Castor oil

Identification

Summary

Castor oil is an ingredient used in a variety of natural health products.

Generic Name
Castor oil
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11113
Background

Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) mainly cultivated in India, South America, Africa, and China. Castor oil is a rich source of Ricinoleic acid, which represents up to 90% of the total castor oil content. It also consists up to 4% linoleic, 3% oleic, 1% stearic, and less than 1% linolenic fatty acids 1. Ricinoleic acid has a hydroxyl group that provides a functional group location for various chemical reactions, making it a favourable substance in industrial applications 1. Castor oil does not contain ricin, which is a natural poison found in the castor oil plant; the toxic lectin remains in the bean pulp following oil isolation 6. Due to its renewability and high versatility in addition to being the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid 1, castor oil has been used as a vital raw material for the chemical industry 3. Castor oil was mainly used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings 1. It is an FDA-approved food additive directly added to food products for human consumption. It can also be found in hard candies as a release agent and anti-sticking agent, or supplementary vitamins and mineral oral tablets as an ingredient for protective coatings. Castor oil is found in over-the-counter oral liquids as a stimulant laxative, and is also added in commercial cosmetic, hair, and skincare products.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Synonyms
  • Agaliya oil
  • Bimayou
  • Castor oil
  • Castorbean oil
  • Cataputia major oil
  • Cataputia minor oil
  • Croton spinosus oil
  • Lama palagi oil
  • Maskerekur oil
  • Oleum ricini
  • Ricinus africanus oil
  • Ricinus angulatus oil
  • Ricinus armatus oil
  • Ricinus atropurpureus oil
  • Ricinus badius oil
  • Ricinus borboniensis oil
  • Ricinus cambodgensis oil
  • Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil
  • Ricinus communis castor seed oil
  • Ricinus communis fibre oil
  • Ricinus communis oil
  • Ricinus communis seed oil
  • Ricinus compactus oil
  • Ricinus digitatus oil
  • Ricinus europaeus oil
  • Ricinus gibsonii oil
  • Ricinus giganteus oil
  • Ricinus glaucus oil
  • Ricinus hybridus oil
  • Ricinus inermis oil
  • Ricinus japonicus oil
  • Ricinus krappa oil
  • Ricinus laevis oil
  • Ricinus lividus oil
  • Ricinus macrocarpus oil
  • Ricinus macrophyllus oil
  • Ricinus medicus oil
  • Ricinus medius oil
  • Ricinus messeniacus oil
  • Ricinus metallicus oil
  • Ricinus microcarpus oil
  • Ricinus minor oil
  • Ricinus nanus oil
  • Ricinus obermannii oil
  • Ricinus oil
  • Ricinus peltatus oil
  • Ricinus perennis oil
  • Ricinus persicus oil
  • Ricinus purpurascens oil
  • Ricinus ruber oil
  • Ricinus rugosus oil
  • Ricinus rutilans oil
  • Ricinus sanguineus oil
  • Ricinus scaber oil
  • Ricinus speciosus oil
  • Ricinus spectabilis oil
  • Ricinus tunisensis oil
  • Ricinus undulatus oil
  • Ricinus urens oil
  • Ricinus viridis oil
  • Ricinus vulgaris oil
  • Ricinus zanzibarensis oil
  • Ricinus zanzibarinus
  • Toto ni vavalagi oil
  • Uluchula skoki oil
External IDs
  • E-1503
  • Fema no. 2263
  • Ins no.1503
  • INS-1503

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for over-the-counter use as a laxative for oral use and as a soothing agent for topical use on skin and hair.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Castor oil is a potent laxative that was shown to be effective for short-term constipation. In a prospective study, the group receiving oral castor oil was associated with a higher likelihood of initiation of labour compared to the placebo group 4. Castor oil is known to induce diarrhea, and has been used in studies to assess anti-diarrheal effect of some compounds 6.

