Nelarabine

Identification

Summary

Nelarabine is a purine nucleoside analog and antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with inadequate clinical response to prior chemotherapeutic treatments.

Brand Names
Arranon, Atriance
Generic Name
Nelarabine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01280
Background

Nelarabine is an antineoplastic agent that is typically employed to treat acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. Nelarabine is a purine nucleoside analog converted to its corresponding arabinosylguanine nucleotide triphosphate (araGTP), resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis and cytotoxicity.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 297.2673
Monoisotopic: 297.107318615
Chemical Formula
C11H15N5O5
Synonyms
  • 2-Amino-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-6-methoxy-9H-purine
  • Nelarabina
  • Nelarabine
  • Nelzarabine
External IDs
  • 506U
  • 506U78
  • GW-506U78

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma whose disease has not responded to or has relapsed following treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Nelarabine is a prodrug of the cytotoxic deoxyguanosine analogue 9-ß-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G). Nelarabine is demethylated by adenosine deaminase (ADA) to ara-G. Ara-G is then transported into cells, where it undergoes three phosphorylation steps, resulting in the formation of ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP). In the first phosphorylation step, ara-G is converted to ara-G monophosphate (ara-GMP). Ara-GMP is then monophosphorylated by deoxyguanosine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase to ara-G diphosphate, and then subsequently to the active ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP). Ara-GTP is the one that exerts the pharmacological effect. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that targeted T-cells possess marked sensitivity to the agent.

Mechanism of action

Once nelarabine is metabolized into ara-GTP, the metabolite accumulates in leukemic blasts and incorporates into DNA to exert its S phase-specific cytotoxic effects, leading to the induction of fragmentation and apoptosis. Ara-GTP competes with endogenous deoxyGTP (dGTP) for incorporation into DNA. Once ara-GTP is incorporated at the 3' end of DNA, further DNA elongation is inhibited, which signals apoptosis and leads to cellular destruction. Additional cytotoxic activities may exist, but these are not fully understood.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA
incorporation into and destabilization
Humans
UDNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Nelarabine and ara-G are not substantially bound to human plasma proteins (<25%) in vitro, and binding is independent of nelarabine or ara-G concentrations up to 600 mM.

Metabolism

The principal route of metabolism for nelarabine is O-demethylation by adenosine deaminase to form ara-G, which undergoes hydrolysis to form guanine. In addition, some nelarabine is hydrolyzed to form methylguanine, which is O-demethylated to form guanine. Guanine is N-deaminated to form xanthine, which is further oxidized to yield uric acid. Ring opening of uric acid followed by further oxidation results in the formation of allantoin.

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Route of elimination

Excretion: Nelarabine and ara-G are partially eliminated by the kidneys.

Half-life

Nelarabine and ara-G are rapidly eliminated from plasma with a half-life of approximately 30 minutes and 3 hours.

Clearance
  • 197  +/-  189 L/h/m2 [Adult patients with refractory leukemia or lymphoma receiving doses of 199 to 2,900 mg/m2]
  • 259  +/-  409 L/h/m2 [Pediatric patients with refractory leukemia or lymphoma receiving doses of 104 to 2,900 mg/m2]
Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

