The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

Article Details


Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glockner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Muller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR

The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37.

PubMed ID
15772651 [ View in PubMed

The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Coagulation factor VIIIP00451Details
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingQ15738Details
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferaseP00492Details
N-acylglucosamine 2-epimeraseP51606Details
Androgen receptorP10275Details
Cationic amino acid transporter 3Q8WY07Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 8P36021Details
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrialP00480Details
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2Q99714Details
Coagulation factor IXP00740Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1P48029Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)Q9UN76Details
Serine/threonine-protein kinase A-RafP10398Details
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase BQ9Y5K3Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2CP28335Details
Thyroxine-binding globulinP05543Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrialP08559Details
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphaP15509Details
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1Q9Y271Details
ADP/ATP translocase 2P05141Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2P23416Details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialP49448Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrialP51553Details
Glutamate receptor 3P42263Details
5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrialP22557Details
Spermine synthaseP52788Details
Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrialO95831Details
Interleukin-3 receptor subunit alphaP26951Details
6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 1P16118Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseP11413Details
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase XIAPP98170Details
Tyrosine-protein kinase BTKQ06187Details
Histone deacetylase 8Q9BY41Details
Cytokine receptor common subunit gammaP31785Details
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4Q96C24Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] BP27338Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] AP21397Details
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrialQ9NVH6Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1FO60840Details
Histone deacetylase 6Q9UBN7Details
NF-kappa-B essential modulatorQ9Y6K9Details
Interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2Q14627Details
Alpha-galactosidase AP06280Details
Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger 2Q16206Details
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteinP42768Details
Peripheral plasma membrane protein CASKO14936Details
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptorQ8TDV5Details
Type-2 angiotensin II receptorP50052Details
Toll-like receptor 8Q9NR97Details
Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferaseP46597Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88Details
Copper-transporting ATPase 1Q04656Details
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7B, mitochondrialP24311Details
Cyclin-dependent kinase 16Q00536Details
Protein S100-GP29377Details
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 26Q9P289Details
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1P00558Details
Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1P22314Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 1Q9NSA2Details
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3P51812Details
Membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1O00264Details
NADPH oxidase 1Q9Y5S8Details
Neural cell adhesion molecule L1P32004Details
Lys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36P46736Details
60S ribosomal protein L10P27635Details
Iduronate 2-sulfataseP22304Details
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-6Q9UK32Details
Cytoplasmic tyrosine-protein kinase BMXP51813Details
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1P51617Details
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 15Q6ZN16Details
Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 3O75914Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-4Q5JXX5Details
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4Q99677Details
P2Y purinoceptor 4P51582Details
Putative P2Y purinoceptor 10O00398Details
P2Y purinoceptor 8Q86VZ1Details
V-type proton ATPase subunit S1Q15904Details
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3Q16720Details