Zoledronic acid



Zoledronic acid is a bisphosphonate used to treat malignancy associated hypercalcemia, multiple myeloma, and bone metastasis from solid tumors.

Brand Names
Aclasta, Reclast, Zometa
Generic Name
Zoledronic acid
DrugBank Accession Number

Zoledronic acid, or CGP 42'446,8 is a third generation, nitrogen containing bisphosphonate similar to ibandronic acid, minodronic acid, and risedronic acid.5 Zoledronic acid is used to treat and prevent multiple forms of osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, multiple myeloma, bone metastases from solid tumors, and Paget’s disease of bone.14,15,16 Zoledronic acid was first described in the literature in 1994.8

Zoledronic acid was granted FDA approval on 20 August 2001.14

Small Molecule
Average: 272.0896
Monoisotopic: 271.996323708
Chemical Formula
  • (1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene)bisphosphonic acid
  • (1-hydroxy-2-imidazol-1-ylethylidene)diphosphonic acid
  • ácido zoledrónico
  • Anhydrous Zoledronic Acid
  • Nanoparticles containing Zoledronic acid
  • Zol
  • Zoledronate
  • Zoledronic acid
  • Zoledronic Acid Anhydrous
  • Zoledronic Acid, Anhydrous
External IDs
  • CGP 42446
  • CGP-42446



Zoledronic acid is indicated to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy, multiple myeloma, bone metastases from solid tumors, osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women, glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, and Paget's disease of bone in men and women.14,15,16 Zoledronic acid is also indicated for the prevention of osteoporosis in post menopausal women and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis.14,15,16

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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Zoledronic acid is a third generation, nitrogen containing bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast function and prevents bone resorption.5 The therapeutic window is wide as patients are unlikely to suffer severe effects from overdoses and the duration of action is long.14,15,16 Patients should be counselled regarding the risk of electrolyte deficiencies, renal impairment, osteonecrosis of the jaw, atypical femoral fractures, bronchoconstriction, hepatic impairment, hypocalcemia, and embryo-fetal toxicity.14,15,16

Mechanism of action

Bisphosphonates are taken into the bone where they bind to hydroxyapatite. Bone resorption by osteoclasts causes local acidification, releasing the bisphosphonate, which is taken into the osteoclast by fluid-phase endocytosis.6 Endocytic vesicles become acidified, releasing bisphosphonates into the cytosol of osteoclasts where they act.6

Osteoclasts mediate resorption of bone.7 When osteoclasts bind to bone they form podosomes, ring structures of F-actin.7 Etidronic acid also inhibits V-ATPases in the osteoclast, though the exact subunits are unknown, preventing F-actin from forming podosomes.12,13,11 Disruption of the podosomes causes osteoclasts to detach from bones, preventing bone resorption.7

Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates such as zoledronate are known to induce apoptosis of hematopoietic tumor cells by inhibiting the components of the mevalonate pathway farnesyl diphosphate synthase, farnesyl diphosphate, and geranylgeranyl diphosphate.10,9 These components are essential for post-translational prenylation of GTP-binding proteins like Rap1.10,9 The lack of prenylation of these proteins interferes with their function, and in the case of Rap1, leads to apoptosis.10,9 zoledronate also activated caspases which further contribute to apoptosis.10,9

AGeranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
AFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthase

A 4mg intravenous dose reaches a Cmax of 370±78.5ng/mL, with a Tmax of 0.317±0.014h, and an AUC of 788±181ng*h/mL.4 A 5mg intravenous dose reaches a Cmax of 471±76.1ng/mL, with a Tmax of 0.368±0.005h, and an AUC of 917±226ng*h/mL.4

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Zoledronic acid is 23-53% protein bound in plasma.14,15,16


Zoledronic acid is not metabolized in vivio.14,15,16

Route of elimination

Zoledronic acid is 39 ± 16% eliminated in the urine as the unmetabolized parent drug.14,15,16


Zoledronic acid has a terminal elimination half life of 146 hours.14,15,16


Zoledronic acid has a renal clearance of 3.7 ± 2.0 L/h.14,15,16

Adverse Effects
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Patients experiencing an overdose may present with renal impairment, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia.14,15,16 Overdose should be managed through intravenous administration of the insufficient ions.14,15,16