A single IV dose of 4,800 mg/m^2 was lethal in monkeys, and was associated with CNS signs including reduced/shallow respiration, reduced reflexes, and flaccid muscle tone. It is anticipated that overdosage would result in severe neurotoxicity (possibly including paralysis, coma), myelosuppression, and potentially death.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nelarabine is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Nelarabine.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acenocoumarol is combined with Nelarabine.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Nelarabine.
AdalimumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adalimumab is combined with Nelarabine.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine liveThe risk or severity of infection can be increased when Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live is combined with Nelarabine.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nelarabine.
AlefaceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alefacept is combined with Nelarabine.
AlemtuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alemtuzumab is combined with Nelarabine.
Allogeneic processed thymus tissueThe therapeutic efficacy of Allogeneic processed thymus tissue can be decreased when used in combination with Nelarabine.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ArranonInjection5 mg/1mLIntravenousNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2016-10-05Not applicableUS flag
ArranonInjection5 mg/1mLIntravenousGlaxosmithkline Inc2006-01-192018-12-31US flag
AtrianceInjection, solution5 mg/mlIntravenousNovartis Europharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
AtrianceInjection, solution5 mg/mlIntravenousNovartis Europharm Limited2020-12-16Not applicableEU flag
AtrianceSolution5 mg / mLIntravenousNovartis2008-01-17Not applicableCanada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
L01BB07 — Nelarabine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. These are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class
Purine nucleosides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Purine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
Glycosylamines / Pentoses / Hypoxanthines / Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Alkyl aryl ethers / N-substituted imidazoles / Tetrahydrofurans / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary alcohols / Oxacyclic compounds
show 5 more
Substituents
Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Aminopyrimidine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Ether / Glycosyl compound / Heteroaromatic compound
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
purine nucleoside, monosaccharide derivative, beta-D-arabinoside (CHEBI:63612)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
60158CV180
CAS number
121032-29-9
InChI Key
IXOXBSCIXZEQEQ-UHTZMRCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H15N5O5/c1-20-9-5-8(14-11(12)15-9)16(3-13-5)10-7(19)6(18)4(2-17)21-10/h3-4,6-7,10,17-19H,2H2,1H3,(H2,12,14,15)/t4-,6-,7+,10-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-(2-amino-6-methoxy-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
SMILES
COC1=NC(N)=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O

References

General References
  1. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  2. DeAngelo DJ: Nelarabine for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;23(5):1121-35, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.07.008. [Article]
  3. Roecker AM, Allison JC, Kisor DF: Nelarabine: efficacy in the treatment of clinical malignancies. Future Oncol. 2006 Aug;2(4):441-8. [Article]
  4. Sanford M, Lyseng-Williamson KA: Nelarabine. Drugs. 2008;68(4):439-47. [Article]
  5. Reilly KM, Kisor DF: Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onco Targets Ther. 2009 Feb 18;2:219-28. [Article]
  6. Cooper TM: Role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec;3(6):1135-41. [Article]
  7. Curbo S, Karlsson A: Nelarabine: a new purine analog in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2006 Sep;1(3):185-92. [Article]
  8. Sigalas P, Tourvas AD, Moulakakis A, Pangalis G, Kontopidou F: Nelarabine induced complete remission in an adult with refractory T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res. 2009 Jul;33(7):e61-3. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2008.12.005. Epub 2009 Jan 21. [Article]
  9. Gandhi V, Keating MJ, Bate G, Kirkpatrick P: Nelarabine. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Jan;5(1):17-8. [Article]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015401
KEGG Drug
D05134
PubChem Compound
3011155
PubChem Substance
46506325
ChemSpider
2280207
RxNav
274771
ChEBI
63612
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201112
ZINC
ZINC000003823492
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000985
PharmGKB
PA164752425
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Nelarabine
FDA label
Download (282 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentT Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) / Lymphoma, Lymphoblastic1
3RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, Pediatric1
3RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias / Mucositis / Oral Complications1
2CompletedTreatmentAngioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma (AITL) / Large Cell Anaplastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Small Intestine Lymphoma / Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage II Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage III Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias2
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2CompletedTreatmentT-ALL, T-NHL (Lymphoblastic)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdult T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral5 MG/ML
SolutionIntravenous5 mg / mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Arranon 250 mg vial12.75USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5492897No1996-02-202013-02-20US flag
US5424295No1995-06-132017-06-13US flag

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)209-217 °C (with decomposition)Not Available
water solubilitySlightly soluble to soluble in waterNot Available
logP-1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility13.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.81ALOGPS
logP-1.6ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.47ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area148.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity69.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.68 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9776
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8171
Caco-2 permeable-0.8263
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5664
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9525
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9667
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.929
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8604
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8369
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8729
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9149
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.937
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9352
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9568
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9794
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8799
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9252
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9723
Rat acute toxicity1.9319 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9497
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8711
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1910000000-d09b09e2c32a65f2ac55

