Identification

Summary

Interferon alfa-n3 is a purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of genital warts due to human papilloma virus.

Brand Names
Alferon N
Generic Name
Interferon alfa-n3
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00018
Background

Purified, natural (n is for natural) human interferon alpha proteins (consists of 3 forms or polymorphisms including 2a, 2b and 2c). 166 residues, some are glycosylated (MW range from 16 kD to 27 kD).

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Interferons
Protein Structure
Db00018
Protein Chemical Formula
Not Available
Protein Average Weight
Not Available
Sequences
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2A)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRKISLFSCLKDRHDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMKEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2B)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRRISLFSCLKDRHDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMNEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2C)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRRISLFSCLKDRRDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMNEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Interferon alfa-n3

Pharmacology

Indication

For the intralesional treatment of refractory or recurring external condylomata acuminata.

Pharmacology
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Interferon alfa-n3 upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Interferon alpha also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators, including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin and protein kinase R.

Mechanism of action

Interferon alpha binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon alpha binds less stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon beta.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1
agonist
Humans
AInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AcyclovirThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AdalimumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Adalimumab.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine liveThe risk or severity of infection can be increased when Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live is combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AgomelatineThe metabolism of Agomelatine can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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International/Other Brands
Alferon / Alferon N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlferonInjection5000000 [arb'U]/1mLSubcutaneousAIM ImmunoTech Inc1989-10-10Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
47BPR3V3MP
CAS number
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Sturgill MG, Rashidbaigi A, Liao MJ, Zhao XX, Hua J, Trout R, Knill JR, Grasing KW: Extravascular administration of interferon alfa-N3 increases serum exposure and 2-5(A) synthetase activity. J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;40(6):606-15. [Article]
PubChem Substance
46508902
RxNav
612937
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2109047
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001281
PharmGKB
PA164746228
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Interferon_alpha-n3

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma Stage Iv / Recurrent Melanoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRefractory Multiple Myeloma / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Cell Cancer, Recurrent / Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)1
2TerminatedTreatmentClear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) / Renal Cell Cancer, Recurrent / Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Renal Cell Cancer / Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentRecurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Hemispherx Biopharma Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionSubcutaneous5000000 [arb'U]/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Alferon n 5 million unit vial412.87USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °CBeldarrain, A. et al., Biochemistry 38:7865-7873 (1999)
isoelectric point5.99Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Type i interferon receptor activity
Specific Function
Associates with IFNAR2 to form the type I interferon receptor. Receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding to type I IFNs triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including JA...
Gene Name
IFNAR1
Uniprot ID
P17181
Uniprot Name
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1
Molecular Weight
63524.81 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Dhalluin C, Ross A, Huber W, Gerber P, Brugger D, Gsell B, Senn H: Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis of the binding of the 40 kDa PEG-interferon-alpha2a and its individual positional isomers to the extracellular domain of the receptor IFNAR2. Bioconjug Chem. 2005 May-Jun;16(3):518-27. [Article]
  4. Ishii K, Shinohara M, Sawa M, Kogame M, Higami K, Sano M, Morita T, Sumino Y: Interferon alpha receptor 2 expression by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with a high viral load of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 showing substitution of amino Acid 70 in the core region. Intervirology. 2010;53(2):105-10. doi: 10.1159/000264200. Epub 2009 Dec 3. [Article]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Type i interferon receptor activity
Specific Function
Associates with IFNAR1 to form the type I interferon receptor. Receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Involved in IFN-mediated STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 activation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are direc...
Gene Name
IFNAR2
Uniprot ID
P48551
Uniprot Name
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2
Molecular Weight
57758.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Dhalluin C, Ross A, Huber W, Gerber P, Brugger D, Gsell B, Senn H: Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis of the binding of the 40 kDa PEG-interferon-alpha2a and its individual positional isomers to the extracellular domain of the receptor IFNAR2. Bioconjug Chem. 2005 May-Jun;16(3):518-27. [Article]
  4. Ishii K, Shinohara M, Sawa M, Kogame M, Higami K, Sano M, Morita T, Sumino Y: Interferon alpha receptor 2 expression by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with a high viral load of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 showing substitution of amino Acid 70 in the core region. Intervirology. 2010;53(2):105-10. doi: 10.1159/000264200. Epub 2009 Dec 3. [Article]
  5. Yano H, Ogasawara S, Momosaki S, Akiba J, Kojiro S, Fukahori S, Ishizaki H, Kuratomi K, Basaki Y, Oie S, Kuwano M, Kojiro M: Growth inhibitory effects of pegylated IFN alpha-2b on human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Liver Int. 2006 Oct;26(8):964-75. [Article]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Delaporte E, Renton KW: Cytochrome P4501A1 and cytochrome P4501A2 are downregulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by conditions resulting in interferon-alpha/beta induction. Life Sci. 1997;60(10):787-96. doi: 10.1016/s0024-3205(97)00006-4. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at August 07, 2021 00:17