Zoledronate Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Zoledronic acid.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Zoledronic acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Zoledronic acid.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Zoledronic acid.
Adefovir dipivoxilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Adefovir dipivoxil is combined with Zoledronic acid.
AfliberceptThe risk or severity of jaw osteonecrosis and anti-angiogenesis can be increased when Aflibercept is combined with Zoledronic acid.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Zoledronic acid.
AlmasilateThe serum concentration of Zoledronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Almasilate.
AluminiumThe serum concentration of Zoledronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminium.
Aluminium phosphateThe serum concentration of Zoledronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminium phosphate.
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Zoledronate D,L-Lysine MonohydrateNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Zoledronate disodium7D7GS1SA24165800-07-7IEJZOPBVBXAOBH-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Zoledronate trisodiumARL915IH66165800-08-8HYMYRPXSMHJPGD-UHFFFAOYSA-A
Zoledronic acid hemipentahydrate1K9U67HDIDNot AvailableAZZILOGHCMYHQY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Zoledronic acid monohydrate6XC1PAD3KF165800-06-6FUXFIVRTGHOMSO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AclastaSolution5 mg / 100 mLIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2005-08-22Not applicableCanada flag
AclastaInjection, solution5 mg/100mlIntravenousSandoz Pharmaceuticals D.D.2016-09-07Not applicableEU flag
AclastaInjection, solution5 mg/100mlIntravenousSandoz Pharmaceuticals D.D.2016-09-07Not applicableEU flag
Act Zoledronic AcidSolution5 mg / 100 mLIntravenousActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Act Zoledronic Acid ConcentrateSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
ReclastInjection, solution5 mg/100mLIntravenousNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2007-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution0.04 mg/1mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution4 mg/100mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2017-10-19Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic Acid - ASolution5 mg / 100 mLIntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Zoledronic Acid - ZSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2014-01-15Not applicableCanada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Jamp-zoledronic AcidSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousJamp Pharma Corporation2020-01-20Not applicableCanada flag
PMS-zoledronic AcidSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousPharmascience Inc2014-11-25Not applicableCanada flag
Taro-zoledronic AcidSolution5 mg / 100 mLIntravenousTaro Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-02Not applicableCanada flag
Taro-zoledronic Acid ConcentrateSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousTaro Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-26Not applicableCanada flag
Val-zoledronic AcidSolution4 mg / 5 mLIntravenousBausch Health, Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution5 mg/100mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2016-09-15Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution, concentrate4 mg/5mLIntravenousBluePoint Laboratories2018-10-052022-05-31US flag
Zoledronic acidInjection, solution, concentrate4 mg/5mLIntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2020-10-12Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution5 mg/100mLIntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2017-05-19Not applicableUS flag
Zoledronic AcidInjection, solution, concentrate4 mg/5mLIntravenousActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-04-132019-05-31US flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ZOLDRIA 4 MG/5 ML IV INFUZYON ICIN KONSANTRE COZELTI ICEREN FLAKON, 1 ADETZoledronic acid monohydrate (4 mg/5ml)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousPHARMADA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag


ATC Codes
M05BB08 — Zoledronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialM05BA08 — Zoledronic acid
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as bisphosphonates. These are organic compounds containing two phosphonate groups linked together through a carbon atoms.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Organic phosphonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
N-substituted imidazoles / Organic phosphonic acids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organophosphorus compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Bisphosphonate / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidazole / N-substituted imidazole / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
imidazoles, 1,1-bis(phosphonic acid) (CHEBI:46557)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key
[1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl]phosphonic acid


Synthesis Reference

Judith Aronhime, Revital Lifshitz-Liron, "Zoledronic acid crystal forms, zoledronate sodium salt crystal forms, amorphous zoledronate sodium salt, and processes for their preparation." U.S. Patent US20050054616, issued March 10, 2005.

General References
  1. Lyles KW, Colon-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS, Adachi JD, Pieper CF, Mautalen C, Hyldstrup L, Recknor C, Nordsletten L, Moore KA, Lavecchia C, Zhang J, Mesenbrink P, Hodgson PK, Abrams K, Orloff JJ, Horowitz Z, Eriksen EF, Boonen S: Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture. N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 1;357(18):1799-809. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [Article]
  2. Reid IR, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, Horowitz Z, Richardson P, Trechsel U, Widmer A, Devogelaer JP, Kaufman JM, Jaeger P, Body JJ, Brandi ML, Broell J, Di Micco R, Genazzani AR, Felsenberg D, Happ J, Hooper MJ, Ittner J, Leb G, Mallmin H, Murray T, Ortolani S, Rubinacci A, Saaf M, Samsioe G, Verbruggen L, Meunier PJ: Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 28;346(9):653-61. [Article]
  3. Durie BG, Katz M, Crowley J: Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jul 7;353(1):99-102; discussion 99-102. [Article]
  4. Shiraki M, Tanaka S, Suzuki H, Ueda S, Nakamura T: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and changes in bone metabolism associated with zoledronic acid treatment in Japanese patients with primary osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. 2017 Nov;35(6):675-684. doi: 10.1007/s00774-016-0806-3. Epub 2016 Dec 20. [Article]
  5. Cremers S, Drake MT, Ebetino FH, Bilezikian JP, Russell RGG: Pharmacology of bisphosphonates. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;85(6):1052-1062. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13867. Epub 2019 Feb 28. [Article]
  6. Russell RG, Watts NB, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ: Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jun;19(6):733-59. doi: 10.1007/s00198-007-0540-8. [Article]
  7. Murakami H, Takahashi N, Tanaka S, Nakamura I, Udagawa N, Nakajo S, Nakaya K, Abe M, Yuda Y, Konno F, Barbier A, Suda T: Tiludronate inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in osteoclasts. Bone. 1997 May;20(5):399-404. [Article]
  8. Green JR, Muller K, Jaeggi KA: Preclinical pharmacology of CGP 42'446, a new, potent, heterocyclic bisphosphonate compound. J Bone Miner Res. 1994 May;9(5):745-51. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.5650090521. [Article]
  9. Ullen A, Schwarz S, Lennartsson L, Kalkner KM, Sandstrom P, Costa F, Lennernas B, Linder S, Nilsson S: Zoledronic acid induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in renal cancer cell lines. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(2):98-103. doi: 10.1080/00365590802475904. [Article]
  10. Miwa A, Takezako N, Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Tominaga S, Yanagisawa K: YM-175 induces apoptosis of human native monocyte-lineage cells via inhibition of prenylation. Am J Hematol. 2012 Dec;87(12):1084-8. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23328. Epub 2012 Oct 9. [Article]
  11. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years. Bone. 2011 Jul;49(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.022. Epub 2011 May 1. [Article]
  12. Qin A, Cheng TS, Pavlos NJ, Lin Z, Dai KR, Zheng MH: V-ATPases in osteoclasts: structure, function and potential inhibitors of bone resorption. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012 Sep;44(9):1422-35. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2012.05.014. Epub 2012 May 29. [Article]
  13. Duan X, Yang S, Zhang L, Yang T: V-ATPases and osteoclasts: ambiguous future of V-ATPases inhibitors in osteoporosis. Theranostics. 2018 Oct 26;8(19):5379-5399. doi: 10.7150/thno.28391. eCollection 2018. [Article]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: Zometa Zoledronic Acid Intravenous Injection [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Reclast Zoledronic Acid Intravenous Injection [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: Reclast Zoledronic Acid Injection [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page
PDB Entries
1zw5 / 2e91 / 2f8c / 2f8z / 2f9k / 2q58 / 3ez3 / 3iba / 3ldw / 3n45
show 10 more
Download (57.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidates / Bone Loss1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentStage I Breast Cancer1
4CompletedPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidates1
4CompletedPreventionBone Fractures / Liver Transplantation / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedPreventionBone Neoplasm1
4CompletedPreventionMultiple Myeloma (MM)2
4CompletedPreventionOsteoarthritis in the Hip Joint1
4CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1


