Turpentine

Identification

Name
Turpentine
Accession Number
DB11120
Description

Turpentine, also known as spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine, is a liquid extracted from live trees, mainly pine, through distillation of resin. It is used as a solvent and base material in organic synthesis reactions. Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Synonyms
  • Gum turpentine
  • Spirits of gum turpentine
  • Turpentine (gum)
  • Turpentine gum
External IDs
  • Fema no. 3088

Pharmacology

Indication

Turpentine has been used experimentally in a bath for the treatment of disseminated sclerosis and sexual dysfunction. It also has been studied for its antibacterial activity and inhibition of osteoclast activity. Turpentine is utilized in experimental models of inflammation to induce a systemic inflammatory immune response in animals.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Turpentine oil, when inhaled, may help reduce congestion. When used on the skin, turpentine oil may cause warmth and redness that can help relieve pain in the tissue underneath.

Mechanism of action

Binding of turpentine oil or inflammatory cytokines e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1) activate signalling through the IL-1 Type 1 receptor (IL-1 R1). Initiation occurs by binding of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor adaptor protein (TIRAP) and Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (mD88) which then dissociates and interacts with IRAK (Interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase) and the tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This activates the MAPK pathway leading to transcription of the nuclear factor κB transcription factor and production of inflammatory mediators.

TargetActionsOrganism
UMitogen-activated protein kinase 1Not AvailableHumans
Absorption

Turpentine is readily absorbed from GI tract, skin, and respiratory tract.

Volume of distribution

Turpentine, as a lipophilic substance, accumulates in fatty tissues. The highest concentrations of turpentine following inhalation by rats were found in the spleen, kidneys, brain, and peripheral and perinephric fat.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Elimination of absorbed turpentine in the urine is manifested by an odor resembling that of violets.

Half-life

Eight male volunteers were exposed to 450 mg/cu m turpentine by inhalation (2 hr, 50 W) in an exposure chamber. The mean half lives of the last phase of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene (components of turpentine) averaged 32, 25, and 42 hours, respectively.

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Human : TCLo ( Inhalation) 175ppm, Effects : lung, Thorax or Respiration Human: TCLo ( inhalation ) 6gm/m3/3h , Effects : Behavioral: Headache Infant: LDLo ( Oral ) 1748 mg/kg, Effect : GI, Nausea or vomiting Man: LDLo (Oral ) 3mg/kg Mouse LC50 ( inhalation ) 29mg/m3/2h Mouse: LD50 ( intravenous ) 1180ug/kg Rabbit: LDLo ( Skin) 5010mg/kg, Effect: general depressed activity

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Turpentine oilC5H0QJ6V7F8006-64-2Not applicable
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Die Da Wan Hua Pain RelievingOil6 g/100mLTopicalGUANGZHOU BAIYUNSHAN JINGXIUTANG PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD2003-05-08Not applicableUS flag
Humco Turpentine Oil RectifiedLiquid1000 mg/1mLTopicalHumco Holding Group, Inc.1998-03-252021-04-30US flag
Ling Nam Hak Kwai OilOil50 g/100mLTopicalLing Nam Medicine Factory (H.K.) Ltd.2020-11-10Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ArtrexTurpentine (6 g/60g) + Camphor (3 g/60g) + Levomenthol (1.8 g/60g)CreamTopicalBioved Pharmaceuticals2004-04-01Not applicableUS flag
ArtrexTurpentine (6 g/60g) + Camphor (3 g/60g) + Levomenthol (1.8 g/60g)CreamTopicalBIO-VED Pharmaceuticals2004-04-012014-10-02US flag
Cal Mo Dol OntTurpentine oil (3 mg) + Camphor (15 mg) + Eucalyptol (25 mg) + Levomenthol (40 mg) + Methyl salicylate (100 mg) + Peppermint oil (7.5 mg)OintmentTopicalHerbes Universelles Inc.1980-12-312009-07-15Canada flag
Canadian External AnalgesicTurpentine oil (45 g/100mL) + Camphor (4 g/100mL)LinimentTopicalNew GPC, Inc.2012-06-132014-10-20US flag
CerumolTurpentine oil (10 %) + Chlorobutanol (5 %) + Dichlorobenzene (2 %) + Peanut oil (57 %)Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)Thornton & Ross Ltd1971-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Chan Yat Hing She Kun Wool Lok Medicated OilTurpentine oil (18 g/100mL) + Levomenthol (39 g/100mL) + Methyl salicylate (5 g/100mL) + Synthetic camphor (9 g/100mL)OilTopicalChan Yat Hing Medicine Factory2011-12-01Not applicableUS flag
Double Prawn RumagonTurpentine (6.72 mL/28mL) + Methyl salicylate (16.8 mL/28mL)LinimentTopicalTai Tong Ah Co., Pte. Ltd.2001-08-05Not applicableUS flag
Half and Half BalmTurpentine oil (7.264 kg) + Capsicum oleoresin (794.5 g) + Levomenthol (3.5185 kg) + Methyl salicylate (4.1995 kg)OintmentTopicalMueller Sports Medicine, Inc.1970-12-312003-08-01Canada flag
Jack and Jill RubTurpentine oil (40 mg) + Camphor (40 mg) + Eucalyptol (10 mg) + Levomenthol (30 mg)OintmentTopicalW.K. Buckley Ltd.1954-12-311999-07-19Canada flag
Liniment SokerTurpentine (10.08 ml) + Ammonia (.81 ml) + Camphor (56.875 mg)LiquidTopicalProduits Francais Labs Inc.1930-12-311997-05-30Canada flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
XJ6RUH0O4G
CAS number
9005-90-7

References

General References
  1. Toxnet [Link]
  2. ChemIDplus [Link]
PubChem Substance
347911126
RxNav
10938
Wikipedia
Turpentine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2 g
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
OilTopical
Oil4.84 %
OilTopical6 g/100mL
LinimentTopical
OintmentTopical1 g
OintmentTopical
LiquidTopical1000 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical0.0275 g/g
OilTopical50 g/100mL
LiquidTopical
OintmentTopical1.33 g
SprayTopical20 % w/w
OilTopical40.13 %w/v
SolutionTopical1.6 g/100mL
Cream1.2 g/100g
OintmentTopical2.75 %
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna polymerase ii carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK ca...
Gene Name
MAPK1
Uniprot ID
P28482
Uniprot Name
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Molecular Weight
41389.265 Da
References
  1. UniProt [Link]
  2. ChEMBL [Link]
  3. KEGG [Link]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:53

Covid drug repurpose