Targets

Drugtargets2
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insights and accelerate drug research.
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Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
DNA is the molecule of heredity, as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. It is a polynucleic acid that carries genetic information on cell growth, division, and function. DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds. The sequence of nucleotides determines hereditary characteristics. Each strand serves as the template for subsequent DNA replication and as a template for mRNA production, leading to protein synthesis via ribosomes.
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  4. DeAngelo DJ: Nelarabine for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;23(5):1121-35, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.07.008. [Article]
  5. Sanford M, Lyseng-Williamson KA: Nelarabine. Drugs. 2008;68(4):439-47. [Article]
  6. Reilly KM, Kisor DF: Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onco Targets Ther. 2009 Feb 18;2:219-28. [Article]
  7. Cooper TM: Role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec;3(6):1135-41. [Article]
  8. Curbo S, Karlsson A: Nelarabine: a new purine analog in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2006 Sep;1(3):185-92. [Article]
  9. Gandhi V, Keating MJ, Bate G, Kirkpatrick P: Nelarabine. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Jan;5(1):17-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function
Plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication. During the S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA polymerase alpha complex (composed of a catalytic subunit POLA1/p180, a regulatory subuni...
Gene Name
POLA1
Uniprot ID
P09884
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
165911.405 Da
References
  1. Ono K, Ohashi A, Yamamoto A, Matsukage A, Takahasi T, Saneyoshi M, Ueda T: Inhibitory effects of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine 5'-triphosphate and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine 5'-triphosphate on DNA polymerases from murine cells and oncornavirus. Cancer Res. 1979 Nov;39(11):4673-80. [Article]
  2. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  3. Curbo S, Karlsson A: Nelarabine: a new purine analog in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2006 Sep;1(3):185-92. [Article]
  4. Rodriguez CO Jr, Stellrecht CM, Gandhi V: Mechanisms for T-cell selective cytotoxicity of arabinosylguanine. Blood. 2003 Sep 1;102(5):1842-8. Epub 2003 May 15. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, an...
Gene Name
ADA
Uniprot ID
P00813
Uniprot Name
Adenosine deaminase
Molecular Weight
40764.13 Da
References
  1. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  2. DeAngelo DJ: Nelarabine for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;23(5):1121-35, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.07.008. [Article]
  3. Reilly KM, Kisor DF: Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onco Targets Ther. 2009 Feb 18;2:219-28. [Article]
  4. Cooper TM: Role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec;3(6):1135-41. [Article]
  5. Cohen MH, Johnson JR, Justice R, Pazdur R: FDA drug approval summary: nelarabine (Arranon) for the treatment of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. Oncologist. 2008 Jun;13(6):709-14. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2006-0017. [Article]
  6. Gandhi V, Keating MJ, Bate G, Kirkpatrick P: Nelarabine. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Jan;5(1):17-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Required for the phosphorylation of the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyguanosine (dG) and deoxyadenosine (dA). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based...
Gene Name
DCK
Uniprot ID
P27707
Uniprot Name
Deoxycytidine kinase
Molecular Weight
30518.315 Da
References
  1. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  2. DeAngelo DJ: Nelarabine for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;23(5):1121-35, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.07.008. [Article]
  3. Reilly KM, Kisor DF: Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onco Targets Ther. 2009 Feb 18;2:219-28. [Article]
  4. Cooper TM: Role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec;3(6):1135-41. [Article]
  5. DeAngelo DJ, Yu D, Johnson JL, Coutre SE, Stone RM, Stopeck AT, Gockerman JP, Mitchell BS, Appelbaum FR, Larson RA: Nelarabine induces complete remissions in adults with relapsed or refractory T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19801. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5136-42. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nucleoside kinase activity
Specific Function
Required for the phosphorylation of several deoxyribonucleosides and certain nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents.
Gene Name
DGUOK
Uniprot ID
Q16854
Uniprot Name
Deoxyguanosine kinase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
32055.53 Da
References
  1. Buie LW, Epstein SS, Lindley CM: Nelarabine: a novel purine antimetabolite antineoplastic agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1887-99. [Article]
  2. DeAngelo DJ: Nelarabine for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;23(5):1121-35, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.07.008. [Article]
  3. Reilly KM, Kisor DF: Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onco Targets Ther. 2009 Feb 18;2:219-28. [Article]
  4. Cooper TM: Role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec;3(6):1135-41. [Article]
  5. DeAngelo DJ, Yu D, Johnson JL, Coutre SE, Stone RM, Stopeck AT, Gockerman JP, Mitchell BS, Appelbaum FR, Larson RA: Nelarabine induces complete remissions in adults with relapsed or refractory T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19801. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5136-42. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [Article]

Drug created on May 16, 2007 22:44 / Updated on October 20, 2021 19:48