Metixene

Identification

Generic Name
Metixene
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00340
Background

Metixene (or methixene) is a anticholinergic used as an antiparkinsonian agent.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 309.468
Monoisotopic: 309.155120431
Chemical Formula
C20H23NS
Synonyms
  • Methixen
  • Methixene
  • Metisene
  • Metixene
  • Métixène
  • Metixeno
  • Metixenum
External IDs
  • 60 SJ 1977

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism.

Pharmacology
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Drug Discovery
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Metixene is a tertiary antimuscarinic with actions similar to those of atropine; it also has antihistaminic and direct antispasmodic properties. It is used for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism, including the alleviation of the extrapyramidal syndrome induced by other drugs such as phenothiazines, but, like other antimuscarinics, it is of no value against tardive dyskinesias. Metixene has been discontinued.

Mechanism of action

Parkinsonism is thought to result from an imbalance between the excitatory (cholinergic) and inhibitory (dopaminergic) systems in the corpus striatum. The mechanism of action of centrally active anticholinergic drugs such as metixene is considered to relate to competitive antagonism of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the corpus striatum, which then restores the balance.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration, however the extent of absorption is not known.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolism occurs via sulfoxydation and N-demethylation.

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Signs of overdose include dilated and sluggish pupils, warm, dry skin, facial flushing, decreased secretions of the mouth, pharynx, nose, and bronchi, foul-smelling breath, elevated temperature, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased bowel sounds, urinary retention, delirium, disorientation, anxiety, hallucinations, illusions, confusion, incoherence, agitation, hyperactivity, ataxia, loss of memory, paranoia, combativeness, and seizures.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-Benzodiazepine1,2-Benzodiazepine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
AcetophenazineAcetophenazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metixene is combined with Aclidinium.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Metixene is combined with Adenosine.
AgomelatineAgomelatine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Metixene.
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
AlloinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alloin can be decreased when used in combination with Metixene.
AlmotriptanAlmotriptan may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metixene.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Metixene hydrochlorideFRK5BSL54S7081-40-5RSXZRFHNNTTWCB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Cholinfall / Methixart / Tremaril / Tremarit

Categories

ATC Codes
N04AA03 — Metixene
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thioxanthenes. These are organic polycyclic compounds containing a thioxanthene moiety, which is an aromatic tricycle derived from xanthene by replacing the oxygen atom with a sulfur atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiopyrans
Sub Class
1-benzothiopyrans
Direct Parent
Thioxanthenes
Alternative Parents
Diarylthioethers / Aralkylamines / Piperidines / Benzenoids / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Amine / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl thioether / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Diarylthioether / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, thioxanthenes (CHEBI:51024)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
32VY6L26ZW
CAS number
4969-02-2
InChI Key
MJFJKKXQDNNUJF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H23NS/c1-21-12-6-7-15(14-21)13-18-16-8-2-4-10-19(16)22-20-11-5-3-9-17(18)20/h2-5,8-11,15,18H,6-7,12-14H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
1-methyl-3-(9H-thioxanthen-9-ylmethyl)piperidine
SMILES
CN1CCCC(CC2C3=CC=CC=C3SC3=CC=CC=C23)C1

References

General References
  1. Link [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014484
KEGG Drug
D01871
PubChem Compound
4167
PubChem Substance
46508970
ChemSpider
4023
BindingDB
79211
RxNav
29682
ChEBI
51024
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201342
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000346
PharmGKB
PA164783811
Wikipedia
Metixene

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)173 °C at 7.00E-02 mm HgPhysProp
water solubilitySoluble as HCl saltNot Available
logP4.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000102 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.51ALOGPS
logP5.06ChemAxon
logS-6.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3.24 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9825
Blood Brain Barrier+0.995
Caco-2 permeable+0.7863
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.81
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.51
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8379
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.8034
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7575
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.7452
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5709
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8941
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9516
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.9146
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.951
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6914
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8216
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9644
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.973
Rat acute toxicity2.4059 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6823
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8044
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Curator comments
Metixene has widespread antimuscarinic effects, but the data is currently limited on the exact receptors and their subunits.
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...

Components:
References
  1. Authors unspecified: Evaluation of an antispasmodic agent. Methixene hydrochloride (Trest). JAMA. 1966 Mar 7;195(10):851. doi: 10.1001/jama.1966.03100100103030. [Article]
  2. ABRUZZI W: THE USE OF METHIXENE HYDROCHLORIDE TO RELIEVE FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS. J New Drugs. 1965 Mar-Apr;5(2):109-13. doi: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1965.tb00233.x. [Article]
  3. Clarke S, Hay GA, Vas CJ: Therapeutic action of methixene hydrochloride on Parkinsonian tremor and a description of a new tremor-recording transducer. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1966 Feb;26(2):345-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1966.tb01913.x. [Article]
  4. Norris JW, Vas CJ: Mehixene hydrochloride and parkinsonian tremor. Acta Neurol Scand. 1967;43(4):535-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.1967.tb05760.x. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on July 03, 2021 09:03