Identification

Name
Urea
Accession Number
DB03904
Description

A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 60.0553
Monoisotopic: 60.03236276
Chemical Formula
CH4N2O
Synonyms
  • Carbamide
  • Carbonyldiamide
  • Harnstoff
  • Karbamid
  • Urea
  • Urée
External IDs
  • E-927A
  • INS NO.927A
  • INS-927A
  • NSC-34375

Pharmacology

Indication
  • 10% hydrate skin
  • 15% accelerate fibrin degradation
  • 20-30% are antipruritic, break down keratin, decrease the thickness of the stratum corneum and are used in scaling conditions such as ichthysosis
  • 40% are proteolytic and may be used to dissolve and peel dystrophic nails


[Patient Self Care, 2010]

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

As a humectant, urea draws water into the striatum corneum.

Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UArginase-1Not AvailableHumans
UCarbonic anhydrase 2Not AvailableHumans
UCatenin beta-1Not AvailableHumans
USulfoxide reductase catalytic subunit YedYNot AvailableEscherichia coli O157:H7
ADihydrofolate reductase
activator
Gallus gallus
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Methyclothiazide Action PathwayDrug action
Hydrochlorothiazide Action PathwayDrug action
Metolazone Action PathwayDrug action
Furosemide Action PathwayDrug action
Torsemide Action PathwayDrug action
Triamterene Action PathwayDrug action
Hartnup DisorderDisease
Lysinuric Protein IntoleranceDisease
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)Disease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Creatine Deficiency, Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with Gyrate Atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Blue Diaper SyndromeDisease
CystinuriaDisease
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine MetabolismMetabolic
Polythiazide Action PathwayDrug action
Bumetanide Action PathwayDrug action
Quinethazone Action PathwayDrug action
Indapamide Action PathwayDrug action
Trichlormethiazide Action PathwayDrug action
Spironolactone Action PathwayDrug action
Eplerenone Action PathwayDrug action
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
L-Arginine:Glycine Amidinotransferase DeficiencyDisease
Citrullinemia Type IDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Purchasing individual compounds or compound libraries for your research?
Learn More
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AluveaCream39 g/100gTopicalMerz Pharmaceuticals2011-04-152016-06-01US flag
Carmol 40Lotion.4 mL/1mLTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag
Carmol 40Gel.4 mL/1mLTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag
Carmol 40Cream400 mg/1gTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag
CEM-UreaSolution.45 mL/1mLTopicalPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2011-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Dermasorb XM Complete KitKit390 mg/1gTopicalCrown Laboratories2013-11-142017-07-25US flag
Gordons Urea 40Ointment0.4 g/1gTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-16Not applicableUS flag
Hydro 35Aerosol, foam35 g/100gTopicalExeltis Usa Dermatology, Llc2009-06-202020-01-20US flag
KerafoamAerosol, foam30 g/100gTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2006-12-012011-12-31US flag
Kerafoam 42Aerosol, foam42 g/100gTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2009-04-012011-12-31US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bare 20Gel20 g/100gTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40Gel40 g/100gTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40 HAGel40 g/100gTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40 SAGel40 g/100gTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Calmurid CrmCreamTopicalGalderma1994-12-311999-07-27Canada flag
Carb-O-PhilicCream10 g/100gTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-01-202015-11-06US flag
Carb-O-PhilicCream20 g/100gTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-01-212015-11-06US flag
