Tolevamer

Identification

Summary

Tolevamer is a potassium-binding resin used in the treatment of hyperkalemia.

Brand Names
Kayexalate, Kionex, Resonium Calcium, Solystat
Generic Name
Tolevamer
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01344
Background

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used to treat abnormally high potassium levels. It may be taken orally or by rectum, as an enema, and functions as a potassium-binding resin in the intestines. It is also an effective topical microbicide and spermicide, inhibiting the genital transfection of, among others, HIV.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Synonyms
  • poly(styrene-4-sulfonic acid)
  • Polystyrene sulfonate
  • Polystyrene sulfonic acid
  • polystyrenesulfonic acid
  • Tolevamer

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat abnormally high potassium levels.

Pharmacology
Accelerate your drug discovery research with the industry’s only fully connected ADMET dataset, ideal for:
Machine Learning
Data Science
Drug Discovery
Accelerate your drug discovery research with our fully connected ADMET dataset
Learn more
Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
With our commercial data, access important information on dangerous risks, contraindications, and adverse effects.
Learn more
Our Blackbox Warnings cover Risks, Contraindications, and Adverse Effects
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

Polystyrene sulfonate affects the exchange of sodium and potassium in the body. Polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat high levels of potassium in the blood, also called hyperkalemia. It is a potassium-binding ion-exchange resin that can be administered orally (25 grams in 20% sorbitol) or rectally (50 grams in 20% sorbitol).

Mechanism of action

Polystyrene sulfonate, which is not absorbed, binds excess potassium, carrying it out of the body. The indigestible potassium polystryene sulfonate complex is excreted with the faeces, preventing the absorption of potassium into the blood stream. Hence, the serum potassium level decreases.

TargetActionsOrganism
APotassium
binder
Humans
Absorption

Not absorbed following oral administration.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

none

Route of elimination

Feces.

Half-life

none

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
Reduce medical errors
and improve treatment outcomes with our comprehensive & structured data on drug adverse effects.
Learn more
Reduce medical errors & improve treatment outcomes with our adverse effects data
Learn more
Toxicity

Overdose symptoms may include confusion, irritability, trouble thinking or concentrating, muscle weakness, or trouble breathing.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AlmasilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Almasilate.
AluminiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolevamer can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium.
Aluminium phosphateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminium phosphate.
Aluminum hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
Bismuth subnitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Bismuth subnitrate.
Calcium carbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Calcium carbonate.
CimetidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolevamer can be decreased when used in combination with Cimetidine.
DeslanosideThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Deslanoside.
DexlansoprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolevamer can be decreased when used in combination with Dexlansoprazole.
Interactions
Improve patient outcomes
Build effective decision support tools with the industry’s most comprehensive drug-drug interaction checker.
Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Avoid multivalent ions.
  • Take on an empty stomach.

Products

Products
Comprehensive & structured drug product info
From application numbers to product codes, connect different identifiers through our commercial datasets.
Learn more
Easily connect various identifiers back to our datasets
Learn more
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tolevamer calciumHUI2S0079337286-92-3Not applicable
Tolevamer potassium sodium4A5OM7PI181011713-07-7Not applicable
Tolevamer sodium1699G8679Z9080-79-9Not applicable
International/Other Brands
Resonium A / Sorbisterit
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
K-exit PoudrePowder, for solution100 %Oral; RectalOmega Laboratories Ltd1988-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
KayexalatePowder, for suspension1 g / gOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1961-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalCovis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-152018-06-30US flag
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1958-01-082013-04-04US flag
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalConcordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc2013-07-152018-06-30US flag
Resonium CalciumPowder, for solution999 mg / gOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1979-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
SolystatSuspension250 mg / mLRectalPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1989-12-312019-07-30Canada flag
SolystatSuspension250 mg / mLOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
SolystatPowder, for suspension1 g / gOral; RectalPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1988-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Sps Suspension 15gm/60mlSuspension15 g / 60 mLOral; RectalCarolina Medical Products Company1987-12-311999-07-26Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Jamp Calcium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension999 mg / gOral; RectalJamp Pharma CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Jamp Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension1 g / gOral; RectalJamp Pharma Corporation2021-02-04Not applicableCanada flag
KionexSuspension15 g/60mLOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, LLC2008-12-30Not applicableUS flag
KionexPowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1998-02-012018-07-31US flag
Odan-sodium Polystyrene SulfonateSuspension250 mg / mLOral; RectalOdan Laboratories Ltd2018-12-11Not applicableCanada flag
Odan-sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension1 g / gOral; RectalOdan Laboratories Ltd2018-10-25Not applicableCanada flag
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Oral SuspensionSuspension250 mg / mLOralPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada flag
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate PowderPowder94.3 mg / gOral; RectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072014-02-10Canada flag
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Retention EnemaSuspension250 mg / mLRectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada flag
PMS-sodium Polystyrene SulfonateSuspension250 mg / mLOralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
RESINSODIO POWDERPowder, for suspensionOralTHE ZYFAS MEDICAL CO.,2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag

Categories

ATC Codes
V03AE01 — Polystyrene sulfonate
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
ZSL2FB6GXN
CAS number
28210-41-5

References

Synthesis Reference

Chris Ho, Jugminder Chawla, Hitesh R. Bhagat, "Polystyrene sulfonate polymer tablets, their preparation and use." U.S. Patent US20080299198, issued December 04, 2008.

US20080299198
General References
Not Available
PubChem Substance
46507832
RxNav
1546436
ChEBI
53278
PharmGKB
PA164749386
Wikipedia
Polystyrene_sulfonate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentHyperkalemia / Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Hyperkalemia / Oral Potassium Binders1
4TerminatedSupportive CareHyperkalemia1
3CompletedTreatmentClostridium Difficile Colitis / Clostridium Enterocolitis1
3CompletedTreatmentClostridium Enterocolitis / Diarrhoea1
3TerminatedTreatmentClostridium Difficile / Diarrhoea / Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis1
2CompletedTreatmentAntibiotic Associated Diarrhoea / Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) / Clostridium Difficile Colitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPseudohypoaldosteronism1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease + Hyperkalaemia +/- Heart Failure1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Carolina Medical Products Co.
  • KVK-Tech Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Granule
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal999 mg / g
Powder, for solutionOral; Rectal100 %
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral99 g
SuspensionOral; Rectal250 mg / mL
PowderOral; Rectal94.3 mg / g
SuspensionRectal250 mg / mL
Powder
Powder, for suspensionOral
Powder, for suspensionOral99.75 g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal
Powder, for solutionOral; Rectal999 mg / g
PowderOral1 g/1g
PowderOral; Rectal1 g/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral4.1 meq/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal1 g/1g
SuspensionOral; Rectal15 g/60mL
SuspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal1 g / g
SuspensionOral250 mg / mL
SuspensionOral; Rectal
SuspensionOral; Rectal15 g / 60 mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Pms-Sod Polystyr Sulf (120 Ml) 30 g/enm Retention Enema15.36USD enema
Kayexalate Powder0.9USD gm
Kayexalate powder0.86USD g
Sod poly sulfonate powder0.69USD g
Kionex Powder0.46USD gm
Kionex powder0.44USD g
Kalexate powder0.39USD g
Sodium polystyrene sulf powder0.39USD g
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Powder0.31USD gm
Kayexalate Powder0.2USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. Powder0.15USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. 250 mg/ml Suspension0.13USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets
Accelerate your drug discovery research
with our fully connected ADMET & drug target dataset.
Learn more
Accelerate your drug discovery research with our ADMET & drug target dataset
Learn more
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
References
  1. Watson M, Abbott KC, Yuan CM: Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Oct;5(10):1723-6. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03700410. Epub 2010 Aug 26. [Article]
  2. Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S: Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May;21(5):733-5. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010010079. Epub 2010 Feb 18. [Article]
  3. Hoffman RS, Stringer JA, Feinberg RS, Goldfrank LR: Comparative efficacy of thallium adsorption by activated charcoal, prussian blue, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(7):833-7. [Article]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 18:12 / Updated on August 04, 2021 18:23