Identification

Name
Acamprosate
Accession Number
DB00659
Description

Alcohol use disorder is responsible for a large worldwide burden of morbidity, premature mortality, and economic consequences resulting from accidents, violence, incarceration, decreased productivity, and increased healthcare spending.8

Acamprosate, also known by the brand name Campral, is a drug used for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence. It is a structural analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).12 Acamprosate is the first medication specifically formulated for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in ethanol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification4, unlike naltrexone and disulfiram. It was first approved by the FDA in 2004 and initially marketed by Forest Laboratories.13

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 181.21
Monoisotopic: 181.040878535
Chemical Formula
C5H11NO4S
Synonyms
  • 3-Acetamido-1-propanesulfonic acid
  • Acamprosate
  • Acamprosato
  • Acamprosatum
  • N-acetyl homotaurine
  • N-Acetylhomotaurine

Pharmacology

Pharmacology
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Indication

Acamprosate is indicated for the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol in patients with alcohol dependence who are abstinent at treatment initiation. It is also indicated for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients who have undergone alcohol detoxification. This drug should be used with a psychosocial support program providing adequate support.11

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Acamprosate acts on the CNS, aiding in the restoration of normal glutaminergic neuron activity.1 Pharmacodynamic studies have shown that acamprosate calcium reduces alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals, likely through effects on NMDA receptors and calcium channels.7 It is a safe and well-tolerated drug for patients with alcohol dependency and improves the likelihood of alcohol abstinence.1,12

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of acamprosate for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence has not been established. Chronic alcohol exposure is believed to modify the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. Results of studies in animals suggest acamprosate may interact with glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems in the CNS, supporting the hypothesis that acamprosate restores the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition.3,11 Evidence shows that acamprosate directly binds and inhibits GABA B receptors and indirectly affects GABA A receptors.5,10

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlutamate (NMDA) receptor
antagonist
Humans
AMetabotropic glutamate receptor 5
antagonist
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Acamprosate is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. 5,6 The absolute bioavailability of acamprosate after oral administration is about 11%. The effect of food absorption is clinically insignificant and no adjustment of the dose is necessary with regard to meals.11 After repeated oral doses of 666 mg 3 times a day, steady-state concentrations are achieved within 5 to 7 days, with plasma concentration ranging between 370 to 650 micrograms/L.6

Volume of distribution

At steady state concentrations, the distribution of acamprosate is about 20L.6 Following intravenous administration, the volume of distribution is about 72-109 L (an estimated 1 L/kg).11

Protein binding

Acamprosate is not protein bound.6 Prescribing information mentions that acamprosate protein binding is negligible.11

Metabolism

Acamprosate is not metabolized.6,11

Route of elimination

Half of acamprosate excretion occurs as unchanged acetyl-homotaurine in urine, and the other half possibly by biliary excretion.6 The kidneys are primarily responsible for the elimination of acamprosate.11

Half-life

In pharmacokinetic studies, enteric-coated acamprosate tablets demonstrate a terminal elimination half-life 10-fold higher than reported 3 hour half-life after intravenous infusion of acamprosate.6 After two oral doses of acamprosate 333mg, the terminal half-life ranges between 20 - 33 hours.11

Clearance

Severe renal insufficiency decreases the elimination of acamprosate, and is a contraindication.5,6 An acamprosate dose of 333mg, three times daily, is recommended for moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30-50 mL/min).11

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

The intraperitoneal LD50 in male mice is 1.87 g/kg.14 In reported cases of acute overdosage with acamprosate (doses of up to 56 grams of acamprosate calcium) diarrhea was the only reported symptom attributable to acamprosate. In the case of an overdose, supportive and symptomatic treatment is recommended.11

