LLC2020-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Pyridines and derivatives
Sub Class
Hydropyridines
Direct Parent
Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Vinylogous amides / Methyl esters / Enoate esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Dialkyl ethers / Dialkylamines
show 7 more
Substituents
Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid derivative
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
amlodipine (CHEBI:53796)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
0P6NLP6806
CAS number
103129-82-4
InChI Key
HTIQEAQVCYTUBX-KRWDZBQOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H25ClN2O5/c1-4-28-20(25)18-15(11-27-10-9-22)23-12(2)16(19(24)26-3)17(18)13-7-5-6-8-14(13)21/h5-8,17,23H,4,9-11,22H2,1-3H3/t17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
3-ethyl 5-methyl (4S)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C1=C(COCCN)NC(C)=C([[email protected]@H]1C1=CC=CC=C1Cl)C(=O)OC

References

General References
  1. Zhu Y, Wang F, Li Q, Zhu M, Du A, Tang W, Chen W: Amlodipine metabolism in human liver microsomes and roles of CYP3A4/5 in the dihydropyridine dehydrogenation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Feb;42(2):245-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.113.055400. Epub 2013 Dec 3. [PubMed:24301608]
  2. Liu Z, Zheng X, Yang X, Wang E, Wang J: Affinity and specificity of levamlodipine-human serum albumin interactions: insights into its carrier function. Biophys J. 2009 May 20;96(10):3917-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.3965. [PubMed:19450464]
  3. Laufen H, Leitold M: Enantioselective disposition of oral amlodipine in healthy volunteers. Chirality. 1994;6(7):531-6. doi: 10.1002/chir.530060704. [PubMed:7986667]
  4. Striessnig J, Ortner NJ, Pinggera A: Pharmacology of L-type Calcium Channels: Novel Drugs for Old Targets? Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2015;8(2):110-22. [PubMed:25966690]
  5. Meredith PA, Elliott HL: Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992 Jan;22(1):22-31. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199222010-00003. [PubMed:1532771]
  6. Faulkner JK, McGibney D, Chasseaud LF, Perry JL, Taylor IW: The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in healthy volunteers after single intravenous and oral doses and after 14 repeated oral doses given once daily. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986 Jul;22(1):21-5. [PubMed:2943308]
  7. Liu F, Qiu M, Zhai SD: Tolerability and effectiveness of (S)-amlodipine compared with racemic amlodipine in hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2010 Feb;71(1):1-29. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2010.02.005. [PubMed:24683248]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: Conjupri Levamlodipine Oral Tablets [Link]
  9. S-Amlodipine [Link]
PubChem Compound
9822750
PubChem Substance
310265141
ChemSpider
7998499
RxNav
2376944
ChEBI
53796
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2111097
ZINC
ZINC000100001964
PDBe Ligand
6UB
Wikipedia
Levamlodipine
PDB Entries
5kmd / 6ke5
FDA label
Download (350 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Male Subjects1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Male Subjects2
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Male Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral2.5 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
Tablet, coatedOral5 mg
TabletOral1.25 mg/1
TabletOral1.25 mg/1.25mg
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/2.5mg
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/5mg
Tablet5 mg
Tablet2.5 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)138https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/dsstoxdb/results?formula=1&isotopes=1&search=C24H31ClN2O10
boiling point (°C)413https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/dsstoxdb/results?formula=1&isotopes=1&search=C24H31ClN2O10
water solubility81 mg/mLhttp://www.selleckchem.com/products/levamlodipine.html
logP3.30https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/dsstoxdb/results?formula=1&isotopes=1&search=C24H31ClN2O10
pKa8.6FDA Label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0074 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.22ALOGPS
logP1.64ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity108.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Striessnig J, Ortner NJ, Pinggera A: Pharmacology of L-type Calcium Channels: Novel Drugs for Old Targets? Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2015;8(2):110-22. [PubMed:25966690]
  2. Johnson R, Dludla P, Mabhida S, Benjeddou M, Louw J, February F: Pharmacogenomics of amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide therapy and the quest for improved control of hypertension: a mini review. Heart Fail Rev. 2019 May;24(3):343-357. doi: 10.1007/s10741-018-09765-y. [PubMed:30645721]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Conjupri Levamlodipine Oral Tablets [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID
Q01668
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D
Molecular Weight
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Johnson R, Dludla P, Mabhida S, Benjeddou M, Louw J, February F: Pharmacogenomics of amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide therapy and the quest for improved control of hypertension: a mini review. Heart Fail Rev. 2019 May;24(3):343-357. doi: 10.1007/s10741-018-09765-y. [PubMed:30645721]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induce...
Gene Name
NOS3
Uniprot ID
P29474
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
Molecular Weight
133287.62 Da
References
  1. He Y, Si D, Yang C, Ni L, Li B, Ding M, Yang P: The effects of amlodipine and S(-)-amlodipine on vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Jan;27(1):27-31. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt138. Epub 2013 Aug 19. [PubMed:23959544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. He Y, Si D, Yang C, Ni L, Li B, Ding M, Yang P: The effects of amlodipine and S(-)-amlodipine on vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Jan;27(1):27-31. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt138. Epub 2013 Aug 19. [PubMed:23959544]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhu Y, Wang F, Li Q, Zhu M, Du A, Tang W, Chen W: Amlodipine metabolism in human liver microsomes and roles of CYP3A4/5 in the dihydropyridine dehydrogenation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Feb;42(2):245-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.113.055400. Epub 2013 Dec 3. [PubMed:24301608]
  2. Amlodipine Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes and Roles of CYP3A4/5 in the Dihydropyridine Dehydrogenation [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. He Y, Si D, Yang C, Ni L, Li B, Ding M, Yang P: The effects of amlodipine and S(-)-amlodipine on vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Jan;27(1):27-31. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt138. Epub 2013 Aug 19. [PubMed:23959544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induce...
Gene Name
NOS3
Uniprot ID
P29474
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
Molecular Weight
133287.62 Da
References
  1. He Y, Si D, Yang C, Ni L, Li B, Ding M, Yang P: The effects of amlodipine and S(-)-amlodipine on vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Jan;27(1):27-31. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt138. Epub 2013 Aug 19. [PubMed:23959544]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu Z, Zheng X, Yang X, Wang E, Wang J: Affinity and specificity of levamlodipine-human serum albumin interactions: insights into its carrier function. Biophys J. 2009 May 20;96(10):3917-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.3965. [PubMed:19450464]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Johnson R, Dludla P, Mabhida S, Benjeddou M, Louw J, February F: Pharmacogenomics of amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide therapy and the quest for improved control of hypertension: a mini review. Heart Fail Rev. 2019 May;24(3):343-357. doi: 10.1007/s10741-018-09765-y. [PubMed:30645721]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism.
Gene Name
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID
Q12908
Uniprot Name
Ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter
Molecular Weight
37713.405 Da
References
  1. Zheng X, Diao L, Ekins S, Polli JE: Why we should be vigilant: drug cytotoxicity observed with in vitro transporter inhibition studies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 1;80(7):1087-92. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.012. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [PubMed:20599790]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Zheng X, Diao L, Ekins S, Polli JE: Why we should be vigilant: drug cytotoxicity observed with in vitro transporter inhibition studies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 1;80(7):1087-92. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.012. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [PubMed:20599790]

Drug created on October 23, 2015 10:47 / Updated on July 03, 2020 11:54

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates