Idoxuridine is a pyrimidine analog antiviral used for the treatment of viral eye infections, including herpes simplex keratitis.
- Generic Name
- DrugBank Accession Number
An analog of deoxyuridine that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
- Small Molecule
- Approved, Investigational
- Average: 354.0985
- Chemical Formula
- 5-Iodouracil deoxyriboside
- External IDs
- ALLERGAN 211
- SK&F 14287
For use in keratoconjunctivitis and keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus.Reduce drug development failure ratesBuild, train, & validate machine-learning modelswith evidence-based and structured datasets.Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
- Associated Conditions
- Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
- Avoid life-threatening adverse drug eventsImprove clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
In chemical structure idoxuridine closely approximates the configuration of thymidine, one of the four building blocks of DNA (the genetic material of the Herpes virus). As a result, idoxuridine is able to replace thymidine in the enzymatic step of viral replication or "growth". The consequent production of faulty DNA results in a pseudostructure which cannot infect or destroy tissue. In short, by pre-empting a vital building block in the genetic material of the Herpes simplex virus, Herplex-D topical solution destroys the infective and destructive capacity of the viral material. The virus infected cell may only be attacked during the period of active synthesis of DNA. This occurs early in the development of the Herpes simplex lesion, but at different times in different cells. Therefore, ideally, the affected area should remain saturated with the antiviral agent.
- Mechanism of action
Idoxuridine acts as an antiviral agent by inhibiting viral replication by substituting itself for thymidine in viral DNA. This in turn inhibits thymidylate phosphorylase and viral DNA polymerases from properly functioning. The effect of Idoxuridine results in the inability of the virus to reproduce or to infect/destroy tissue.
Target Actions Organism ADNAother Humans UThymidine kinaseunknown HHV-1
Systemic absorption is unlikely following ocular administration even when nasolacrimal secretions are swallowed, since vidarabine is rapidly deaminated in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Volume of distribution
- Protein binding
Idoxuridine is rapidly inactivated by deaminases or nucleotidases.
- Route of elimination
- Adverse Effects
- Improve decision support & research outcomesWith structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Hypersensitivity or increased sensitivity of eyes to light. LD50=3080 mg/kg (orally in mice).
- Not Available
- Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
- Not Available
- Drug Interactions
- This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.Not Available
- Food Interactions
- No interactions found.
- Drug product information from 10+ global regionsOur datasets provide approved product information including:dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
- International/Other Brands
- Herpid (Astellas) / Herpidu (Ciba Vision) / Idulea (Elea) / Idustatin (Sanofi) / Keresid (GlaxoSmithKline) / Oftan IDU (Santen) / Virexen (Viñas)
- Brand Name Prescription Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Dendrid Solution / drops 1 mg/1mL Ophthalmic ALCON LABORATORIES, INC. 1963-06-28 1995-12-31 Herplex Solution / drops .1 % Ophthalmic Allergan 1963-12-31 2011-08-04 Herplex D Liquid .1 % Topical Allergan 1967-12-31 2011-08-04
- Generic Prescription Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Sandoz Idoxuridine Liquid 0.1 % Topical Sandoz Canada Incorporated 1999-02-15 2019-08-01
- ATC Codes
- D06BB01 — Idoxuridine
- D06BB — Antivirals
- D06B — CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS FOR TOPICAL USE
- D06 — ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS FOR DERMATOLOGICAL USE
- D — DERMATOLOGICALS
- J05AB — Nucleosides and nucleotides excl. reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- J05A — DIRECT ACTING ANTIVIRALS
- J05 — ANTIVIRALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE
- J — ANTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE
- Drug Categories
- Anti-Infective Agents
- Antiinfectives for Systemic Use
- Antiviral Agents
- Antivirals for Systemic Use
- Direct Acting Antivirals
- Enzyme Inhibitors
- Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
- Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides
- Nucleoside Analog Antiviral
- Nucleosides and Nucleotides Excl. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
- Pyrimidine Nucleosides
- Sensory Organs
- Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
- This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. These are compounds consisting of a pyrimidine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
- Organic compounds
- Super Class
- Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
- Pyrimidine nucleosides
- Sub Class
- Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
- Direct Parent
- Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
- Alternative Parents
- Pyrimidones / Halopyrimidines / Hydroxypyrimidines / Aryl iodides / Hydropyrimidines / Tetrahydrofurans / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary alcohols / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Organoiodides / Organonitrogen compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Primary alcohols show 6 more
- Alcohol / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Aryl halide / Aryl iodide / Azacycle / Halopyrimidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Hydropyrimidine / Hydroxypyrimidine / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organohalogen compound / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organoiodide / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Oxacycle / Primary alcohol / Pyrimidine / Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside / Pyrimidone / Secondary alcohol / Tetrahydrofuran show 16 more
- Molecular Framework
- Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
- External Descriptors
- organoiodine compound, pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (CHEBI:147675)
- Affected organisms
- Herpes simplex virus
- CAS number
- InChI Key
- IUPAC Name
- Synthesis Reference
British Patent 1,024,156.