Mechanism of action

Castor oil is a mix of triglycerides consisting of mainly ricinolein, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, dihydroxystearic acid, and traces of other fatty acids 6. The main pharmacodynamic effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases 2. It was believed that ricinoleic acid acts as an anionic surfactant that reduces net absorption of fluid and electrolytes, and stimulates intestinal peristalsis 6. However, a recent study suggests that ricinoleic acid interacts with EP3 prostanoid receptors expressed on intestinal and uterine smooth muscles. Via activating EP3 prostanoid receptors on intestinal and uterine smooth muscle cells, ricinoleic acid promotes laxation and uterus contraction, respectively 2. EP3 receptor act as the major prostanoid receptor in the intestine mediating propulsive effects on gut motility, and activation of EP3 receptors has been demonstrated to evoke contraction of uterine smooth muscle 2.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype
agonist
activator
Humans
UProstaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype
agonist
Humans
Absorption

After oral ingestion of castor oil, ricinoleic acid is released by lipases in the intestinal lumen and absorbed in the intestine 2. Findings from the rat study suggest that the absorption of castor oil is inversely related to the administered dose, but the absorption is virtually complete at small doses (4g) 6.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

Castor oil is hydrolyzed to glycerol and ricinoleic acid via pancreatic or intestinal lipase activity 6. Ricinoleic acid is metabolized systemically and the metabolites are excreted 6. Fatty acids are expected to be degraded by pancreatic and intestinal lipase.

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Route of elimination

Fecal recovery of radio-labelled castor oil ranged from 11.4% (for 10 g dose of castor oil) to 86.0% (for 44.4 g dose of castor oil) 6.

Half-life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Castor oil is considered minimally toxic when administered orally to humans; the estimated lethal oral dose is 1-2 pints of undiluted oil 8. Findings from a repeat-dose study in mouse report an oral LD50 value of >5000 mg/kg and NOAEL is approximately >2500 mg/kg/day in rat 7. Digestive tract irritation following oral ingestion, skin contact sensitization, and contact dermatitis have been reported for castor oil 6,8.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Castor oil.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AlfentanilThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
AlloinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castor oil is combined with Alloin.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amantadine.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Castor oil.
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Amobarbital.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralVi-Jon, LLC2008-12-09Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralRetail Business Services, Llc.2010-08-11Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralTopco Associates LLC1991-09-15Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid1 mg/1mLOralCVS PHARMACY2009-05-20Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralUNFI2004-12-16Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid100 %OralRw Consumer Products Ltd1995-12-312001-07-16Canada flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralVi-Jon, LLC1989-07-15Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralKroger co2001-04-19Not applicableUS flag
Castor OilLiquidOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1972-12-312000-07-27Canada flag
Castor OilLiquid1 g/1mLOralFOODHOLD U.S.A., LLC2010-08-11Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Balsamic LinimentCastor oil (35.6 g/40g) + Betula pendula tar oil (1.2 g/40g)LinimentTopicalBorisovskiy Zavod Medicinskikh Preparatov Jsc2000-12-22Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
HydroGold 9Castor oil (0.4 mg/100mg) + Acetyl hexapeptide-3 (0.01 mg/100mg) + Adenosine (0.04 mg/100mg) + Allantoin (0.2 mg/100mg) + Sodium benzoate (0.5 mg/100mg) + Butylene glycol (2 mg/100mg) + Dimethicone (0.01 mg/100mg) + Glycerin (20 mg/100mg) + Gold (0.0001 mg/100mg) + Nicotinamide (2 mg/100mg) + Phenoxyethanol (0.5 mg/100mg) + Potassium chloride (0.01 mg/100mg) + Titanium dioxide (0.43 mg/100mg) + Xanthan gum (0.5 mg/100mg)PatchTopicalBhmbg Global Branding Inc.2018-03-092019-12-31US flag
Polylab Surgical Spirit 98.8% v/vCastor oil (1 %) + Ethanol (95 %) + Methyl salicylate (0.2 %)LiquidCutaneousPOLYLAB BIOTECH SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
ProdermCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional2012-09-262018-04-30US flag
Zinc and Castor Oil Cream BPCastor oil (500 mg / g) + Zinc oxide (75 mg / g)CreamTopicalLawton's Drug Stores Ltd.1987-12-311997-04-02Canada flag
Zinc and Castor Oil CrmCastor oil (500 mg / g) + Zinc oxide (75 mg / g)CreamTopicalDawson Traders Ltd.1978-12-312006-03-22Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
CLBiO Cleansing PackCastor oil (0.3 g/100g) + Apricot kernel oil (0.3 g/100g) + Avocado (0.3 g/100g) + Coconut oil (91.9 g/100g) + Grape seed oil (0.3 g/100g) + Schisandra chinensis fruit (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalCLBiO Co., LTD.2016-08-25Not applicableUS flag
GranulexCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.12 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional1967-03-012018-05-31US flag
HydroGold 9Castor oil (0.4 mg/100mg) + Acetyl hexapeptide-3 (0.01 mg/100mg) + Adenosine (0.04 mg/100mg) + Allantoin (0.2 mg/100mg) + Sodium benzoate (0.5 mg/100mg) + Butylene glycol (2 mg/100mg) + Dimethicone (0.01 mg/100mg) + Glycerin (20 mg/100mg) + Gold (0.0001 mg/100mg) + Nicotinamide (2 mg/100mg) + Phenoxyethanol (0.5 mg/100mg) + Potassium chloride (0.01 mg/100mg) + Titanium dioxide (0.43 mg/100mg) + Xanthan gum (0.5 mg/100mg)PatchTopicalBhmbg Global Branding Inc.2018-03-092019-12-31US flag
OptaseCastor oil (78.77 g/100g) + Balsam of Peru (8.69 g/100g) + Trypsin (0.012 g/100g)GelTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2006-04-012011-12-31US flag
ProdermCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional2012-09-262018-04-30US flag
Trypsin ComplexCastor oil (788.0 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87.0 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.0036 mg/1g)OintmentTopicalBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-10-212011-06-30US flag
VasolexCastor oil (788 mg/1g) + Balsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Trypsin (90 [USP'U]/1g)OintmentTopicalStratus Pharmacuticals2007-02-072015-04-09US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A06AB05 — Castor oil
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
D5340Y2I9G
CAS number
8001-79-4

References

General References
  1. Patel VR, Dumancas GG, Kasi Viswanath LC, Maples R, Subong BJ: Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production. Lipid Insights. 2016 Sep 7;9:1-12. doi: 10.4137/LPI.S40233. eCollection 2016. [Article]
  2. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [Article]
  3. Ogunniyi DS: Castor oil: a vital industrial raw material. Bioresour Technol. 2006 Jun;97(9):1086-91. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.028. [Article]
  4. Garry D, Figueroa R, Guillaume J, Cucco V: Use of castor oil in pregnancies at term. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Jan;6(1):77-9. [Article]
  5. DailyMed: Top Care Castor Oil [Link]
  6. Assessment report on Ricinus communis L., oleum - European Medical Agency [File]
  7. European Commission: Review of Annex IV of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH) [File]
  8. NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM: NTP Technical Report on the Toxicity Studies of Castor Oil in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dose Feed Studies) [File]
PubChem Substance
347911121
RxNav
2129
Wikipedia
Castor_oil
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAqueous Deficient Dry Eye Disease / Evaporative Dry Eye Disease / Primary Sjogren's Syndrome / Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome1
2CompletedNot AvailablePreterm Delivery1
2CompletedSupportive CarePreterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)1
2CompletedTreatmentWound site1
2TerminatedTreatmentPressure Ulcers / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPartial Thickness Wounds1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPreterm Delivery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Azospermia / Hypergonadotropic Cryptozoospermia / Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Klinefelter's Syndrome1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Subjects (HS)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInduction of Labour1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LinimentTopical
LiquidOral
LiquidOral1 g/1mL
OilOral100 mL/100mL
LiquidOral100 %
LiquidOral98.25 mL / 100 mL
LiquidOral99.4 %
SoapTopical
SprayTopical
PatchTopical
OilOral1 g/1mL
EmulsionOral36.4 %
Capsule
Capsule1 G
GelTopical
LiquidCutaneous
LiquidOral1 mg/1mL
EmulsionOral
OilOral1 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical
LiquidOral94.8 %
CreamTopical
OilOral5 mg/5ml
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-10MSDS
boiling point (°C)300MSDS

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
Activator
General Function
Rna polymerase ii transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); the EP3 receptor may be involved in inhibition of gastric acid secretion, modulation of neurotransmitter release in central and peripheral neurons, inhibition ...
Gene Name
PTGER3
Uniprot ID
P43115
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype
Molecular Weight
43309.335 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscle. May play an important role...
Gene Name
PTGER4
Uniprot ID
P35408
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype
Molecular Weight
53118.845 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Althoff TF, Nusing RM, Diener M, Offermanns S: Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):9179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109. Epub 2012 May 21. [Article]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on July 03, 2021 01:48