Carbamex 330mgmsTabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-152009-07-24Canada flag
Gehwol FUSSKRAFT Callus SoftenerLiquid250 mg/1mLTopicalEduard Gerlach Gmb H2008-03-242017-04-12US flag
Gehwol med CallusCream180 mg/1mLTopicalEduard Gerlach Gmb H2010-07-082017-04-12US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Amino-cervUrea (8.34 %) + Cystine (0.354 %) + Inositol (0.83 %) + Sodium propionate (0.50 %) + Racemethionine (0.83 %)CreamVaginalMilex, A Coopersurgical Co.1952-12-312007-07-26Canada flag
Calmurid HC CrmUrea (100 mg) + Hydrocortisone (10 mg)CreamTopicalGalderma1994-12-312000-08-02Canada flag
Coppermagic Pain Relief BalmUrea (1 g/100g) + Cupric oxide (.4 g/100g) + Eucalyptus globulus leaf (.5 g/100g)CreamTopicalShanghai Weierya Daily Chemicals Factory2017-02-172017-04-17US flag
Dr. Scholl's Cracked Heel Relief CreamUrea (5 %) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 %) + Lidocaine (2 %)CreamTopicalSchering Plough2003-03-292012-07-24Canada flag
Flexitol Heel BalmUrea (25.0 %) + Lanolin (9.88 %) + Petrolatum (9.88 %)CreamTopicalLaderma Trading Pty Ltd.2006-08-212012-06-27Canada flag
Heel BalmUrea (10.0 %) + Lanolin (9.88 %) + Petrolatum (9.88 %)CreamTopicalTanta Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Hydrophil OntUrea (5 %) + Mineral oil (64.5 %)OintmentTopicalOmega Laboratories Ltd1983-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Kerasal Topical SolutionUrea (2 %) + Salicylic acid (2 %)LiquidTopicalSpectropharm Dermatology, A Division Of Draxis Health Inc.1992-12-312001-08-13Canada flag
Miin FootUrea (4 g/100g) + Aloe Vera Leaf (0.5 g/100g) + Edetate disodium (0.05 g/100g) + Glycerin (8 g/100g)LiquidTopicalLydia Co., Ltd.2019-08-22Not applicableUS flag
NoxipakUrea (17 g/85g) + Fluocinolone acetonide (0.1 mg/1mL)KitTopicalSolutech Pharmaceuticals Llc2017-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AluveaUrea (39 g/100g)CreamTopicalMerz Pharmaceuticals2011-04-152016-06-01US flag
Bare 20Urea (20 g/100g)GelTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40Urea (40 g/100g)GelTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40 HAUrea (40 g/100g)GelTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Bare 40 SAUrea (40 g/100g)GelTopicalScientific Solutions Global, Llc2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
Carb-O-PhilicUrea (20 g/100g)CreamTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-01-212015-11-06US flag
Carb-O-PhilicUrea (10 g/100g)CreamTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-01-202015-11-06US flag
Carmol 40Urea (.4 mL/1mL)LotionTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag
Carmol 40Urea (.4 mL/1mL)GelTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag
Carmol 40Urea (400 mg/1g)CreamTopicalE. Fougera & CO., A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-05-012012-03-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
D02AE01 — CarbamideB05BC02 — CarbamideD02AE51 — Carbamide, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ureas. These are compounds containing two amine groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Ureas
Direct Parent
Ureas
Alternative Parents
Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Carbonyl group / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Urea
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
one-carbon compound, isourea (CHEBI:48376) / a small molecule (UREA)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
8W8T17847W
CAS number
57-13-6
InChI Key
XSQUKJJJFZCRTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/CH4N2O/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
IUPAC Name
urea
SMILES
NC(N)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Ryo Yoshida, Haruhiko Katoh, Seizo Sumida, Ichiki Takemoto, Junya Takahashi, Katsuzo Kamoshita, "Urea derivatives, and their production and use." U.S. Patent US4334912, issued 0000.

