Identification

Brand Names
Hemoban, Hemox A, Lumicain, Superdent Hemal, Topical Hemo-stat
Generic Name
Aluminum chloride
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11081
Background

Aluminum chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AlCl3. When contaminated with iron chloride, it often displays a yellow color compared to the white pure compound. It is used in various chemical applications as a Lewis base, with anhydrous aluminium trichloride being the most commonly used Lewis acid. It may also be found in over-the-counter as an antiperspirant or prescription products as an antihemorrhagic agent. In antiperspirant products, FDA approves the use of aluminum chloride as an active ingredient up to 15%, calculated on the hexahydrate form, in an aqueous solution nonaerosol dosage form 4.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 133.341
Monoisotopic: 131.888096562
Chemical Formula
AlCl3
Synonyms
  • Aluminium chloride

Pharmacology

Indication
  • Indicated for the control of minor hemorrhage during dental restorative procedures.
  • Indicated to reduce underarm perspiration.
Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Aluminum chloride is a hemostatic and antiperspirant agent.

Mechanism of action

Aluminum chloride is commonly used topical antiperspirant. It is proposed that aluminum chloride works by causing an obstruction of the distal sweat gland ducts, where the metal ions precipitate with mucopolysaccharides, damaging epithelial cells along the lumen of the duct and forming a plug that blocks sweat output 3. Aluminum chloride is also an astringent that promotes hemostasis; it precipitates proteins on the superficial layer of mucosa and make it mechanically stronger 1. It creates superficial and local coagulation in minor hemorrhages.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
inactivator
Humans
Absorption

It is reported that about 17-30 % of aluminum chloride formed from the reaction between orally ingested aluminum hydroxide and hydrochloric acid of the stomach is absorbed 5. In rabbits, administration of a single maximum safe oral dose aluminum chloride (333 mg Al/kg) resulted in aluminum absorption of 0.57 % 5. Aluminum chloride may be absorbed via dermal route, with the uptake increasing in the microgram range but with an upper limit 5.

Volume of distribution

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the steady‐state volume of distribution of aluminum was 38.4 ± 6.4 mL/kg 2.

Protein binding

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the fraction of plasma protein binding of aluminum was approximately 98 % 2.

Metabolism

In the small intestine, aluminum chloride is rapidly converted to insoluble poorly absorbed basic aluminum salts, consisting of a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide, oxyaluminum hydroxide, various basic aluminum carbonates, and aluminum soaps 5.

Route of elimination

Absorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys in individuals with normal renal function 5. Aluminum chloride may be absorbed dermally.

Half-life

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the half-life of aluminum was 5.29 ± 0.47 h 2.