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
No interactions found.
Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Food decreases drug absorption, but not to a clinically significant extent.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Acamprosate calcium59375N1D0U77337-73-6BUVGWDNTAWHSKI-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Regtect (Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd.)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, coated333 mg/1OralForest Laboratories2005-01-112015-05-31US flag0258 400020180907 15195 t3wqis
CampralTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2005-01-11Not applicableUS flag
CampralTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-122011-06-30US flag
CampralTablet, delayed release333 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2007-07-30Not applicableCanada flag
CampralTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralForest Laboratories2005-01-112016-02-29US flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-08-172017-05-24US flag69189 043720180907 15195 11uz6yn
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralCadila Healthcare Limited2017-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2017-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralAvKARE, Inc.2016-05-16Not applicableUS flag00093 5352 86 nlmimage10 244f1238
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA2013-07-16Not applicableUS flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2016-03-25Not applicableUS flag0093 535220180913 8702 vpij52
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2014-09-24Not applicableUS flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.2013-07-162021-04-30US flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Acamprosate CalciumTablet, delayed release333 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2015-09-24Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N07BB03 — Acamprosate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic sulfonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organosulfonic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Organosulfonic acids
Alternative Parents
Sulfonyls / Alkanesulfonic acids / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alkanesulfonic acid / Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organosulfonic acid, acetamides (CHEBI:51041)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
N4K14YGM3J
CAS number
77337-76-9
InChI Key
AFCGFAGUEYAMAO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H11NO4S/c1-5(7)6-3-2-4-11(8,9)10/h2-4H2,1H3,(H,6,7)(H,8,9,10)
IUPAC Name
3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonic acid
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCCS(O)(=O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Claudia Cavarischia, Alex Comely, Marta Écijab, Tommaso Iacoangelia, Mireia Pastób, Lavinia Silvestria, Guido Furlotti. A Convenient, Scalable Process for the Preparation and Purification of Calcium Acamprosate. Synthesis. May 2020 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1707399

General References
  1. Mason BJ: Treatment of alcohol-dependent outpatients with acamprosate: a clinical review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 20:42-8. [PubMed:11584875]
  2. Feeney GF, Connor JP, Young RM, Tucker J, McPherson A: Combined acamprosate and naltrexone, with cognitive behavioural therapy is superior to either medication alone for alcohol abstinence: a single centres' experience with pharmacotherapy. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 May-Jun;41(3):321-7. Epub 2006 Feb 8. [PubMed:16467406]
  3. Tsai G, Coyle JT: The role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Annu Rev Med. 1998;49:173-84. [PubMed:9509257]
  4. Wilde MI, Wagstaff AJ: Acamprosate. A review of its pharmacology and clinical potential in the management of alcohol dependence after detoxification. Drugs. 1997 Jun;53(6):1038-53. [PubMed:9179530]
  5. Kalk NJ, Lingford-Hughes AR: The clinical pharmacology of acamprosate. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;77(2):315-23. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12070. [PubMed:23278595]
  6. Saivin S, Hulot T, Chabac S, Potgieter A, Durbin P, Houin G: Clinical pharmacokinetics of acamprosate. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Nov;35(5):331-45. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199835050-00001. [PubMed:9839087]
  7. al Qatari M, Bouchenafa O, Littleton J: Mechanism of action of acamprosate. Part II. Ethanol dependence modifies effects of acamprosate on NMDA receptor binding in membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Jun;22(4):810-4. [PubMed:9660305]
  8. Kelly JF, Humphreys K, Ferri M: Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-step programs for alcohol use disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 11;3:CD012880. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012880.pub2. [PubMed:32159228]
  9. Wright TM, Myrick H: Acamprosate: a new tool in the battle against alcohol dependence. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2006 Dec;2(4):445-53. doi: 10.2147/nedt.2006.2.4.445. [PubMed:19412493]
  10. Berton F, Francesconi WG, Madamba SG, Zieglgansberger W, Siggins GR: Acamprosate enhances N-methyl-D-apartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission but inhibits presynaptic GABA(B) receptors in nucleus accumbens neurons. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Feb;22(1):183-91. [PubMed:9514305]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: CAMPRAL (acamprosate calcium) delayed-release tablets [Link]
  12. AAFP: Acamprosate (Campral) for Treatment of Alcoholism [Link]
  13. NIH Online Books: Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice, Chapter 2 - Acamprosate [Link]
  14. Chemical book: Acamprosate chemical properties [Link]
  15. DailyMed: Acamprosate calcium delayed release tablets [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014797
KEGG Drug
D07058
PubChem Compound
71158
PubChem Substance
46506657
ChemSpider
64300
RxNav
82819
ChEBI
51041
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201293
ZINC
ZINC000001554588
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000857
PharmGKB
PA10344
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Acamprosate
AHFS Codes
  • 28:92.00 — Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents
FDA label
Download (815 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence5
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPathological Gambling1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenia1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Dependence2
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Forest laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Forest Pharmaceuticals
  • Merck KGaA
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral333 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral333 MG
Tablet, delayed releaseOral333 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral333 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral333 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Campral 333 mg Enteric Coated Tabs0.98USD tab
Campral 333 mg dose pak0.95USD each
Campral dr 333 mg tablet0.95USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)>300https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_US_CB4310705.aspx
water solubility>5mg/mLhttps://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_US_CB4310705.aspx
logP-1.8http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2853
logS-0.98http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2853
pKa-1.1http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2853
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility18.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.98ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.47ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity38.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5669
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9764
Caco-2 permeable-0.6797
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6973
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9056
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8969
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7676
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8124
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5906
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.877
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8857
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9267
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8726
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9806
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9614
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7031
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5213
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6698
Rat acute toxicity1.9578 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9006
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.878
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-095fc64fb4490a8d6b4d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-c177d5ee7162b0b8756d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-40eaa1bb480a68330940
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-35bfe6cae36755d1cf1c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-9500000000-d366cda3213379d7501b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-4374601f59e1dc8df0eb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-011f30e0257faffd4553
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-c179316d784a91f87c59
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-8cf123c7cf7dddcf6838
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-84a7d1cc6ca5022d4da7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-9500000000-4503d9afc6bab741521b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-8c2ba21c044eeada7839
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-dd14c920c5211780d172
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-dac38f625c8648b643c4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-3684e08456a971400c3d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-6137fe4463b3675f55eb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-58f776a52000101b8fb7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-d8de420d40b45a34ea95
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-0900000000-1bb28abe8034966ad829
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-5569cd774f81a8ad3beb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-d51d458e07e98c42c969
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0900000000-42a3136ea9ce1e3d0b0c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-b6bc76af98d68215b053
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-7ee4d8c6bba02edefaeb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-0900000000-80aa0f717cea42829204
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-4246d18ec0420680b089
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-9871f1e5e3101ac2bd24
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0900000000-f59a73516f3bcdc1c2fb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-813aef9ee3b4334a24da
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-1089cca2bf8eb2fda2b2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-d8de420d40b45a34ea95

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...

Components:
References
  1. Mann K, Kiefer F, Spanagel R, Littleton J: Acamprosate: recent findings and future research directions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jul;32(7):1105-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00690.x. [PubMed:18540918]
  2. Witkiewitz K, Saville K, Hamreus K: Acamprosate for treatment of alcohol dependence: mechanisms, efficacy, and clinical utility. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2012;8:45-53. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S23184. Epub 2012 Feb 1. [PubMed:22346357]
  3. Kalk NJ, Lingford-Hughes AR: The clinical pharmacology of acamprosate. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;77(2):315-23. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12070. [PubMed:23278595]
  4. Allgaier C, Franke H, Sobottka H, Scheibler P: Acamprosate inhibits Ca2+ influx mediated by NMDA receptors and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in cultured rat mesencephalic neurones. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;362(4-5):440-3. doi: 10.1007/s002100000285. [PubMed:11111840]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down...
Gene Name
GRM5
Uniprot ID
P41594
Uniprot Name
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5
Molecular Weight
132467.635 Da
References
  1. De Witte P, Littleton J, Parot P, Koob G: Neuroprotective and abstinence-promoting effects of acamprosate: elucidating the mechanism of action. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(6):517-37. [PubMed:15963001]
  2. Blednov YA, Harris RA: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) regulation of ethanol sedation, dependence and consumption: relationship to acamprosate actions. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Sep;11(6):775-93. doi: 10.1017/S1461145708008584. Epub 2008 Apr 1. [PubMed:18377703]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coup...
Gene Name
GABBR1
Uniprot ID
Q9UBS5
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
Molecular Weight
108319.4 Da
References
  1. Kalk NJ, Lingford-Hughes AR: The clinical pharmacology of acamprosate. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;77(2):315-23. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12070. [PubMed:23278595]
  2. Berton F, Francesconi WG, Madamba SG, Zieglgansberger W, Siggins GR: Acamprosate enhances N-methyl-D-apartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission but inhibits presynaptic GABA(B) receptors in nucleus accumbens neurons. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Feb;22(1):183-91. [PubMed:9514305]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Antonescu IE, Karlgren M, Pedersen ML, Simoff I, Bergstrom CAS, Neuhoff S, Artursson P, Steffansen B, Nielsen CU: Acamprosate Is a Substrate of the Human Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) 1 without OAT3 Inhibitory Properties: Implications for Renal Acamprosate Secretion and Drug-Drug Interactions. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Apr 24;12(4). pii: pharmaceutics12040390. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12040390. [PubMed:32344570]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Antonescu IE, Karlgren M, Pedersen ML, Simoff I, Bergstrom CAS, Neuhoff S, Artursson P, Steffansen B, Nielsen CU: Acamprosate Is a Substrate of the Human Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) 1 without OAT3 Inhibitory Properties: Implications for Renal Acamprosate Secretion and Drug-Drug Interactions. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Apr 24;12(4). pii: pharmaceutics12040390. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12040390. [PubMed:32344570]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on February 21, 2021 20:04