- General References
- Seth AK, Misra A, Umrigar D: Topical liposomal gel of idoxuridine for the treatment of herpes simplex: pharmaceutical and clinical implications. Pharm Dev Technol. 2004 Aug;9(3):277-89. [Article]
- Otto SE: Radiopharmaceuticals (Strontium 89) and radiosensitizers (idoxuridine). J Intraven Nurs. 1998 Nov-Dec;21(6):335-7. [Article]
- Fauth E, Zankl H: Comparison of spontaneous and idoxuridine-induced micronuclei by chromosome painting. Mutat Res. 1999 Apr 6;440(2):147-56. [Article]
- PDB Entries
- Download (73.5 KB)
- Alcon laboratories inc
- Allergan pharmaceutical
- Medisca Inc.
- Dosage Forms
Form Route Strength Solution / drops Ophthalmic Solution / drops Ophthalmic 1 mg/1mL Solution Topical 5 g Solution / drops Ophthalmic .1 % Liquid Topical .1 % Ointment Ophthalmic Cream Topical Solution Topical Liquid Topical 0.1 %
Unit description Cost Unit Idoxuridine powder 273.88USD gDrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
- Not Available
- Experimental Properties
Property Value Source melting point (°C) 193 British Patent 1,024,156. water solubility 2000 mg/L (at 25 °C) MERCK INDEX (1996) logP -0.96 NARURKAR,MM & MITRA,AK (1988)
- Predicted Properties
Property Value Source Water Solubility 23.4 mg/mL ALOGPS logP -0.7 ALOGPS logP -0.53 ChemAxon logS -1.2 ALOGPS pKa (Strongest Acidic) 8.46 ChemAxon pKa (Strongest Basic) -3 ChemAxon Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 5 ChemAxon Hydrogen Donor Count 3 ChemAxon Polar Surface Area 99.1 Å2 ChemAxon Rotatable Bond Count 2 ChemAxon Refractivity 64.4 m3·mol-1 ChemAxon Polarizability 26.17 Å3 ChemAxon Number of Rings 2 ChemAxon Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon Ghose Filter No ChemAxon Veber's Rule No ChemAxon MDDR-like Rule No ChemAxon
- Predicted ADMET Features
Property Value Probability Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.8129 Blood Brain Barrier + 0.6502 Caco-2 permeable - 0.8707 P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7139 P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.8735 P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8719 Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8943 CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7834 CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8656 CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5445 CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045 CYP450 2C9 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.9108 CYP450 2D6 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.9231 CYP450 2C19 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.9093 CYP450 3A4 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.8932 CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8505 Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132 Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7699 Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9542 Rat acute toxicity 2.0879 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9356 hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8113
- Mass Spec (NIST)
- Not Available
Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available
- Komissarova NV, Tiunova AA, Anokhin KV: Selective impairments to memory consolidation in chicks produced by 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010 Feb;40(2):215-23. doi: 10.1007/s11055-009-9237-0. Epub 2009 Dec 22. [Article]
- Komissarova NV, Tiunova AA, Anokhin KV: [Selective disruption of memory consolidation in chicks produced by 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2008 Nov-Dec;58(6):700-10. [Article]
- Pharmacological action
- General Function
- Thymidine kinase activity
- Specific Function
- In latent infection, may allow the virus to be reactivated and to grow in cells lacking a high concentration of phosphorylated nucleic acid precursors, such as nerve cells that do not replicate the...
- Gene Name
- Uniprot ID
- Uniprot Name
- Thymidine kinase
- Molecular Weight
- 40896.475 Da
- Wild K, Bohner T, Folkers G, Schulz GE: The structures of thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus type 1 in complex with substrates and a substrate analogue. Protein Sci. 1997 Oct;6(10):2097-106. [Article]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on October 20, 2021 19:48