Central Nervous System Agents
- Central Nervous System Agents
- Accession Number
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Drug Drug Description Botulinum Toxin Type B A purified form of botulinum toxin type B used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of cervical dystonia and sialorrhea. Choline A nutrient found in a wide variety of vitamins including pre-natal formulations. Tryptophan An amino acid commonly found as a component of total parenteral nutrition. Fluvoxamine A selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Masoprocol Used for the treatment of actinic keratoses (precancerous skin growths that can become malignant if left untreated). Baclofen A GABA-ergic agonist used to manage severe spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin in adult and pediatric patients. Amphetamine A CNS stimulant and sympathomimetic agent indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Lorazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures. Ethchlorvynol A sedative hypnotic agent used for the short-term management of insomnia. Carbidopa A dopa decarboxylase inhibitor used in combination with levodopa for the symptomatic treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease and other conditions associated with parkinsonian symptoms. Phentermine A sympathomimetic anorectic agent used as a short-term adjunct therapy that is included in a regimen of weight reduction in cases of exogenous obesity. Tramadol A centrally-acting opioid agonist and SNRI (serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) used for the management of moderate to severe pain in adults. Caffeine A stimulant present in tea, coffee, cola beverages, analgesic drugs, and agents used to increase alertness. It is also used in to prevent and treat pulmonary complications of premature birth. Reserpine For the treatment of hypertension Citalopram A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used in the treatment of depression. Enflurane A halogenated inhalational anesthetic agent used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for analgesia during labor and delivery. Pregabalin An anticonvulsant drug used to treat neuropathic pain conditions and fibromyalgia, and for the treatment of partial onset seizures in combination with other anticonvulsants. Temazepam A short-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and insomnia. Reboxetine For the treatment of clinical depression. Butabarbital A barbiturate drug used as a sedative and hypnotic. Benzatropine An anticholinergic drug used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and extrapyramidal symptoms, except tardive dyskinesia. Ziprasidone An atypical antipsychotic used to manage schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and agitation in patients with schizophrenia. Cabergoline A dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic conditions due to various causes. Phenytoin An anticonvulsant drug used in the prophylaxis and control of various types of seizures. Ropinirole A non-ergoline dopamine agonist used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Restless Legs Syndrome. Topiramate An anticonvulsant drug used in the control of epilepsy and in the prophylaxis and treatment of migraines. Lidocaine A local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures. Venlafaxine A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used for the treatment of major depression. Etomidate A short-acting intravenous anesthetic indicated for the induction of anesthesia and supplementation of subpotent anesthesia during short operative procedures. Morphine An opioid agonist used for the relief of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Ropivacaine An analgesic drug used for local or regional anesthesia for surgery and short-term management of pain. Bupivacaine A local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures. Dapiprazole Used in the treatment of iatrogenically induced mydriasis produced by adrenergic (phenylephrine) or parasympatholytic (tropicamide) agents used in certain eye examinations. Pentobarbital A barbiturate drug used to induce sleep, cause sedation, and control certain types of seizures. Valproic acid An anticonvulsant used to control complex partial seizures and both simple and complex absence seizures. Acetaminophen An analgesic drug used alone or in combination with opioids for pain management, and as an antipyretic agent. Codeine An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain when the use of an opioid is indicated. Dihydroergotamine An ergot alkaloid used in the acute treatment of migraine headache and cluster headache. Amitriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant indicated in the treatment of depressive illness, either endogenous or psychotic, and to relieve depression associated anxiety. Tolcapone A catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor used as adjunct therapy in the symptomatic management of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Hydromorphone An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain when the use of an opioid is indicated. Indomethacin A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) used for symptomatic management of chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions and to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Methadone An opioid analgesic indicated for management of severe pain that is not responsive to alternative treatments. Also used to aid in detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Olanzapine An antipsychotic drug used in the management of schizophrenia, bipolar 1 disorder, and agitation associated with these disorders. Pimecrolimus A topical calcineurin inhibitor used in the treatment of mild-moderate atopic dermatitis who are not candidates for other types of therapy due to previous lack of response or other reasons. Protriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant that is indicated in the treatment of depression only under close clinical supervision. Trimethadione An anticonvulsant agent indicated for the control of treatment-refractory petit mal seizures. Clobazam A benzodiazepine used as adjunct treatment in seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Megestrol acetate A progestin that is administered orally to treat anorexia and cachexia or serious unexplained weight loss and is also used as an antineoplastic agent to treat certain types of malignancy. Chlorzoxazone A drug with muscle relaxant properties that is used as an adjunct to physical therapy and analgesics to treat stiffness and pain caused by a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Clozapine An antipsychotic drug used in treatment resistant schizophrenia and to decrease suicide risk in schizophrenic patients. Doxylamine An antihistamine used to treat insomnia and allergy symptoms and is used with pyridoxine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Mirtazapine A tetracyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of major depression and is used off-label as a drug for insomnia and to increase appetite. Meprobamate An anxiolytic drug used for the short-term management of anxiety symptoms. Thiethylperazine For the treatment or relief of nausea and vomiting. Trihexyphenidyl An antispasmodic drug used as an adjunct drug in the management of parkinsonism and as a treatment for extrapyramidal symptoms caused by drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Tacrine For the palliative treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Procyclidine An antispasmodic drug used to treat parkinsonism of various types and in the treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms. Sulpiride Sulpiride is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Carisoprodol A centrally acting muscle relaxant used to relieve the discomfort associated with various musculoskeletal conditions. Eszopiclone A sedative-hypnotic used in the treatment of insomnia, improving both the latency phase and the maintenance phase of sleep. Alprazolam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and generalized anxiety in addition to anxiety associated with depression. Loxapine A antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Remoxipride An discontinued atypical antipsychotic selective for dopamine D2 receptors. Carbamoylcholine A direct acting miotic agent administered ophthalmically to decrease intraocular pressure after cataract surgery, and to induce miosis during surgery. Pramipexole A non-ergot dopamine agonist used to treat the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Secobarbital A barbiturate used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Promazine A phenothiazine used to manage schizophrenia. Methylphenidate A stimulant used in the management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methocarbamol A CNS depressant indicated with rest, physical therapy and other treatments to control the discomfort associated with various acute musculoskeletal conditions. Hyoscyamine For treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Also used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease... Zolpidem A sedative hypnotic used for the short-term treatment of insomnia to improve sleep latency. Prochlorperazine A phenothiazine derivative used in the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety and to relieve severe nausea and vomiting. Droperidol A butyrophenone derivative and dopamine antagonist used to prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Meperidine An opioid agonist with analgesic and sedative properties used to manage severe pain. Imipramine A tricyclic antidepressant indicated for the treatment of depression and to reduce childhood enuresis. Picrotoxin Used internally for relieving respiratory distress. Also for use as an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially barbiturates. Quinine An alkaloid used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Tenoxicam An anti inflammatory analgesic used to treat mild to moderate pain as well as the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Dronabinol A synthetic delta-9-THC used in the treatment of anorexia and weight loss in HIV patients as well as nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy. Fluoxetine A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder, bulimia, OCD, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar I. Methohexital An anesthetic used