Clearance

Following oral administration of 8.1 mg/kg of aluminum chloride, the clearance of aluminum was 8.87 ± 1.76 mL/(h*kg) 2.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 3470 mg/kg in rat and dermal LD50 is > 2 g/kg in rabbit MSDS. As aluminum accumulates in the brain, ataxia and seizures may be observed following ingestion of higher doses. Mental status changes, including obtundation, lethargy and confusion may be seen 5. Liver damage has been reported in acute and chronic toxicity of aluminum 5.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
CarbamazepineAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbamazepine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Chenodeoxycholic acidAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Chenodeoxycholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Cholic AcidAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DeferasiroxAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferasirox resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Dehydrocholic acidAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Dehydrocholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Deoxycholic acidAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deoxycholic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum chloride.
EltrombopagAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Eltrombopag resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
HalofantrineAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Halofantrine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
MephenytoinAluminum chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Mephenytoin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Aluminium chloride hexahydrate3CYT62D3GA7784-13-6JGDITNMASUZKPW-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
AluminiumunknownCPD4NFA9037429-90-5XAGFODPZIPBFFR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Aluminum cationionic3XHB1D032B22537-23-1REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Denti-care Hemostatic SolutionLiquid25 %DentalAmd Medicom Inc1999-11-262006-08-03Canada flag
Frenna ACSolution8.75 g/35gDental; Oral; TopicalDharma Research, Inc.2013-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Gibson Healthcare Buffered Hemostatic SolutionSolution7500 mg/30mLDentalBenco Dental2015-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Gingi Aid 10%Liquid100 mg / mLDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Gingi Aid 25%Liquid250 mg / mLDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1979-12-312004-08-16Canada flag
Gingi Aid Dark Braid #3Packing1 mg / 2.54 cmDentalGingi Pak Labs, Division Of Belport Co., Inc.1981-12-311997-08-11Canada flag
Gingigel Gel 200mg/gmGel200 mg / gTopicalVan R Dental Products Inc.1986-12-312007-07-31Canada flag
HemalSolution250 mg/1gDentalDarby Dental Supply Llc1963-02-19Not applicableUS flag
HemobanSolution250 mg/1gDentalDSHealthcare1963-02-192010-02-04US flag
HemobanSolution250 mg/1gDentalDentsply Llc, Professional Division, Trading As "Sultan Healthcare"1963-02-19Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AaricaLiquid15 g/100mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2014-05-06Not applicableUS flag
AaricaLiquid15 g/100mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2014-05-06Not applicableUS flag
Antiperspirant TowletteCloth14 g/100gTopicalZero Sweat2019-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Aquastop LiqLiquid20 %TopicalAqua Pharmaceuticals1977-12-312002-08-15Canada flag
Certain Dri Roll-ONLiquid0.12 mg/1.0mLTopicalClarion Brands, Llc2015-11-01Not applicableUS flag
CERTAIN DRI Roll-OnLiquid12 mg/100mLTopicalDSE Healthcare Solutions, LLC2012-05-222014-10-14US flag
Certain Dri Roll-ONLiquid0.12 mg/1.0mLTopicalDenison Pharmaceuticals, Llc.2017-01-01Not applicableUS flag
CERTAIN DRI Roll-OnLiquid12 mg/1mLTopicalDSE Healthcare Solutions, LLC2014-01-012014-10-14US flag
Clinical Strength MiracleDry Antiperspirant Deodorant PMLiquid12 mg/1mLTopicalHighland Consumer Products2012-10-15Not applicableUS flag
Dr SweatLiquid15 g/100gTopicalConopco Inc. d/b/a/ Unilever2019-03-29Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Anti-perspirant Roll-ON DeodAluminum chloride (2 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (20 %)LiquidTopicalEstee Lauder Dist1987-12-312002-07-31Canada flag
Arrid CreamAluminum chloride (1 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (21.2 %)CreamTopicalCarter Products, Division Of Carter Wallace Ns Inc.1939-12-311999-09-27Canada flag
Lexxel IdsAluminum chloride (23 %) + Hexamidine diisethionate (0.1 %)GelTopicalVivier Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Mitchum Anti Perspirant Crm ScentedAluminum chloride (4 g / 100 g) + Alcloxa (250 mg / 100 g) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (19 g / 100 g)CreamTopicalMitchum Thayer Ltd.1965-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Mitchum Antipersp Crm UnscentedAluminum chloride (4 %) + Alcloxa (.25 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (19 %)CreamTopicalMitchum Thayer Ltd.1978-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Racestyptine CordAluminum chloride (60 mg / 100 cm) + Lidocaine (35 mg / 100 cm) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (.24 mg / 100 cm)PackingDentalSeptodont1981-12-312000-08-03Canada flag
Racestyptine SolAluminum chloride (25 g / 100 mL) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (100 mg / 100 mL)LiquidDentalSeptodont1977-12-312017-07-07Canada flag
Sulpak IIAluminum chloride (25 %) + Oxyquinoline sulfate (.1 %)LiquidDentalNorth Pacific Dental Inc.1983-12-311997-12-22Canada flag
Youth Dew Roll On Antipersp Deod LotAluminum chloride (2 %) + Aluminum chlorohydrate (20 %)LotionTopicalEstee Lauder Dist1986-12-312000-07-25Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Frenna ACAluminium chloride hexahydrate (8.75 g/35g)SolutionDental; Oral; TopicalDharma Research, Inc.2013-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Gibson Healthcare Buffered Hemostatic SolutionAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalBenco Dental2015-01-01Not applicableUS flag
HemalAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDarby Dental Supply Llc1963-02-19Not applicableUS flag
HemobanAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDSHealthcare1963-02-192010-02-04US flag
HemobanAluminum chloride (250 mg/1g)SolutionDentalDentsply Llc, Professional Division, Trading As "Sultan Healthcare"1963-02-19Not applicableUS flag
HemostatAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalCargus International, Inc.2013-03-01Not applicableUS flag
HemostatAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalPearson Dental Supplies INC.2013-01-15Not applicableUS flag
Hemostatic SolutionAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalCrosstex International Inc.2013-01-152016-04-08US flag
Hemox AAluminium chloride hexahydrate (7500 mg/30mL)SolutionDentalMycone Dental Supply Co., Inc Dba Keystone Industries And Deepak Products Inc.2013-01-15Not applicableUS flag
HypercareAluminium chloride hexahydrate (1 g/5mL) + Ethanol (3.75 g/5mL)SolutionTopicalStratus Pharmaceuticals2008-04-212015-04-09US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
D10AX01 — Aluminium chloride
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal chlorides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Chlorine, and the heaviest metal atom is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal salts
Sub Class
Post-transition metal chlorides
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal chlorides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic chloride salts
Substituents
Inorganic chloride salt / Inorganic salt / Post-transition metal chloride
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
aluminium coordination entity (CHEBI:30114)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
LIF1N9568Y
CAS number
7446-70-0
InChI Key
VSCWAEJMTAWNJL-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3ClH/h;3*1H/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
trichloroalumane
SMILES
Cl[Al](Cl)Cl