  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Novartis AG
Dosage Forms
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous4 mg
Powder, for solutionParenteral4 MG
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral4 MG/5ML
Injection, solution
Solution5 mg/100ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral5 MG/100ML
Injection, solutionParenteral5 MG
SolutionIntravenous5 mg / 100 mL
SolutionParenteral5 MG
SolutionParenteral5 MG/100ML
SolutionIntravenous5 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.8 mg/ml
SolutionParenteral4 MG/100ML
SolutionParenteral4 MG/5ML
SolutionParenteral4 MG
Solution0.8000 mg
SolutionIntravenous4.000 mg
Solution, concentrateIntravenous4 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous5 mg/100ml
SolutionIntravenous4.265 mg
SolutionIntravenous4.264 mg
SolutionParenteral4.000 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.8528 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.800 mg
SolutionIntravenous5.000 mg
SolutionIntravenous4 mg / 5 mL
SolutionIntravenous4.26 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.04 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4.00 mg/5ml
SolutionIntravenous4.00 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous; Parenteral4 mg
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/100mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/5mL
InjectionIntravenous5 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.04 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.05 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/100mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous0.8 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4 mg/5mL
KitIntravenous4 mg/5mL
SolutionIntravenous4 mg/100mL
SolutionIntravenous5 mg/100mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous4 mg/5ml
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous4 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4 mg/100mL
Powder, for solutionIntravenous4 MG
SolutionParenteral4.000 mg
Solution4 mg/100ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4.0 mg/5ml
Powder, for solutionIntravenous4 mg / vial
SolutionIntravenous4 mg
Injection, solution4 mg/100ml
Injection, solution5 mg/100ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/5ml
Solution4 mg/5ml
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zometa 4 mg/5ml Concentrate 5ml Vial1095.69USD vial
Reclast 5 mg/100ml Solution13.39USD ml
Reclast 5 mg/100 ml solution12.88USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US4939130No1990-07-032013-03-02US flag
CA1338937No1997-02-252014-02-25Canada flag
CA1338895No1997-02-042014-02-04Canada flag
US8324189Yes2012-12-042025-11-29US flag
US7932241Yes2011-04-262028-08-05US flag
US8052987No2011-11-082023-10-27US flag


Experimental Properties
water solubilitySparingly solubleFDA Label
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility3.27 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.66Chemaxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.67Chemaxon
Physiological Charge-3Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area153.11 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count4Chemaxon
Refractivity52.16 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability20.1 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterNoChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9723
Blood Brain Barrier+0.825
Caco-2 permeable-0.6418
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5602
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.943
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9961
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9366
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8319
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8201
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7551
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8531
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8576
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8935
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8319
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9334
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9904
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5596
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5431
Rat acute toxicity2.3342 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8515
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8616
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available


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insights and accelerate drug research.
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Pharmacological action
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the trans-addition of the three molecules of IPP onto DMAPP to form geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, an important precursor of carotenoids and geranylated proteins.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Molecular Weight
34870.625 Da
  1. Guo RT, Cao R, Liang PH, Ko TP, Chang TH, Hudock MP, Jeng WY, Chen CK, Zhang Y, Song Y, Kuo CJ, Yin F, Oldfield E, Wang AH: Bisphosphonates target multiple sites in both cis- and trans-prenyltransferases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 12;104(24):10022-7. Epub 2007 May 29. [Article]
Small molecule
Pharmacological action
  1. Jahnke W, Henry C: An in vitro assay to measure targeted drug delivery to bone mineral. ChemMedChem. 2010 May 3;5(5):770-6. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201000016. [Article]
  2. Nancollas GH, Tang R, Phipps RJ, Henneman Z, Gulde S, Wu W, Mangood A, Russell RG, Ebetino FH: Novel insights into actions of bisphosphonates on bone: differences in interactions with hydroxyapatite. Bone. 2006 May;38(5):617-27. Epub 2005 Jul 20. [Article]
  3. Cremers S, Drake MT, Ebetino FH, Bilezikian JP, Russell RGG: Pharmacology of bisphosphonates. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;85(6):1052-1062. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13867. Epub 2019 Feb 28. [Article]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis which catalyzes the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor for several classes of essential metabolites including sterols, dolichols, carotenoids...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase
Molecular Weight
48275.03 Da
  1. Dunford JE, Thompson K, Coxon FP, Luckman SP, Hahn FM, Poulter CD, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ: Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase in vitro and inhibition of bone resorption in vivo by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Feb;296(2):235-42. [Article]
  2. Glickman JF, Schmid A: Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: real-time kinetics and inhibition by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in a scintillation assay. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2007 Apr;5(2):205-14. [Article]
  3. Guo RT, Cao R, Liang PH, Ko TP, Chang TH, Hudock MP, Jeng WY, Chen CK, Zhang Y, Song Y, Kuo CJ, Yin F, Oldfield E, Wang AH: Bisphosphonates target multiple sites in both cis- and trans-prenyltransferases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 12;104(24):10022-7. Epub 2007 May 29. [Article]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
  1. Yildiz M, Celik-Ozenci C, Akan S, Akan I, Sati L, Demir R, Savas B, Ozben T, Samur M, Ozdogan M, Artac M, Bozcuk H: Zoledronic acid is synergic with vinblastine to induce apoptosis in a multidrug resistance protein-1 dependent way: an in vitro study. Cell Biol Int. 2006 Mar;30(3):278-82. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at December 03, 2023 06:21