to induce deep sedation. Chlordiazepoxide A benzodiazepine used to treat the withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, to treat preoperative anxiety, and to treat anxiety over a short term period. Chlorpromazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat nausea, vomiting, preoperative anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. Celecoxib An NSAID used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, menstrual symptoms, and to reduce polyps is familial adenomatous polyposis. Nabilone A synthetic delta-9-THC used in the treatment of anorexia and weight loss in HIV patients as well as nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy. Buspirone An anxiolytic agent used for short-term treatment of generalized anxiety and second-line treatment of depression. Entacapone A selective reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Oxycodone An opioid used in the management of moderate to severe pain. Tolmetin An NSAID used to treat acute flares of various painful conditions and used for the long term management of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile arthritis. Haloperidol An antipsychotic agent used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses, as well as symptoms of agitation, irritability, and delirium. Levallorphan For the complete or partial reversal of narcotic depression, including respiratory depression, induced by opioids. Triflupromazine Used mainly in the management of psychoses. Also used to control nausea and vomiting. Dextromethorphan An NMDA receptor antagonist used to treat cases of dry cough. Cinchocaine An anesthetic used for local or regional anesthesia. Mephenytoin A phenylhydantoin used to treat refractory partial epilepsy. Rofecoxib A COX-2 inhibitor NSAID used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, primary dysmenorrhea, and migraine attacks. Nortriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Amoxapine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of neurotic or reactive depressive disorders and endogenous or psychotic depression. Adinazolam For the treatment of anxiety and status epilepticus. Piroxicam An NSAID used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Lamotrigine A phenyltriazine antiepileptic used to treat some types of epilepsy and bipolar I disorder. Doxapram A short acting respiratory stimulant used to treat acute respiratory insufficiency in COPD patients. Carbamazepine An anticonvulsant used to treat various types of seizures and pain resulting from trigeminal neuralgia. Atropine A muscarinic antagonist used to treat poisoning by muscarinic agents, including organophosphates and other drugs. Fenoprofen An anti-inflammatory analgesic used to treat mild to moderate pain in addition to the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Clonidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension and severe cancer pain, among other conditions, and to treat withdrawal symptoms from various substances. It is also used to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and to prevent migraines. Mazindol A sympathomimetic used to treat obesity in combination with lifestyle modifications. Valdecoxib A COX-2 inhibitor used to treat osteoarthritis and dysmenorrhoea. Diclofenac An NSAID used to treat the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Lisuride For the management of Parkinson's Disease Ethosuximide An anticonvulsant used to treat petit mal seizures. Thiopental A barbiturate used to induce general anesthesia, treat convulsions, and reduce intracranial pressure. Sulindac An NSAID used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute subacromial bursitis or supraspinatus tendinitis, and acute gouty arthritis. Chloroquine An antimalarial drug used to treat susceptible infections with P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. falciparum. It is also used for second line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Butorphanol An opioid agonist-antagonist used to treat moderate to severe pain. Fluphenazine A phenothiazine used to treat patients requiring long-term neuroleptic therapy. Clorazepic acid A benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety, partial seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. Dexmedetomidine An alpha-2 agonist used for sedation during various procedures. Adenosine A medication used in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Dyclonine An topical anesthetic used prior to examination to suppress the gag reflex or for pain relief from canker sores and fever blisters. Dextropropoxyphene An opioid analgesic used to treat mild to moderate pain. Pentazocine An analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain. Magnesium sulfate A drug used to treat convulsions during pregnancy, nephritis in children, magnesium deficiency, and tetany. Trazodone A serotonin uptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder. Acamprosate A medication used to maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence. Trimethobenzamide An antiemetic used to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting and nausea associated with gastroenteritis. Aprepitant A substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and surgery. Galantamine A cholinesterase inhibitor used to manage mild to moderate dementia associated with Alzheimer's Disease. Thioridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder. Midazolam A short-acting injectable benzodiazepine with rapid onset that is commonly used in seizures, anesthesia and anxiety disorders. Flurazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with a rapid onset of action that is commonly used to treat insomnia. Ergotamine A alpha-1 selective adrenergic agonist vasoconstrictor used to treat migraines with or without aura and cluster headaches. Tizanidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for the short-term treatment of muscle spasticity. Nicergoline For the treatment of senile dementia, migraines of vascular origin, transient ischemia, platelet hyper-aggregability, and macular degeneration. Naltrexone A narcotic antagonist used in opioid overdose. Sufentanil An opioid used to induce and maintain anesthesia, to act as an analgesic in labor and delivery, and to treat severe, acute pain. Flurbiprofen An NSAID used to treat the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Apomorphine A morphine derivative D2 dopamine agonist used to treat hypomobile "off" episodes of advanced Parkinson's disease. Paroxetine A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder, panic disorder, OCD, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, the vasomotor symptoms of menopause, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Procaine A local anesthetic used for anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal nerve block. Trimipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used to treat depression. Risperidone A second-generation antipsychotic medication used to treat a number of mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar mania, psychosis, or as an adjunct in severe depression. Meclizine A histamine H1 antagonist used to treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness. Riluzole A glutamate antagonist used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Zileuton A leukotriene synthesis inhibitor used in the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic asthma. Modafinil A stimulant used to improve wakefulness in patients with sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or shift work disorder. Scopolamine An anticholinergic used to treat excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, diverticulitis, IBS, and motion sickness. Etodolac An NSAID used to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as acute pain. Prilocaine A local anesthetic used in dental procedures. Tranylcypromine A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder. Isoflurane An inhaled general anesthetic used in surgery. Ethotoin A hydantoin antiepileptic used to control tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures. Dolasetron An antinauseant and antiemetic used in chemotherapy and postoperatively. Olopatadine A histamine H1 antagonist used to treat allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Oxcarbazepine An anti-epileptic used in the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Phenelzine A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat atypical, nonendogenous, or neurotic depression. Mefenamic acid An NSAID used to treat mild to moderate pain for no more than a week, and primary dysmenorrhea. Naproxen An NSAID used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout, primary dysmenorrhea, and mild to moderate pain. Primidone An antiepileptic used to treat grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures. Sulfasalazine An anti-inflammatory drug used to treat Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Halazepam Used to relieve anxiety, nervousness, and tension associated with anxiety disorders. Alfentanil An opioid agonist used to induce and maintain anesthesia, as well as an analgesic. Minaprine For the treatment of depression Proparacaine A topical anesthetic used for ophthalmic practice. Biperiden A muscarinic receptor antagonist used to treat parkinsonism and control extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptic drugs. Phenylbutazone An NSAID used to treat backache and ankylosing spondylitis. Fentanyl An opioid analgesic used in anesthesia, for breakthrough cancer pain, or round the clock pain management. Propofol A medication used in general anesthesia and for sedation. Acetazolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat edema from heart failure or medications, certain types of epilepsy, and glaucoma. Carprofen For use as a pain reliever in the treatment of joint pain and post-surgical pain. Disulfiram A carbamate derivative used to treat alcohol addiction. Diazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures. Phenmetrazine Used as an anorectic in the treatment of obesity. Trifluoperazine A phenothiazine used to treat depression, anxiety, and agitation. Progabide Indicated for the treatment of epilepsy. Oxazepam An intermediate-acting benzodiazepine with slow onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawals, and insomnia. Donepezil An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat the behavioral and cognitive effects of Alzheimer's