References

General References
  1. Tarighi P, Khoroushi M: A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014 Jul;11(4):423-8. [Article]
  2. Gupta S, Waters D, Gwilt P: Absorption and disposition of aluminum in the rat Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1986 June 1;75(6):586-589. [Article]
  3. Khademi Kalantari K, Zeinalzade A, Kobarfard F, Nazary Moghadam S: The effect and persistency of 1% aluminum chloride hexahydrate iontophoresis in the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis. Iran J Pharm Res. 2011 Summer;10(3):641-5. [Article]
  4. FDA CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, PART 350: ANTIPERSPIRANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE [Link]
  5. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet [Link]
  6. TITCK Product Information: Anti-Fosfat AL (aluminum chloride complex) oral capsule [Link]
PubChem Compound
24012
PubChem Substance
347827889
ChemSpider
22445
RxNav
46241
ChEBI
30114
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3833401
Wikipedia
Aluminium_chloride
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHyperhidrosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical15 g/100mL
CapsuleOral
LiquidTopical
ClothTopical14 g/100g
LiquidTopical20 %
LiquidTopical0.12 mg/1.0mL
LiquidTopical12 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical12 mg/1mL
LiquidDental25 %
LiquidTopical15 g/100g
GelTopical150 mg/1mL
SolutionDental; Oral; Topical8.75 g/35g
SolutionDental7500 mg/30mL
LiquidDental100 mg / mL
LiquidDental250 mg / mL
PackingDental; Topical1 mg / 2.54 cm
PackingDental1 mg / 2.54 cm
SolutionDental; Oral; Periodontal3.75 g/15mL
GelTopical200 mg / g
CreamTopical15 g/100mL
LiquidDental250 mg / g
GelTopical15 g/100mL
SolutionTopical
SolutionTopical15 g/100mL
GelTopical
SolutionTopical250 mg/1g
CreamTopical
Aerosol, sprayTopical150 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical150 mg/1mL
PackingDental
SolutionTopical250 mg/1ml
SolutionDental; Oral; Topical7500 mg/30mL
LiquidDental
SolutionTopical140 mg/1mL
SolutionDental250 mg/1g
StickTopical250 mg/1g
LiquidTopical0.0625 g/1g
SprayEpidural4.4375 g/35.5mL
SprayEpidural5.325 g/35.5mL
LotionTopical
LiquidTopical0.15 g/1g
LiquidTopical15 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical0.12 g/1g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)194MSDS
water solubilityWater reactiveMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity18.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inactivator
General Function
Nad+ binding
Specific Function
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in th...
Gene Name
GLUD1
Uniprot ID
P00367
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Yang SJ, Huh JW, Lee JE, Choi SY, Kim TU, Cho SW: Inactivation of human glutamate dehydrogenase by aluminum. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003 Nov;60(11):2538-46. [Article]

Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated at November 28, 2021 11:56