US4334912
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000294
KEGG Drug
D00023
KEGG Compound
C00086
PubChem Compound
1176
PubChem Substance
46508687
ChemSpider
1143
BindingDB
24961
RxNav
11002
ChEBI
16199
ChEMBL
CHEMBL985
ZINC
ZINC000008214514
PharmGKB
PA451831
PDBe Ligand
URE
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Urea
AHFS Codes
  • 84:28.00 — Keratolytic Agents
  • 40:28.12 — Osmotic Diuretics
PDB Entries
1bv3 / 1ddr / 1ep5 / 1hqg / 1xdq / 1xr8 / 1xr9 / 2f30 / 2f56 / 2i1j
show 62 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionHand Eczema1
4CompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
4CompletedTreatmentFoot Dermatoses1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatocellular Carcinoma1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Eczema1
3CompletedDiagnosticProstate Cancer2
3CompletedPreventionHypertrophic Scars1
3CompletedPreventionRadiodermatitis1
3CompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • A. Aarons Inc.
  • Aerosol Scandinavia Ab
  • Allan Pharmaceutical LLC
  • American Spraytech LLC
  • APL Logistics WMS
  • Avent Inc.
  • Ballard Medical Products Inc.
  • Bioglan Pharmaceuticals Co.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • CMIC-VPS Corp.
  • Collegium Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Crown Laboratories Inc.
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DSC Laboratories
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • EZ-EM Inc.
  • Gordon Laboratories
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • Harmony Laboratories Inc.
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hope Pharmaceuticals
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • JSJ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
  • Medimetriks Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Meretek Diagnostics Inc.
  • Onset Therapeutics LLC
  • Otsuka America
  • Pegasus Laboratories Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharma Pac LLC
  • Pharmaderm
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Professional Compounding Centers America LLC
  • Qualitest
  • Quinnova Pharmaceuticals
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Seton Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Sheffield Laboratories Div Faria Limited LLC
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Stratus Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Truett Laboratories
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical39 g/100g
CreamVaginal
GelTopical20 g/100g
OintmentTopical100 MG/G
CreamTopical100 MG
CreamTopical
CreamTopical10 g/100g
CreamTopical20 g/100g
TabletOral
GelTopical.4 mL/1mL
LotionTopical.4 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical.45 mL/1mL
CreamTopical
AerosolTopical20 g
KitTopical390 mg/1g
LiquidTopical10 g/100mL
LiquidTopical10 g/100g
LiquidTopical20 g/100g
LiquidTopical20 g/100mL
CreamTopical10 %
EmulsionTopical2 %
EmulsionTopical4 %
LiquidTopical250 mg/1mL
CreamTopical180 mg/1mL
CreamTopical100 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical0.4 g/1g
TabletVaginal100 mg
TabletOral100 mg
OintmentTopical
Aerosol, foamTopical30 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical42 g/100g
LotionTopical350 mg/1mL
CreamTopical400 mg/1g
GelTopical450 mg/1g
EmulsionTopical0.45 mL/1mL
GelTopical
SuspensionTopical142 g/284g
CreamTopical120 mg/g
LiquidTopical
CreamTopical42 mg/1g
KitTopical
CreamTopical100 mg/g
CapsuleOral1 mcg
CapsuleOral37 kBq
EmulsionTopical500 mg/1g
SolutionTopical500 mg/1mL
CreamTopical71 g/142g
GelTopical40 g/100g
CreamTopical10 mg/g
CreamTopical375 mg/1g
Cream5 g/100g
LotionTopical
Granule, for solutionOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
EmulsionTopical400 mg/1g
FilmTopical400 mg/1g
SuspensionTopical400 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical20 g/100g
LotionTopical450 mg/1g
KitTopical450 mg/1mL
ClothTopical450 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical400 mg/1g
ClothTopical420 mg/1mL
CreamTopical.4 g/1g
CreamTopical0.4 g/1g
CreamTopical17 g/85g
CreamTopical390 mg/1g
CreamTopical40 g/100g
CreamTopical410 mg/1g
CreamTopical450 mg/1g
CreamTopical500 mg/1g
CreamTopical8.5 g/85g
EmulsionTopical450 mg/1mL
EmulsionTopical50 g/100g
EmulsionTopical500 mg/1mL
GelTopical.45 mg/1mL
GelTopical40 g/100mL
GelTopical400 mg/1mL
GelTopical450 mg/1mL
LotionTopical1 mL/10mL
LotionTopical40 g/100g
LotionTopical40 g/100mL
LotionTopical400 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical500 mg/1g
SolutionTopical1 g/1mL
SolutionTopical400 mg/1g
StickTopical500 mg/1mL
Cream50 mg/100g
Cream100 mcg/100g
OintmentTopical20 g/100g
CreamTopical25 g/100g
GelTopical40 g/40g
GelTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical12 g/12g
GelTopical40 g/113g
OintmentTopical40 g/100g
CreamTopical470 mg/1g
GelTopical500 mg/1mL
CreamTopical5 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical35 g/100g
Cream100 mg/100g
Cream20 mg/100g
PasteTopical40 g/100g
CreamTopical0.5 %
CreamTopical15 g
LotionTopical349.46 mg/1mL
SuspensionTopical500 mg/1g
OintmentTopical10 %
CreamTopical20 %
EmulsionTopical40 %
EmulsionTopical10 %
CreamTopical5 %
LotionTopical100 mg/1mL
CreamTopical200 mg/1g
OintmentTopical120 mg/g
CreamTopical440 mg/1g
LotionTopical
CreamTopical12 %
LotionTopical94.8 mg/237mL
GelTopical6.726 g/15mL
OintmentTopical7.5 g/30g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)132.7 °CPhysProp
water solubility5.45E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH (1989)
logP-2.11HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS0.96ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-5.34ADME Research, USCD
pKa0.1 (at 21 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility412.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS0.84ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.11 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.1 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9513
Blood Brain Barrier+0.981
Caco-2 permeable-0.8956
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8517
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.982
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9875
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9343
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7982
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.793
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8449
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9661
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8771