Disease and other types of dementia. Nalbuphine An opioid agonist-antagonist used to treat pain, for pre and postoperative analgesia, and for analgesia in labor and delivery. Methylphenobarbital For the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy. Perphenazine A phenothiazine used to treat schizophrenia as well as nausea and vomiting. Levorphanol An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain. Chlorphenesin A phenol ether used to treat painful muscular conditions. Diflunisal An NSAID used to treat mild to moderate pain, inflammation, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Benzphetamine A sympathomimetic used to manage exogenous obesity short term. Benzonatate A non-narcotic oral antitussive drug used to suppress coughing. Flupentixol A thioxanthene neuroleptic used to treat schizophrenia and depression. Granisetron A 5HT3 antagonist used to treat nausea and vomiting in cancer therapy and postoperatively. Oxybuprocaine A local anesthetic used in ophthalmology. Triazolam A benzodiazepine used for short term treatment of insomnia. Ethanol For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical... Remifentanil An opioid analgesic used in anesthesia. Ondansetron A serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy and postoperatively. Tiagabine An antiepileptic used to treat partial seizures. Cocaine An ester local anesthetic used during diagnostic procedures and surgeries in or through the nasal cavities. Zonisamide A sulfonamide anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures. Amantadine A medication used to treat dyskinesia in Parkinson's patients receiving levodopa, as well as extrapyramidal side effects of medications. Buprenorphine A partial opioid agonist used for management of severe pain that is not responsive to alternative treatments. Also used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Cyclobenzaprine A skeletal muscle relaxant that works on the brainstem to treat muscle spasms of local origin. Mesoridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, organic brain disorders, alcoholism, and psychoneuroses. Maprotiline A tetracyclic antidepressant used to treat depressive illness, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and anxiety associated with depression. Salicylic acid An acid used to treat acne, psoriasis, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, and warts. Meclofenamic acid An NSAID used to treat mild to moderate pain, primary dysmenorrhea, heavy menstrual blood loss, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Felbamate An anticonvulsant used to treat severe epilepsy. Hydrocodone An opioid agonist used as an analgesic and antitussive agent. Methylprednisolone A corticosteroid used to treat inflammation or immune reactions across a variety of organ systems, endocrine conditions, and neoplastic diseases. Mepivacaine A local anesthetic used for local or regional analgesia or anesthesia. Zaleplon A sedative used for short term treatment of insomnia in adults. Bromfenac An NSAID used to treat postoperative pain and inflammation of the eye. Dimenhydrinate A medication used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and motion sickness. Glycopyrronium An anticholinergic agent used to treat hyperhidrosis, severe drooling, COPD, used with other medications to treat ulcers, and used in anesthesia. Rivastigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Oxaprozin An NSAID used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Gabapentin An anticonvulsant medication used in the management of peripheral neuropathic pains, postherpetic neuralgia, and partial-onset seizures. Levobupivacaine For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management Ketoprofen An NSAID used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, dysmenorrhea, mild to moderate muscle pain, postoperative pain, and postpartum pain. Balsalazide An aminosalicylate used to treat ulcerative colitis. Methoxyflurane For use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia Selegiline A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder and Parkinson's. Memantine An NMDA receptor antagonist used to treat moderate to severe dementia in Alzheimer's. Ergoloid mesylate A nootropic with an unknown mechanism of action indicated in individuals over sixty who manifest signs and symptoms of an idiopathic decline in mental capacity. Ibuprofen An NSAID and non-selective COX inhibitor used to treat mild-moderate pain, fever, and inflammation. Melatonin An endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates sleep-wake cycles and when provided exogenously has beneficial effects on sleep-onset latency; available as an over-the-counter supplement. Clonazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures. Diphenhydramine A H1 receptor antihistamine used in the treatment of seasonal allergies, and various allergic reactions including sneezing, runny nose, itchy/watery eyes, itching of nose or throat, pruritus, urticaria, insect bites/stings, and allergic rashes. Vigabatrin An irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor used as an adjunct therapy to treat refractory complex partial seizures in patients ≥2 years unresponsive to alternatives. May also be used as monotherapy to treat infantile spasms in infants 1 month to 2 years. Diphenoxylate An antidiarrheal medication used with atropine to manage diarrhea. Benzocaine A topical local anesthetic used for the temporary relief of pain and itching associated with minor burns, sunburn, scrapes and insect bites or minor skin irritations. Pimozide An antipsychotic used to manage debilitating motor and phonic tics in patients with Tourette's Disorder. Sertraline A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated to treat major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and many other psychiatric conditions. Sibutramine A norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake inhibitor indicated to assist with weight loss in obesity. Trimethaphan For the controlled reduction of blood pressure during surgery and in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Doxepin A psychotropic agent used for the treatment of depression, anxiety, manic-depressive disorder, and insomnia. Nefazodone An antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Desipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Thiamylal Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state. Bupropion A norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and as an aid to smoking cessation. Halothane A general inhalation anesthetic used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Chloroprocaine A local anesthetic agent indicated for intrathecal injection in adults for the production of subarachnoid block, or spinal anesthesia. Cilostazol An antiplatelet agent and vasodilator used for the symptomatic relief of intermittent claudication. Moclobemide A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Orphenadrine A muscarinic antagonist used as an adjunct for the symptomatic relief of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. Phenobarbital A long-lasting barbiturate and anticonvulsant used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except for absent seizures. Escitalopram A selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and other select psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cyclizine An antihistamine and antiemetic drug used for the prevention and treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness, and vertigo. Chlormezanone Used in the management of anxiety and in the treatment of muscle spasm. Naloxone An opioid receptor antagonist used to rapidly reverse an opioid overdose. Also included in some drug formulations as an abuse deterrent to prevent injection. Domperidone A dopamine receptor antagonist used as a peristaltic stimulant and anti-emetic agent for dyspepsia, indigestion, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Desflurane A general inhalation anesthetic for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults. Oxymorphone An opioid analgesic used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and for analgesic therapies. Zopiclone A nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic used for the short-term management of insomnia. Bromocriptine A dopamine D2 receptor agonist used for the treatment of galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinemia and other prolactin-related conditions, as well as in early Parkinsonian Syndrome. Levetiracetam A novel anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct medication to manage partial onset, myoclonic, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy. Mitoxantrone A chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of secondary progressive, progressive relapsing, or worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Dezocine Indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Estazolam A benzodiazepine used for the short-term management of insomnia. Dantrolene A direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant used for the treatment of management of the fulminant hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle leading to malignant hyperthermia crisis. Ketamine A rapid-acting general anesthetic and NMDA receptor antagonist used for induction of anesthesia diagnostic and surgical procedures typically in combination with a muscle relaxant. Quetiapine A psychotropic agent used for the management of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. Levacetylmethadol For the treatment and management of opiate dependence. It is sometimes used to treat severe pain in terminal patients. Pemoline A central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that was previously used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Diphenidol An antiemetic agent used for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with various conditions as Meniere's disease and surgery of the middle and inner ear. Metoclopramide An antiemetic agent and dopamine D2 antagonist used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, prevention of nausea and vomiting, and to stimulate gastric emptying. Dexamethasone A glucocorticoid available in various modes of administration that is used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions, including bronchial asthma, as well as endocrine and rheumatic disorders. Levodopa A dopamine precursor used in the management of Parkinson's disease, often in combination with carbidopa, as well as other conditions associated with parkinsonism. Sevoflurane A inhalation anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia during surgical procedures. Aripiprazole An atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of a wide variety of mood and psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar I, major depressive disorder, irritability associated with autism, and Tourette's syndrome. Chlorprothixene For treatment of psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia) and of acute mania occuring as part of bipolar disorders. Clomipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component, such as depression, schizophrenia, and Tourette’s disorder. Isocarboxazid A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat enduring and debilitating symptoms of depression following inadequate clinical response to other antidepressant drugs. Olsalazine An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis. Lisdexamfetamine A central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moderate to severe eating disorders. Paliperidone An atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other schizoaffective or delusional disorders. Lumiracoxib For the acute and chronic treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in adults. Fosphenytoin An antiepileptic agent used for the management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. Amobarbital A barbiturate derivative used for the induction of sedation during procedures, short-term management of insomnia, and acute management of refractory tonic-clonic seizures. Butobarbital For the treatment of insomnia. Hexobarbital For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful... Ephedrine An alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist indicated to treat hypotension under anesthesia, allergic conditions, bronchial asthma, and nasal congestion. Rasagiline An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used for the symptomatic management of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as initial monotherapy and as adjunct therapy to levodopa. Magnesium salicylate An NSAID analgesic used in the symptomatic relief of mild to moderate muscular pain. Salsalate A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent used in the symptomatic relief of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and related rheumatic disorders. Choline magnesium trisalicylate Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to reduce pain and inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis. This medication is also used to treat fever in adults. Methotrimeprazine A phenothiazine used in the management of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder. Alizapride Alizapride is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, including postoperative nausea and vomiting. Methadyl acetate Used mainly in the treatment of narcotic dependence. Antipyrine An antipyretic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of acute otitis media, most commonly in combination with benzocaine. Glutethimide For the treatment of insomnia. Bufotenine A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a... Dihydroetorphine Not Available Diamorphine An opioid analgesic agent used in the relief of severe pain associated with surgical procedures, myocardial infarction or pain in the terminally ill and for the relief of dyspnea in acute pulmonary edema. Midomafetamine Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety associated with terminal cancer. MDMA is one of the four most widely used... Bezitramide A narcotic analgesic once used for the treatment of severe chronic pain. Fencamfamin For the the treatment of depressive fatigue in convalescence and other debilitated states as well as in the treatment of depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy. Ethylmorphine Ethylmorphine is an analgesic used for pain relief. 4-Methoxyamphetamine Not Available Fenethylline Not Available Barbital A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice... 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine Not Available Dimethyltryptamine Some people use this compound as a psychedelic inducing agent. Etorphine Etorphine is only available for its use in veterinary. This main usage is related to the immobilization of large mammals. Tenamfetamine An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons... Delorazepam Mainly used as an anti-anxiety agent. Studies have found delorazepam to be more effective in the first 4 weeks of use than antidepressants; however, after 4 weeks, antidepressants showed superior... Tenocyclidine Because of its high affinity for the phencyclidine binding site on the NMDA receptor, the 3H radiolabelled form of tenocyclidine is widely used in research into NMDA receptors. Ecgonine Not Available Dextromoramide An opioid analgesic structurally related to methadone and used in the treatment of severe pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1070) Carfentanil Carfentanil is similar (but more potent) to the opioid analgesic fentanyl. It is used as a tranquilizer for large animals. Flunitrazepam For short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics. Ethyl loflazepate Not Available Drotebanol Not Available Diprenorphine Diprenorphine is indicated to reverse the effects of powerful opioids including etorphine and carfentanil, often used for tranquilizing large animals. This drug is not approved for use in humans. Dihydrocodeine An opioid analgesic agent used for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. Alphacetylmethadol A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action. It is used mainly in the treatment of narcotic dependence. [PubChem] Bromazepam A short-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and severe anxiety. Cathinone Cathinone is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). Closely related to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines, it is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect... Chloral hydrate A mild hypnotic used for experimental purposes that was previously used for the treatment of insomnia. Dihydromorphine Dihydromorphine is an opioid analgesic used for moderate to severe pain relief. Fludiazepam Used for the short-term treatment of anxiety disorders. Ohmefentanyl Ohmefentanyl is an extremely potent opioid analgesic drug which selectively binds to the µ-opioid receptor. The Chinese have recorded ohmefentanyl as having a potency that is 6,300 times morphine. Ohmefentanyl... 3-Methylfentanyl 3-Methylfentanyl is an opioid analgesic and is an analog of the potent opioid, fentanyl. 3-Methylfentanyl is one of the most powerful opioid drugs sold illegally and is estimated to be... Dextroamphetamine A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Metamfetamine A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and exogenous obesity. Phendimetrazine A sympathomimetic amine used as adjunct therapy for the short term management of exogenous obesity. Oxprenolol A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety. Ketazolam A long-acting benzodiazepine used to manage anxiety and insomnia. Prazepam For the treatment of anxiety disorders. Quazepam A long -acting benzodiazepine used to manage insomnia. Nitrazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. Tiaprofenic acid A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) used to manage inflammation and analgesia associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Acepromazine Acepromazine was first used in humans in the 1950s as an antipsychotic agent. It is now rarely used in humans. Acepromazine is frequently used in animals as a sedative and... Aceprometazine Aceprometazine is often used in combination with meprobamate for the treatment of sleep disorders. Molindone An antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia. Thiothixene An antipsychotic indicated for the management of schizophrenia. Zuclopenthixol An antipsychotic indicated for the management of schizophrenia. The acuphase formulation is indicated for initial treatment of acute psychosis or exacerbation of psychosis, while the depot formulation is best for maintenance. Etoricoxib For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic low back pain, acute pain and gout. Castanospermine Not Available Rolipram A phosphodiesterase inhibitor with antidepressant properties. 3,5-Dinitrocatechol Not Available Daidzin Not Available 7-Nitroindazole Not Available Resveratrol Being investigated for the treatment of Herpes labialis infections (cold sores). N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline Not Available Oxitriptan For use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid. Phencyclidine A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to ketamine in structure and in many of its effects. Like... Oxyphenbutazone A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) no longer commonly used for the symptomatic relief of musculoskeletal pain. Phenacetin Used principally as an analgesic. Valpromide Not Available Anthranilic acid Not Available Phenethylamine Not Available Niflumic acid Used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Aniracetam Compound with anti-depressive properties used as a mental performance enhancer. Methylecgonine Not Available Nimesulide For the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old. Benoxaprofen The use of benoxaprofen, formerly marketed as Oraflex tablets, was associated with fatal cholestatic jaundice among other serious adverse reactions. The holder of the approved application voluntarily withdrew Oraflex tablets... Metamizole Used in the past as a powerful painkiller and fever reducer. Iproniazid For the treatment of depression (originally intended to treat tuberculosis). Methapyrilene Methapyrilene, formerly marketed in many drug products, was shown to be a potent carcinogen. Manufacturers voluntarily withdrew methapyriline drug products from the market in May and June 1979. Nialamide Withdrawn from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963 due to interactions with food products containing tyrosine. Oxeladin Withdrawn from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1976 due to carcinogenicity. Urethane Urethane, formerly marketed as an inactive ingredient in Profenil injection, was determined to be carcinogenic and was removed from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963. Zomepirac Zomepirac was indicated for the management of mild to severe pain. Lysergic acid diethylamide Debate continues over the nature and causes of chronic flashbacks. Explanations in terms of LSD physically remaining in the body for months or years after consumption have been discounted by... Methaqualone For the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant. Amineptine For the treatment of depression. Flunarizine A selective calcium-entry blocker used as migraine prophylaxis in patients with severe and frequent episodes who have not responded adequately to more common treatments. Fluspirilene An antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Huperzine A Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease. Osanetant Potential therapy for schizophrenia, depression and visceral pain. Vapreotide For the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhotic liver disease and has also shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with AIDS-related diarrhea. Milnacipran A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used for the treatment of fibromyalgia and a short-term treatment of major depressive disorder. Lofexidine A centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist used for the symptomatic treatment of acute opioid withdrawal syndrome to facilitate abrupt opioid discontinuation in adults. Pirfenidone An agent used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Ezogabine An antiepileptic agent used as an adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures. SGS-742 Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), memory loss, and schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PTC299 Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified) and solid tumors. Tetrodotoxin For the treatment of chronic and breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients as well as for the treatment of opioid dependence. Methsuximide A succinimide anticonvulsant that increases the seizure threshold. Primarily used for childhood absence seizures. Functions by suppressing paroxysmal spike-and-wave patterns associated with lapses of consciousness in absence seizures. Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam A chelated complex of samarium isotope and EDTMP that concentrates in areas with high bone turnover such as sites of metastases to relieve pain associated with osteoblastic metastatic bone lesions. Pimavanserin A second generation atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions caused by Parkinson's Disease. Canertinib Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer and lung cancer. Andrographolide Investigated for use/treatment in ulcerative colitis. Sertindole Used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Mianserin For the treatment of depression. Pizotifen A serotonin and tryptamine antagonist indicated for migraine prophylaxis. Noscapine Investigated for use/treatment in lymphoma (non-hodgkin's), leukemia (lymphoid), cancer/tumors (unspecified), and multiple myeloma. Icatibant A bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist used to treat acute episodes of swelling and inflammation associated with hereditary angioedema (HAE). Asenapine An atypical antipsychotic used to treat patients with bipolar I disorder and patients with schizophrenia. Lacosamide An antiepileptic drug used to treat partial onset seizures in adults. Nalmefene An opioid antagonist used in conjunction with psychosocial support to help adults with alcohol dependence reduce alcohol consumption. Exisulind Investigated for use/treatment in adenomatous polyposis coli, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colon polyps, Barrett's esophagus disease, and pediatric indications. Droxidopa A medication used to treat symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) caused by dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency, non-diabetic autonomic neuropathy and primary autonomic failure caused by conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Tolperisone Investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, spinal cord injuries, muscle spasm, back pain, and multiple sclerosis. Ziconotide An N-type calcium channel antagonist used to manage patients with severe chronic pain who cannot tolerate, or who have not responded adequately to other treatments such as intrathecal morphine and systemic analgesics. Amisulpride Investigated for use/treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, mania in bipolar disorder, and depression. Armodafinil A stimulant used to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or shift work disorder. Dexanabinol Investigated for use/treatment in traumatic brain injuries and neurologic disorders. Remacemide Investigated for use/treatment in epilepsy, huntington's disease, and parkinson's disease. Clomethiazole Investigated for use/treatment in strokes. Propentofylline Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease. Deramciclane Investigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders. Tramiprosate Investigated for use/treatment in strokes and alzheimer's disease. Gaboxadol Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia. Adipiplon Investigated for use/treatment in insomnia and sleep disorders. Dextofisopam Investigated for use/treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Agomelatine Agomelatine is indicated to treat major depressive episodes in adults. Cutamesine Investigated for use/treatment in strokes and depression. Flupirtine Investigated for use/treatment in fibromyalgia. Casopitant Investigated for use/treatment in urinary incontinence and adverse effects (chemotherapy). Esmirtazapine Investigated for use/treatment in insomnia and sleep disorders. Vilazodone An antidepressant agent used for the treatment of major depressive disorder that targets the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. Nitrous oxide An inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure. Desvenlafaxine An antidepressant agent and SNRI used for the treatment of major depressive disorders in adults. Dexmethylphenidate A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of ADHD in conjunction with other therapies. Fospropofol A sedative-hypnotic agent indicated for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Fosaprepitant An antiemetic drug used in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Lornoxicam For the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain, as well as pain and inflammation of the joints caused by certain types of rheumatic diseases. Aceclofenac Aceclofenac is indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Zaltoprofen A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for use in Japan in 1993. Ketobemidone For the treatment of all types of severe pain, such as postoperative, cancer, kidney stones and fractures. Seratrodast Seratrodast (INN) is a thromboxane receptor antagonist used primarily in the treatment of asthma. Ginsenoside Rg1 Ginsenosides are a class of steroid glycosides, and triterpene saponins, found exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng). Ginsenosides have been the target of research, as they are viewed as... Drotaverine Used in the treatment of functional bowel disorders and alleviating pain in renal colic. Benzyl alcohol An antiparasitic agent used for the topical treatment of head lice infestation in patients 6 months of age and older. Cupric sulfate A compound used as an intravenous copper supplement for Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN). Methylnaltrexone A μ-opioid antagonist used for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in palliative patients that are inadequately responding to laxative therapy. Nepafenac An ophthalmic NSAID used for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery. Azapropazone Not Available Felbinac Not Available Tranilast For the treatment of bronchial asthma, keloid and hypertrophic scar, and allergic disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Epibatidine Not Available Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone Non-methylated, competitive, and irreversible inhibitor of caspase 1, as well as other caspases,1 which can be used directly with purified enzymes. It does not require an esterase to hydrolyze the... Ferulic acid Not Available Sulthiame Not Available Parecoxib A selective COX-2 inhibitor and NSAID used for the short-term management of perioperative pain. Pipazethate For the treatment of cough. Salicylamide Salicylamide is the common name for the substance o-hydroxybenzamide, or amide of salicyl. Salicylamide is a non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. It has similar medicinal uses to aspirin.... Tofisopam For the treatment of anxiety and alcohol withdrawal. Lurasidone An atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Acetylcarnitine Acetylcarnitine is not approved for any indication in the United states and Canada, but it is approved and indicated in Italy for cerebrovascular disorders, mental function disorders, peripheral nerve disorders,... DPDPE A heterodetic cyclic peptide that is a cyclic enkephalin analogue, having D-penicillaminyl residues located at positions 2 and 5, which form the heterocycle via a disulfide bond. Teriflunomide A pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties used to treat patients with the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis. Arbaclofen Placarbil Investigated for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, acute back spasms, and GERD. Levomilnacipran A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Perospirone For the treatment of schizophrenia and acute cases of bipolar mania. Amperozide Amperozide is a diphenylbutylpiperazine atypical antipsychotic which antagonizes 5-HT2A receptors. It inhibits dopamine release and alters the firing of dopaminergic neurons. Investigations regarding the use of the agent revolved primarily... Kebuzone Kebuzone (also known as ketophenylbutazone ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Isoxicam Isoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is not marketed in the United States. Isoaminile Isoaminile, an antitussive drug with a structure similar to methadone, is also an anticholinergic with both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic properties. Indoprofen A drug that has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Following reports of adverse reactions including reports of carcinogenicity in animal studies it was withdrawn from the market worldwide. Indalpine Indalpine was one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to reach the American market. It was initially marketed by Pharmuka. However, after the emergence of widespread concern regarding adverse... Ibuproxam Ibuproxam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Fominoben Fominoben is an antitussive agent. Flurothyl Flurothyl is a convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy. Floctafenine An anti-inflammatory analgesic used to manage mild to moderate acute pain. Fenbufen Fenbufen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used primarily to treat inflammation in osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and tendinitis. It can also be used to relieve backaches, sprains, and fractures. Fenbufen is... Etofenamate Etofenamate is used to treat muscle and joint paint. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Etifoxine Etifoxine is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug developed by Hoechst in the 1960s. It is used in anxiety disorders and to promote peripheral nerve healing. It does not bind to... Etidocaine Etidocaine is marketed under the name Duranest. It is an injectable local anesthetic during surgery, labor, and delivery. Etidocaine has a long duration of activity, but has the main disadvantage... Epirizole Epirizole is an oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for muscle and joint pain. Eperisone Eperisone is an antispasmodic drug which relaxes both skeletal muscles and vascular smooth muscles, and demonstrates a variety of effects such as reduction of myotonia, improvement of circulation, and suppression... Dexetimide A muscarinic antagonist that has been used to treat neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Benzetimide is the (-)-enantimorph of dexetimide. Clobutinol Clobutinol is a cough suppressant that is withdrawn from the US and EU markets. Clobutinol may prolong the QT interval. In 2007, Clobutinol was determined to cause cardiac arrhythmia in... Articaine A local anesthetic used for inducing local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex dental procedures. Brotizolam Brotizolam is indicated for 2-4 weeks in the treatment of severe or debilitating insomnia. Bromopride Bromopride in indicated in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, including PONV (post-operative nausea and vomiting), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD), as well as endoscopy preparation and radiographic studies of the... Benactyzine Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug used as an antidepressant in the treatment of depression and associated anxiety. Benactyzine is no longer widely used in medicine, although it is still a... Naloxegol A peripherally-selective opioid antagonist used to treat opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in adult patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Vortioxetine An atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Sodium oxybate A central nervous system depressant used to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy. Tetracaine A local anaesthetic agent used to induce local analgesia in the eyes and skin during medical procedures. Paraldehyde A central nervous system depressant previously used to control convulsions due to various clinical causes, including tetanus, status epilepticus, and convulsive drugs. Stiripentol An anticonvulsant agent used with clobazam and valproate as an adjunct to treat refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Dravet syndrome. Etizolam Indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with depression, panic disorder and insomnia. Dosulepin Indicated in the treatment of symptoms of depressive illness, especially where an anti-anxiety effect is required. Lofentanil Lofentanil is an analog of fentanyl and is one of the most potent opioids available today. It displays most similarity to carfentanil (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) and is considered to be slightly more... Viloxazine Indicated for the treatment of clinical depression. Pholcodine Pholcodine is indicated as a cough suppressant for the temporary relief of non-productive dry cough. It is stated to present a required label indication of "temporary relief of dry cough."... Piracetam Indicated in adult patients suffering from myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of aetiology, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies . Loxoprofen Loxoprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) indicated for pain and inflammation related to musculoskeletal and joint disorders. In addition to its effects on pain, it is an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory... Droxicam Droxicam is an NSAID previously used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis . Tolfenamic acid In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults. Clonixin Indicated for use in the management of chronic arthritic conditions and certain soft tissue disorders associated with pain and inflammation. Melperone For the treatment of schizophrenia, sleep, disorders, agitation and mentally confused states [L1317, L1319, L1322]. Zotepine Zotepine, like other atypical antipsychotics, is considered as the first-line treatment in newly diagnosed schizophrenia. It is usually thought to be an option of choice for managing acute schizophrenic episodes... Pirlindole For the treatment of major depression. It is being studied in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain syndrome. One study determined that the effect of pirlindole on sensorimotor performance while driving... Toloxatone For the treatment of major depressive disorder. Doxofylline Indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma and pulmonary disease with spastic bronchial component. Pipamperone Treatment of chronic psychoses and states of aggressiveness of various origins . Propacetamol Propacetamol is a paracetamol prodrug of intravenous administration used to control fever and pain of perioperative period in multimodal analgesia therapy. Tianeptine Used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety . It is currently being studied for fibromyalgia pain treatment . Ramosetron For the treatment of nausea and vomiting and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in males. Oxaprotiline Investigated for the treatment of depression. Propoxycaine Propoxycaine is a local anesthetic medication. It was used beginning in the 1950s during dental procedures . It has been combined with procaine to accelerate its onset of action and... Pramocaine A local anesthetic and antipruritic agent found in various topical preparations. Opium A medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. Butamben Anesthesia of mucus membranes other than the eyes. Pentoxyverine A medication used to suppress a cough in the common cold, flu, bronchitis, and sinusitis. Peppermint oil An ingredient used in a variety of natural health products and is not an approved medication. Phenoxyethanol An antiseptic used as a hand disinfectant or preservative in medications. Evening primrose oil Evening primrose oil is used as part of over-the-counter dietary supplements. It is also used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases and for women's health conditions such as cyclical... Alfaxalone Alfaxalone, also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone, is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic. It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan, and is licensed for use... Azaperone Azaperone is a pyridinylpiperazine and butyrophenone agent that is capable of eliciting neuroleptic sedative and antiemetic effects. It is subsequently employed predominantly as a veterinary tranquilizer and mainly for pigs... Doramectin Doramectin is a veterinary drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of parasites such as gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, eyeworms, grubs, sucking lice and mange mites in... Medetomidine Medetomidine is a synthetic compound used as a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is normally found as its hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride. Medetomidine is an intravenously available alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.... Tepoxalin Tepoxalin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for veterinary use in the United States and many other countries. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation and relief of pain caused... Xylazine Xylazine is a clonidine analog which acts as an agonist at α2 adrenoceptors. Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats. Nalorphine Used to reverse opioid overdose. Butacaine Not Annotated Flunixin Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for use in pigs, cattle and horses. It exerts analgesic and antipyretic effects. This drug is often prepared for use in meglumine salt form.... Romifidine Romifidine is a veterinary drug utilized as a sedative primarily in large animals, most frequently horses. It is also used less commonly in a wide variety of other animal species.... Tiletamine This drug is a dissociative anesthetic agent that falls under the drug category of NMDA receptor antagonists. Tiletamine is chemically similar to another dissociative anesthetic, ketamine. Tiletamine hydrochloride, the salt... Tricaine Tricaine (as tricaine methanesulfonate) is white powder used for anesthesia, sedation, or euthanasia of fish. It is also the only anesthetic licensed in the United States for use in fin... Zolazepam Zolazepam is a pyrazolodiazepinone derivative used as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Zolazepam is typically used in combination with the NMDA antagonist tiletamine or the α2 adrenoceptor agonist xylazine. It... Detomidine Used as a large animal sedative, primarily in horses. Bicuculline Bicuculline is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors. It was originally identified in 1932 in plant alkaloid extracts and has been isolated from Dicentra cucullaria, Adlumia fungosa, Fumariaceae, and... Normethadone An opioid antitussive used to treat a cough associated with inflamed mucosa. Opicapone A catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor used as an adjunct treatment for Parkinson's Disease in adults currently receiving levodopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Psilocybin Psilocybin has been investigated for the treatment of Anxiety and Stage IV Melanoma. In November, 2019, it was granted Breakthrough Therapy status by the FDA. Curcumin No approved therapeutic indications. Tropisetron For the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic therapy and postoperative. Anisodamine Anisodamine has been investigated for the treatment of Intestinal Diseases. Brexanolone Brexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072]. Etiracetam Etiracetam is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01137110 (Comparison of Short Duration Levetiracetam to Extended Course for Seizure Prophylaxis After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)). Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02118610 (Treatment of Schizophrenia With L-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP): a Novel Dopamine Antagonist With Anti-inflammatory and Antiprotozoal Activity). Semapimod Semapimod has been used in trials studying the treatment of Crohn Disease. Epigallocatechin gallate Epigallocatechin gallate has been investigated for the treatment of Hypertension and Diabetic Nephropathy. Vinpocetine Vinpocetine has been investigated for the treatment of Epilepsy. Bucillamine Bucillamine has been used in trials studying the treatment and prevention of Gout and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Gepirone Gepirone has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cocaine-Related Disorders. Ecopipam Ecopipam has been used in trials studying the treatment of Tourette's Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Disease, Pathological Gambling, and Self-injurious Behavior. Nefopam Nefopam is under investigation for the prevention of Cholecystitis and Post Anaesthetic Shivering. Nefopam has been investigated for the prevention of Kidney Transplantation. Eltanolone Eltanolone is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02603926 (Treatment of Fragile-X Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) With Allopregnanolone). Bromperidol Bromperidol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Lisofylline Lisofylline has been investigated for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Vofopitant Vofopitant has been used in trials studying the treatment of PTSD, Primary Insomnia, and Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders. Nitroaspirin Nitroaspirin has been investigated for the treatment of Intermittent Claudication. Tempol Tempol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Anal Cancer. Levodropropizine Levodropropizine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01573663 (A Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Ambroxol and Levodropropizine). Piribedil Piribedil has been investigated in Parkinson's Disease. Piritramide Piritramide is under investigation for the treatment of Colon Cancer and Minimal Residual Disease. Piritramide has been investigated for the supportive care of Pain, Postoperative and Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting. Raclopride Raclopride has been used in trials studying Parkinson Disease. Samidorphan Samidorphan has been used in trials studying the treatment of Schizophrenia, Alcohol Dependence, and Binge Eating Disorder. Indobufen Indobufen has been used in trials studying the supportive care and prevention of Atrial Fibrillation. Mebeverine Mebeverine has been investigated for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Post-cholecystectomy Gastrointestinal Spasms. Indiplon Indiplon has been used in trials studying the treatment of Insomnia and Depression. Nafamostat Used as an anticoagulant in patients with disseminative blood vessel coagulation, hemorrhagic lesions, and hemorrhagic tendencies. It prevents blood clot formation during extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement... Mizoribine Mizoribine has been investigated for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Apocynin Acetovanillone has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bronchial Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Ritanserin Ritanserin has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cocaine-Related Disorders. Spiradoline Spiradoline has been investigated for the basic science of Bipolar Depression. Perazine Perazine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Butylphthalide Butylphthalide has been used in trials studying the prevention of Restenosis. Higenamine Higenamine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01451229 (Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Higenamine in Chinese Healthy Subjects). Benserazide A medication used to treat Parkinson's disease, parkinsonism, and restless leg syndrome. Tandospirone Tandospirone has been used in trials studying the treatment of Schizophrenia. Benperidol Benperidol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Eliprodil Eliprodil has been used in trials studying the treatment of Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders. Opipramol Opipramol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders. Doxifluridine Doxifluridine has been investigated for the treatment of Stomach Cancer. Sepranolone Sepranolone has been investigated for the treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Tinoridine Tinoridine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01224756 (Efficacy of Tinoridine in Treating Pain and Inflammation in Adults). Hypericin Hypericin is under investigation for the treatment of Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma. Tiapride Tiapride is indicated for the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including dyskinesia, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, negative symptoms of psychosis, and agitation and aggression in the elderly. Tirilazad Tirilazad has been used in trials studying the treatment of Spinal Cord Injury. Parthenolide Parthenolide has been used in trials studying the diagnostic of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Nefiracetam Nefiracetam has been used in trials studying the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Gacyclidine Gacyclidine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Tinnitus. Norflurane Norflurane is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01673061 (Vapocoolant Spray for Numbing Small Boils Before Incision and Drainage). Serrapeptase Serrapeptase is a proteolytic enzyme preparation used concomitantly with an antibiotic in osteoarticular infections. Serratiopeptidase is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02493179 (Efficacy Evaluation of the (Serodase 5 mg Tablet)... Alphaprodine Not Annotated Alclofenac Alclofenac is indicated in rheumatology, in particular for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and, as an analgesic, in painful arthritic pathologies. Bamifylline Bamifylline is a selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist. Oxolamine Oxolamine is not approved in the USA, it may be marketed elsewhere internationally as a cough suppressant . It is listed as a prescription drug in New Zealand legislation .... Fentiazac Not Annotated Dibenzepin Dibenzepin is approved for use in Europe. Tribenoside Anti-inflammatory agent used in edema of extremities, varicose veins & phlebitis. Suxibuzone Not Annotated Alaproclate Alaproclate was developed as one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants by Astra AB (now AstraZeneca) in the 1970s. Development was discontinued due to concerns over hepatotoxicity... Propanidid An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918) Proxibarbal Proxibarbal is a derivative of barbiturates, which has been used to treat migraines. Proxibarbal was approved in France but was withdrawn from the market due to the risk of inducing... Clothiapine Clothiapine has been approved in European countries and is an atypical antipsychotic, shown to be useful in some treatment-resistant patients. Ethyl chloride Ethyl chloride, or chloroethane, has a chemical formula C2H5Cl. It was commonly used in the production of tetraethyllead (TEL), which is an additive for gasoline. It was also used in... Sultopride Sultopride is used in Japan, Hong Kong, and Europe to treat schizophrenia. It is of the drug class atypical antipsychotics . Bumadizone Bumadizone has been approved for use in Germany and Austria, it is a drug with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties, and was marketed for the treatment of both rheumatoid arthritis... Ipecac An emetic agent used to induce vomiting in poisoning. Melevodopa Not Annotated Alminoprofen Alminoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) whose physiochemical characteristics make it a member of the phenylpropionic acid class of chemical substances. Flunoxaprofen Not Annotated Trichloroethylene Trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent, not to be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as chlorothene. It has been sold under a variety of... Tetrazepam Not Annotated Bufexamac An NSAID used to treat skin conditions like atopic eczema and inflammatory dermatoses. Deanol Deanol is commonly referred to as 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). It holds tertiary amine and primary alcohol groups as functional groups. Deanol has been used in the treatment... Pheneturide Not Annotated Feprazone Not Annotated Bromisoval Not Annotated Difenpiramide Not Annotated Chlorproethazine Not Annotated Emetine Not Annotated Nifenazone Not Annotated Lofepramine Not Annotated Lonazolac Not Annotated Medazepam Not Annotated Prolintane Not Annotated Xenon Not Annotated Phenibut Not Annotated Meptazinol Not Annotated Tenidap Not Annotated Iprindole Not Annotated Bendazac Prior to the withdrawal of bendazac from various international regions of use due to concerns for hepatotoxicity [A39891, A39892, A39893, L4778] the chemical had demonstrated potential usefulness predominantly as the... Budipine Not Annotated Clebopride Not Annotated Pranoprofen Not Annotated Mebicar Not Annotated Veralipride Not Annotated Propyphenazone Not Annotated Proglumetacin Not Annotated Guacetisal Not Annotated Bevonium Not Annotated Ethenzamide Not Annotated Nizofenone Not Annotated Bifemelane Not Annotated Trifluperidol Not Annotated Zipeprol Not Annotated Mephenesin A cresol glyceryl ether used to treat muscle spasticity in Parkinson's and Multiple Sclerosis. Metopimazine Not Annotated Diethyl ether Not Annotated Oxiracetam Not Annotated Phenoperidine Not Annotated Phenazocine Not Annotated Carbaspirin calcium Not Annotated Mofebutazone Not Annotated Tiracizine Not Annotated Loprazolam Loprazolam is an imidazobenzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia including difficulty in falling asleep and/or frequent... Ethacizine Not Annotated Alcuronium A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to tubocurarine. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant. Proquazone Not Annotated Nikethamide Not Annotated Benorilate Not Annotated Fluanisone Not Annotated Quinisocaine Not Annotated Vinyl ether Not Annotated Pirprofen Not Annotated Bemegride Bemegride is a CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose. Meclofenoxate Not Annotated Acemetacin Acemetacin is not FDA, Canada or EMA approved, but in the countries where it is marketed it is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of pain and swelling in acute inflammation... Dixyrazine Not Annotated Dropropizine Not Annotated Tilidine Not Annotated Penfluridol Not Annotated Linopirdine Not Annotated Dimemorfan Not Annotated Clopenthixol Clopenthixol is a thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Imidazole salicylate Not Annotated Fosfructose Not Annotated Lormetazepam For the treatment of short-term insomnia Harmaline Not Annotated WIN 55212-2 WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical described as an aminoalkylindole derivative, which produces effects similar to those of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but has an entirely different chemical structure. It... Cyclopropane Cyclopropane was initially investigated because it was thought to be the toxic element in ethylene. Instead, it turned out to be an excellent anesthetic with very rapid onset and recovery... Pipequaline Pipequaline is an anticonflict & anticonvulsant quinoline derivative. It is an anxiolytic drug that was never marketed. It presents a unique chemical structure that does not follow the structural properties... Thiosalicylic acid Not Annotated Nordazepam An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam. Palmidrol A cannabinoid receptor-inactive eCB-related molecule used as prophylactic in helping to prevent respiratory viral infection. Palmidrol is available for human use as a supplement (400 mg capsules) and as food... Hopantenic acid Hopantenic acid (Pantogam) is a central nervous system depressant. Hopantenic acid has a unique spectrum of pharmacological effects (nootropic, anticonvulsant, mild activating) in the absence of addiction, hyperstimulation or withdrawal... SC-236 SC-236 is a potent, selective, orally active inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that has been studied in cancer therapy , lower back pain , and inflammation , , , . NS-398 NS-398 is a COX-2 inhibitor. It was developed as part of the mechanistic study of the cyclooxygenases. Aripiprazole lauroxil An antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia in adults. Lithium carbonate A medication used to treat manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate A water soluble corticosteroid used to treat severe allergic reactions, dermatologic diseases, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, hematological disorders, neoplastic diseases, nervous system conditions, ophthalmic diseases, renal diseases, respiratory diseases, and rheumatic disorders. Dextrorphan Not Annotated Bentazepam Not Annotated Taxifolin Not Available S-Ethylisothiourea S-Ethylisothiourea is a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Clorgiline An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE. Citicoline Citicoline is a donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides. It has been investigated for the treatment, supportive care, and diagnosis of Mania, Stroke, Hypomania, Cocaine Abuse, and Bipolar... Betulinic Acid Betulinic Acid has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome. Ebselen Ebselen has been investigated for the treatment and basic science of Meniere's Disease, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Almitrine For the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Solriamfetol Solriamfetol is indicated for treatment of daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy, but is not a treatment for the underlying airway obstruction in apnea patients[FDA Label][A176534,A176744]. Duloxetine A serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, and stress incontinence. Human interleukin-2 Human interleukin-2 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03475134 (TIL-ACT After NMA Chemo With IL-2 and Nivo Rescue in mMEL). Flurbiprofen axetil Flurbiprofen axetil is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02043366 (Effect of Butorphanol Combined With Flurbiprofen Axetil on Preventing Hyperalgesia Induced by Remifentanil in Patients). Dexpramipexole Dexpramipexole is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01511029 (Study to Evaluate the QTC Interval in Healthy Volunteers Dosed With Dexpramipexole (QTC = Electrocardiogram (ECG) Interval Measured From the Onset of... Xanomeline Xanomeline is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02831231 (Pilot Study Comparing Effects of Xanomeline Alone to Xanomeline Plus Trospium). Carfentanil, C-11 Carfentanil, C-11 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01899170 (Towards Individualized Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain). Palonosetron A serotonin antagonist used in the prophylaxis or management of vomiting that results from emetogenic chemotherapy, and for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. 4-Methylaminorex Not Available Desomorphine Not Available Eucalyptol A common ingredient in mouthwash and cosmetics derived naturally from the eucalyptus plant that is frequently used to to improve symptoms of airway mucus hypersecretion. Licofelone For the management of osteoarthritis. Iloperidone An atypical antipsychotic agent used for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Ecallantide A kallikrein inhibitor used to prevent and treat acute attacks caused by Hereditary Angioedema (HAE). Brivaracetam An anticonvulsant used for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that functions by binding to synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) in the brain. RI 624 Investigated for use/treatment in pain (acute or chronic). Cariprazine An atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and acute manic or mixed episodes due to bipolar I disorder. Rufinamide An antiepileptic drug used as adjunctive therapy to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). Tapentadol An opioid used to manage severe pain that has not responded to non-opioid medications, and for which opioid analgesic therapy is appropriate. Mepyramine An antihistamine agent used for the symptomatic treatment of allergy, hypersensitivity reactions, and pruritic skin disorders. Levopropoxyphene Levopropoxyphene was used as an antitussive. An antitussive is a medication often recommended for the treatment of cough and associated respiratory tract disorders. Its enantiomer, dextropropoxyphene, presents an analgesic effect. Butriptyline Butriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant which has been used in Europe since 1974. It is the isobutyl side chain homologue of amitriptyline. Suvorexant A orexin receptor antagonist used to treat insomnia that is characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance. Eslicarbazepine acetate An anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct to treat partial-onset seizures in patients with inadequate clinical response to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Dexketoprofen For short-term treatment of mild to moderate pain, including dysmenorrhoea, musculoskeletal pain and toothache . Brilaroxazine Investigated for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Maropitant Maropitant, used as maropitant citrate, is a neurokinin receptor antagonist, which was developed by Zoetis specifically for the treatment of motion sickness and vomiting in dogs. It was approved by... Esketamine A NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment-resistant depression. Fasinumab Fasinumab has been used in trials studying the basic science and treatment of Sciatica, Back Pain, Low Back Pain, Osteoarthritis, Hip, and Abdominal Pain Upper, among others. Edaravone A free radical scavenger used to delay the progression of ALS. Salvinorin A Salvinorin A has been investigated for the basic science of Pharmaceutical Preparations. Tanezumab Tanezumab has been investigated for the treatment of Osteoarthritis, Knee and Neuralgia, Postherpetic. LY-2456302 Ly2456302 has been used in trials studying the health services research and basic science of Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Dependence. Pinazepam Not Annotated Nicomorphine Not Annotated Nabiximols In Canada, Sativex has received a Notice of Compliance (NOC) for use as an as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have... Erenumab A calcitonin-gene related peptide antagonist used to prevent migraines. Galcanezumab A calcitonin-gene related peptide antagonist used to prevent migraines and treat cluster headaches. Pyrazolam Not Annotated Dextromethadone Dextromethadone is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00588640 (Study of D-Methadone in Patients With Chronic Pain). Pentetrazol Not Annotated Ursolic acid Not Annotated Y-27632 Y-27632 is an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase. It inhibits calcium sensitization to affect smooth muscle relaxation. Harmine Not Available Kelatorphan Not Available Oliceridine A biased opioid agonist indicated for the management of severe acute pain in adult patients. Through preferential activation of G-protein-coupled signalling pathways, oliceridine provides analgesic effect with a comparable or improved safety profile over conventional opioid agonists. Fepradinol Not Annotated Strychnine Not Annotated Peoniflorin Peoniflorin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02878863 (Paeoniflorin Combination of Hepatoprotective Drugs Versus Hepatoprotective Drugs Only for Auto-immune Hepatitis). Veliflapon Veliflapon is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00353067 (Veliflapon (Dg-031)to Prevent Heart Attacks or Stroke in Patients With a History of Heart Attack or Unstable Angina).
- Drugs & Drug Targets