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9878
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.974
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9724
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9695
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6955
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5354
Rat acute toxicity0.8822 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.981
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9824
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-234545ed5860ba077237
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0079-3900000000-0ef80e5f5cd9dd6bd213
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-02tc-9000000000-d69da17ffbb84fb6bdca
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-234545ed5860ba077237
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0079-3900000000-0ef80e5f5cd9dd6bd213
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-d805e3019d86aaf9fec0
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-02tc-9000000000-871569893ccfa5dd5395
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-8f09c5d6f5e002dfa52e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-3d983e9f9115869f55c8
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-9404d66c59d266164c23
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-4bdf0d3bd74007ba840a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-7184b34bac3a316d9fea
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-37fd015e8c20febde95a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2fc4ec950c571662bb31
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-3443c9c73d9a3f03e398
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-11d83d6bda76c25ec73f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-828ab6c68e3a46ccbd88
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ARG1
Uniprot ID
P05089
Uniprot Name
Arginase-1
Molecular Weight
34734.655 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
The references include in vitro experiments that show this relationship.
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Temperini C, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. X-ray crystal studies of the carbonic anhydrase II-trithiocarbonate adduct--an inhibitor mimicking the sulfonamide and urea binding to the enzyme. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Jan 15;20(2):474-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.11.124. Epub 2009 Nov 27. [PubMed:20005709]
  2. Wahiduzzaman, Dar MA, Haque MA, Idrees D, Hassan MI, Islam A, Ahmad F: Characterization of folding intermediates during urea-induced denaturation of human carbonic anhydrase II. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Feb;95:881-887. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.10.073. Epub 2016 Oct 24. [PubMed:27789330]
  3. Prakash A, Dixit G, Meena NK, Singh R, Vishwakarma P, Mishra S, Lynn AM: Elucidation of stable intermediates in urea-induced unfolding pathway of human carbonic anhydrase IX. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2018 Jul;36(9):2391-2406. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2017.1355847. Epub 2017 Jul 28. [PubMed:28705076]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function
Key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and...
Gene Name
CTNNB1
Uniprot ID
P35222
Uniprot Name
Catenin beta-1
Molecular Weight
85495.94 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
This evidence is based on in vitro experiments.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors
Specific Function
The exact function is not known. Can catalyze the reduction of a variety of substrates like dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide, phenylmethyl sulfoxide and L-methionine sulfoxide. Cannot red...
Gene Name
yedY
Uniprot ID
Q8XB74
Uniprot Name
Sulfoxide reductase catalytic subunit YedY
Molecular Weight
37356.555 Da
References
  1. Raghunathan S, Jaganade T, Priyakumar UD: Urea-aromatic interactions in biology. Biophys Rev. 2020 Feb;12(1):65-84. doi: 10.1007/s12551-020-00620-9. Epub 2020 Feb 17. [PubMed:32067192]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Gallus gallus
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Activator
Curator comments
This target relationship has been identified during in vitro experiments in chicken liver cells.
General Function
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. May bind to mRNA.
Specific Function
Dihydrofolate reductase activity
Gene Name
DHFR
Uniprot ID
P00378
Uniprot Name
Dihydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
21649.77 Da
References
  1. Fan YX, Ju M, Zhou JM, Tsou CL: Activation of chicken liver dihydrofolate reductase by urea and guanidine hydrochloride is accompanied by conformational change at the active site. Biochem J. 1996 Apr 1;315 ( Pt 1):97-102. doi: 10.1042/bj3150097. [PubMed:8670138]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Urea transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Specialized low-affinity vasopressin-regulated urea transporter. Mediates rapid transepithelial urea transport across the inner medullary collecting duct and plays a major role in the urinary conce...
Gene Name
SLC14A2
Uniprot ID
Q15849
Uniprot Name
Urea transporter 2
Molecular Weight
101207.965 Da
References
  1. Wall SM, Han JS, Chou CL, Knepper MA: Kinetics of urea and water permeability activation by vasopressin in rat terminal IMCD. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun;262(6 Pt 2):F989-98. [PubMed:1320335]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Water transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Urea channel that facilitates transmembrane urea transport down a concentration gradient. A constriction of the transmembrane channel functions as selectivity filter through which urea is expected ...
Gene Name
SLC14A1
Uniprot ID
Q13336
Uniprot Name
Urea transporter 1
Molecular Weight
42527.93 Da
References
  1. Ripoche P, Rousselet G: [Urea transporters]. Nephrologie. 1996;17(7):383-8. [PubMed:9019665]
  2. Olives B, Mattei MG, Huet M, Neau P, Martial S, Cartron JP, Bailly P: Kidd blood group and urea transport function of human erythrocytes are carried by the same protein. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 30;270(26):15607-10. [PubMed:7797558]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 23, 2020 09:08

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates