Albuterol is a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat asthma, bronchitis, COPD, as well as prevent exercise induced bronchospasms.

Brand Names
Airomir, Airsupra, Combivent, Proair, Proventil, Ventolin
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Salbutamol (Albuterol [USAN]) is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Salbutamol is formulated as a racemic mixture of the R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer has 150 times greater affinity for the beta2-receptor than the S-isomer and the S-isomer has been associated with toxicity. This lead to the development of levalbuterol, the single R-isomer of salbutamol. However, the high cost of levalbuterol compared to salbutamol has deterred wide-spread use of this enantiomerically pure version of the drug. Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma.Label,1,2

Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved
Average: 239.3107
Monoisotopic: 239.152143543
Chemical Formula
  • Albuterol
  • Salbutamol
  • Salbutamolum



Salbutamol is indicated for (i) the symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, reversible obstructive airway disease, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in which bronchospasm is a complicating factor, and/or (ii) the acute prophylaxis against exercise-induced bronchospasm and other stimuli known to induce bronchospasm.Label,4,5

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Used in combination to treatAsthmaCombination Product in combination with: Theophylline (DB00277)••••••••••••••••••
Used in combination for symptomatic treatment ofAsthmaCombination Product in combination with: Guaifenesin (DB00874)••••••••••••••••••
Used in combination to treatAsthmatic bronchitisCombination Product in combination with: Flunisolide (DB00180)••••••••••••
Used in combination to treatBronchial asthmaCombination Product in combination with: Flunisolide (DB00180)••••••••••••
Used in combination to preventBronchoconstrictionCombination Product in combination with: Budesonide (DB01222)•••••••••••••••••••••••••
Associated Therapies
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Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases.Label,4,5 The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity.2 The R-enantiomer is available and sold in its pure form as levalbuterol and subsequently may produce fewer side-effects with only the R-enantiomer present - although this has not been formally demonstrated.2

After oral and parenteral administration, stimulation of the beta receptors in the body, both beta-1 and beta-2, occurs because (a) beta-2 selectivity is not absolute, and (b) higher concentrations of salbutamol occur in the regions of these receptors with these modes of administration.Label,4,5 This results in the beta-1 effect of cardiac stimulation, though not so much as with isoprenaline, and beta-2 effects of peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension, skeletal muscle tremor, and uterine muscle relaxation.Label,4,5

Metabolic effects such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also may occur, although it is not known whether these effects are mediated by beta-1 or beta-2 receptors.Label,4,5 The serum potassium levels have a tendency to fall.4

Mechanism of action

In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have shown that salbutamol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol.Label,4,5 Although beta2­ adrenoceptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and beta1 adrenoceptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, there are also beta2-adrenoceptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenoceptors.Label,4,5 The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but their presence raises the possibility that even selective beta2-agonists may have cardiac effects.Label,4,5

Activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenyl cyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP).Label,4,5 This increase of cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation.Label,4,5 Salbutamol relaxes the smooth muscles of all airways, from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles.Label,4,5 Salbutamol acts as a functional antagonist to relax the airway irrespective of the spasmogen involved, thus protecting against all bronchoconstrictor challenges.Label,4,5 Increased cyclic AMP concentrations are also associated with the inhibition of release of mediators from mast cells in the airway.Label,4,5

Salbutamol has been shown in most controlled clinical trials to have more effect on the respiratory tract, in the form of bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, than isoproterenol at comparable doses while producing fewer cardiovascular effects.Label,4,5 Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes.Label,4,5

A measurable decrease in airway resistance is typically observed within 5 to 15 minutes after inhalation of salbutamol.Label,4,5 The maximum improvement in pulmonary function usually occurs 60 to 90 minutes after salbutamol treatment, and significant bronchodilator activity has been observed to persist for 3 to 6 hours.Label,4,5

ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
UBeta-1 adrenergic receptor
UBeta-3 adrenergic receptorNot AvailableHumans

Following inhalation, salbutamol acts topically on bronchial smooth muscle and the drug is initially undetectable in the blood.4 After 2 to 3 hours low concentrations are seen, due presumably to the portion of the dose which is swallowed and absorbed in the gut.4

In particular, the systemic levels of salbutamol are low after inhalation of recommended doses.Label A trial conducted in 12 healthy male and female subjects using a higher dose (1,080 mcg of albuterol base) showed that mean peak plasma concentrations of approximately 3 ng/mL occurred after dosing when salbutamol was delivered using propellant HFA-134a.Label The mean time to peak concentrations (Tmax) was delayed after administration of VENTOLIN (salbutamol) HFA (Tmax = 0.42 hours) as compared with CFC-propelled salbutamol inhaler (Tmax = 0.17 hours).Label

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution recorded for intravenously administered salbutamol has been recorded as 156 +/- 38 L.1

Protein binding

Salbutamol is only weakly bound to plasma proteins.5


Salbutamol is not metabolized in the lung but is converted in the liver to the 4'-o-sulphate (salbutamol 4'-O-sulfate) ester, which has negligible pharmacologic activity.4,5 It may also be metabolized by oxidative deamination and/or conjugation with glucuronide.4,5 Salbutamol is ultimately excreted in the urine as free drug and as the metabolite.4,5

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

After oral administration, 58-78% of the dose is excreted in the urine in 24 hours, approximately 60% as metabolites.4,5 A small fraction is excreted in the feces.4,5


The elimination half-life of inhaled or oral salbutamol has been recorded as being between 2.7 and 5 hours while the apparent terminal plasma half-life of albuterol has been documented as being approximately 4.6 hours.4,Label


The renal clearance of salbutamol has been documented as 272 +/- 38 ml/min after oral administration and 291 +/- 70 ml/min after intravenous administration.1 Furthermore, the renal clearance of the predominant sulfate conjugate metabolite was recorded as 98.5 +/- 23.5 ml/min following oral administration.1

Adverse Effects
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The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of albuterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms of beta-adrenergic stimulation (e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis).Label In particular, the signs of salbutamol overdosage are significant tachycardia and/or significant muscle tremor.4,5

Hypokalaemia may occur following overdosage with salbutamol.4 Serum potassium levels should be monitored.4

Lactic acidosis has been reported in association with high therapeutic doses as well as overdoses of short-acting beta-agonist therapy, therefore monitoring for elevated serum lactate and consequent metabolic acidosis (particularly if there is persistence or worsening of tachypnea despite resolution of other signs of bronchospasm such as wheezing) may be indicated in the setting of overdose.4,5

Salbutamol is categorized as Pregnancy Category C.Label There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with salbutamolc or albuterol sulfate in pregnant women.Label During worldwide marketing experience, various congenital anomalies, including cleft palate and limb defects, have been reported in the offspring of patients being treated with salbutamol.Label Some of the mothers were taking multiple medications during their pregnancies.Label No consistent pattern of defects can be discerned, and a relationship between salbutamol use and congenital anomalies has not been established.Label Animal reproduction studies in mice and rabbits revealed evidence of teratogenicity.Label Salbutamol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetusLabel]. Women should be advised to contact their physicians if they become pregnant while taking salbutamol.Label

Since there exists a potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, the use of salbutamol during labour should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk.Label

Plasma levels of albuterol sulfate and HFA-134a after inhaled therapeutic doses are very low in humans, but it is not known whether the components of salbutamol are excreted in human milk.Label Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for albuterol in animal studies and lack of experience with the use of salbutamol by nursing mothers, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.Label Caution should be exercised when salbutamol is administered to a nursing woman.Label

The safety and effectiveness of salbutamol in children younger than 4 years of age has not yet been established.Label

Clinical trials of VENTOLIN HFA did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether older subjects respond differently than younger subjects.Label Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.Label In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.Label

The LD50 value was determined to be 1100 mg/kg (orally in mice).

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AbacavirSalbutamol may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Albuterol.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Salbutamol can be decreased when used in combination with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with Acemetacin.
Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Albuterol sulfate021SEF373151022-70-9BNPSSFBOAGDEEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Active Moieties
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Aerolin / Asmol / Asthalin / Asthavent / ProAir (Teva) / PROAIRHFA / Salamol / Ventilan (GlaxoSmithKline) / Ventoline (GlaxoSmithKline) / VENTOLINHFA / Ventorlin (GlaxoSmithKline) / VoSpire
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AccuNebSolution1.25 mg/3mLRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-102013-08-31US flag
AccuNebSolution0.63 mg/3mLRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-102013-08-31US flag
AiromirAerosol, metered100 mcg / actRespiratory (inhalation)Bausch Health, Canada Inc.1998-08-13Not applicableCanada flag
AlbuterolAerosol, metered90 ug/1OralArmstrong Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-27Not applicableUS flag
AlbuterolAerosol, spray90 ug/1OralWarrick Pharmaceuticals Corporation2006-12-07Not applicableUS flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals NY LLC2018-05-24Not applicableUS flag
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.2020-10-23Not applicableUS flag
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.1997-04-292023-01-31US flag
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralDash Pharmaceutical LLC2019-03-152021-02-24US flag
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralZydus Lifesciences Limited2020-10-23Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
APO-SALVENT TABLET 2 mgTablet2 mgOralPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTD1995-10-02Not applicableSingapore flag
APO-SALVENT TABLET 4 mgTablet4 mgOralPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTD1996-02-05Not applicableSingapore flag
ASMOL 2 TABLET 2 mgTablet2 mgOralSUNWARD PHARMACEUTICAL PRIVATE LIMITED1991-10-06Not applicableSingapore flag
ASMOL SYRUP 2 mg/5 mlSyrup2 mg/5mlOralSUNWARD PHARMACEUTICAL PRIVATE LIMITED1989-02-27Not applicableSingapore flag
ASMOL TABLET 4 mgTablet4 mgOralSUNWARD PHARMACEUTICAL PRIVATE LIMITED1989-05-22Not applicableSingapore flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AirsupraAlbuterol sulfate (90 ug/1) + Budesonide (80 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP2023-10-02Not applicableUS flag
ALMEIDAAlbuterol (1.875 MG/0.5ML) + Ipratropium bromide anhydrous (0.375 MG/0.5ML)SprayOral; Respiratory (inhalation)I.B.N. Savio S.R.L2014-07-08Not applicableItaly flag
ALMEIDAAlbuterol (0.375 %) + Ipratropium bromide anhydrous (0.075 %)SprayOral; Respiratory (inhalation)I.B.N. Savio S.R.L2014-07-08Not applicableItaly flag
Apo-salvent-ipravent SterulesAlbuterol sulfate (2.5 mg / 2.5 mL) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg / 2.5 mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation2006-08-25Not applicableCanada flag
BECLOSAL HFA INHALERAlbuterol (120 MCG/1DOSE) + Beclomethasone dipropionate (50 MCG/1DOSE)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)บริษัท ฐิติรัตน์สานนท์ จำกัด จำกัด2020-02-25Not applicableThailand flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Basic Dental Emergency KitAlbuterol sulfate (108 ug/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + D-glucose (4000 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (50 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine (0.3 mg/0.3mL) + Nitroglycerin (0.4 mg/1)Aerosol, metered; Injection; Kit; Tablet; Tablet, chewableIntramuscular; Intravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Subcutaneous; SublingualBest Dental Kit LLC2023-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Deluxe Dental Emergency KitAlbuterol sulfate (108 ug/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + D-glucose (4000 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (50 mg/1mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/5mL) + Epinephrine (0.3 mg/0.3mL) + Epinephrine (0.15 mg/0.15mL) + Nitroglycerin (0.4 mg/1)Aerosol, metered; Injection; Kit; Solution; Tablet; Tablet, chewableIntramuscular; Intravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Subcutaneous; SublingualBest Dental Kit LLC2023-01-30Not applicableUS flag


ATC Codes
R03AK04 — Salbutamol and sodium cromoglicateR03AK15 — Salbutamol and budesonideR03AC02 — SalbutamolR03CC02 — SalbutamolR03AK13 — Salbutamol and beclometasoneR03AL02 — Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzyl alcohols. These are organic compounds containing the phenylmethanol substructure.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzyl alcohols
Direct Parent
Benzyl alcohols
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Aromatic alcohols
1,2-aminoalcohol / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Alcohol / Amine / Aralkylamine / Aromatic alcohol / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Benzyl alcohol / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenylethanolamines, phenols, secondary amino compound (CHEBI:2549)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key


Synthesis Reference

Toshikuni Kawazi, Masahiro Ono, Nobuko Inoue, "Salbutamol-containing plaster and method of producing same." U.S. Patent US5068103, issued February, 1984.

General References
  1. Morgan DJ, Paull JD, Richmond BH, Wilson-Evered E, Ziccone SP: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral salbutamol and its sulphate conjugate. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986 Nov;22(5):587-93. [Article]
  2. Jacobson GA, Raidal S, Robson K, Narkowicz CK, Nichols DS, Haydn Walters E: Bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetics of (R)-salbutamol and (S)-salbutamol enantiomers in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and lung tissue of horses. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jul;83(7):1436-1445. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13228. Epub 2017 Feb 8. [Article]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: AIRSUPRA (albuterol and budesonide) inhalation aerosol, for oral inhalation use [Link]
  4. Salbutamol Australian Product Information [File]
  5. Salbutamol Canadian Product Information [File]
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page
FDA label
Download (693 KB)
Download (52.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAsthma1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAir Trapping / Airway Obstruction / Hyperinflation / Obstructive Lung Diseases / Secondhand Smoke / Tobacco1
4CompletedNot AvailableAsthma2
4CompletedNot AvailableSevere Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAsthma1


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Dosage Forms
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.63 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg/3mL
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)2 mg
Aerosol, meteredIntrabronchial90 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredOral90 ug/1
Aerosol, sprayOral90 ug/1
TabletOral4 mg/1
InhalantNasal0.63 mg/3mL
InhalantNasal1.50 mg/3mL
InhalantNasal2.5 mg/3mL
InhalantOral2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial0.63 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial1.25 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionNasal5 mg/1mL
SolutionOral2 mg/5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.83 mg/1mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.5 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/0.5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg/1mL
SyrupOcclusive dressing technique2 mg/5mL
SyrupOral2 mg/5mL
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral2.4 mg/1
TabletOral4.8 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral8 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral8 mg/1
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1g
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.24 %
SuspensionBuccal20.00 mg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg/actuation
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)97 mcg / act
Aerosol, metered; injection; kit; tablet; tablet, chewableIntramuscular; Intravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Subcutaneous; Sublingual
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 g
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)100 cg
AerosolOral24.100 mg
GasRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 mg/1
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation)500 mcg
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 %
SyrupRespiratory (inhalation)2 MG/5ML
Capsule, coatedOral4 mg
SyrupOral0.0483 g
SolutionOral48.20 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg/1dose
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)0.1429 g
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg/dose
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg/1dose
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg/dose
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg/1dose
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)
Spray, suspensionRespiratory (inhalation)
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
Spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionNasal0.5 mg/2.5ml
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 mg/1
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)0.4 mg/1
Aerosol, metered; injection; kit; solution; tablet; tablet, chewableIntramuscular; Intravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Subcutaneous; Sublingual
TabletOral2.4 MG
Aerosol; solutionRespiratory (inhalation)
Capsule, extended release4 mg
SyrupOral40.000 mg
AerosolBuccal1.480 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg/mL
Powder, for solutionOral
SuspensionOral2 mg/5ml
SprayOral; Respiratory (inhalation)
TabletOral4.82 MG
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
SuspensionBuccal0.11475 g
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)200 mg
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)6.025 mg
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 mg
Aerosol, meteredOral100 mcg / act
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)100 Mikrogramm
Solution5.000 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg
SolutionOral0.4 mg / mL
Aerosol; suspensionRespiratory (inhalation)
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)
Solution; spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1
SprayOral90 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg / act
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 mg / mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg / mL
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg / dose
Aerosol; solutionRespiratory (inhalation)
ElixirOral2 MG/5ML
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation)
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)0.159 % w/w
Aerosol, powderRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 MG
Aerosol, powderRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 MG
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg/2.5ml
GasRespiratory (inhalation)100 µg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)250 mg
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.215 % w/w
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg
SyrupOral0.040 g
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)4 mg
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)8 mg
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)0.12745 g
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.2145 % w/w
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)0.2145 % w/w
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
GasRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 MG
SolutionOral40 mg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 g
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.1166 g
SolutionNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)0.2 g
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 mg
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg / mL
SyrupOral0.04 g
SyrupOral40 mg
SyrupOral48.207 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.05 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 %
Spray, suspensionRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 MG/ML
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)30130 Mg
TabletOral2.41 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Aerosol; suspensionRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)0.01 g
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 mg
Syrup100 ml
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)120 MCG
TabletOral4 MG
InjectionIntravenous0.5 mg/ml
Capsule, coated pellets
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg/2.5ml
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5.0000 mg
SuspensionRespiratory (inhalation)31.68 mg
SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.5 mg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 mg
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 mg
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)1.21 MG
Aerosol; powderRespiratory (inhalation)
TabletOral2.418 MG
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg / mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2 mg / mL
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)3 MG
Aerosol, powderRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)200 MICROGRAMMI
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 MG/2ML
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)5 MG/2ML
Syrup0.048 %
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg / blister
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)400 mcg / blister
AerosolBuccal0.1328 g
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 MICROGRAMMI
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)6 MG
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 MICROGRAMMI/5ML
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 MICROGRAMMI/1ML
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)200 MCG
SolutionIntramuscular500 μg/ml
SolutionIntravenous100 μg/5ml
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5000 mg
Syrup2 MG/10ML
Tablet, effervescentOral2 MG
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)200 doz
TabletOral2 mg
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg/inhalation
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg / act
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
SolutionIntramuscular0.5 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous0.25 mg / 5 mL
SolutionIntravenous1 mg / mL
LiquidIntramuscular.5 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous1 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous.25 mg / 5 mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 MG
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg / 2.5 mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg / 2.5 mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg / 2.5 mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg / 2.5 mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg / 2.5 mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg / 2.5 mL
LiquidOral0.4 mg / mL
LiquidOral.4 mg / mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 % w/v
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)400 mcg
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg / cap
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)400 mcg / cap
InjectionIntravenous5 mg/5ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous
TabletOral4 mg / tab
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)108 ug/1
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5.000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral8 MG
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/2.5ml
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/2.5ml
TabletRespiratory (inhalation)
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg/1ml
LiquidNasal5 mg/1ml
AerosolRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg/1dose
Syrup2 mg/5ml
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xopenex 0.63 mg/3 ml solution64.2USD ml
Proventil HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 6.7 gm Inhaler55.09USD inhaler
Xopenex HFA 45 mcg/act Aerosol 15 gm Inhaler53.84USD inhaler
AccuNeb 0.63 mg/3ml Neb. Solution 1 Box= 25 Vials53.14USD plastic
AccuNeb 1.25 mg/3ml Neb. Solution 1 Box= 25 Vials53.14USD plastic
ProAir HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 8.5 gm Inhaler45.99USD inhaler
Ventolin HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 18 gm Inhaler39.99USD inhaler
Proair hfa 90 mcg inhaler12.62USD g
Proventil hfa 90 mcg inhaler8.07USD g
Xopenex hfa 45 mcg inhaler6.12USD g
Xopenex 0.31 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.87USD plastic
Xopenex 1.25 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.87USD plastic
Xopenex 0.63 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.71USD plastic
Xopenex 1.25 mg/3 ml solution2.96USD ml
Ventolin hfa 90 mcg inhaler2.01USD g
Xopenex 0.31 mg/3 ml solution1.56USD ml
Ventolin 5 mg/ml Solution1.13USD ml
Ventolin Nebules P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.88USD ml
Accuneb 0.63 mg/3 ml inh solution0.68USD ml
Accuneb 1.25 mg/3 ml inh solution0.68USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Sandoz Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol Polyneb 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Uni Dose P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Ventolin Nebules P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.47USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Sulf U.D.P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Apo-Salvent 4 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Pms-Salbutamol 0.5 mg/ml Solution0.16USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Unit Dose P.F 0.5 mg/ml Solution0.16USD ml
Apo-Salvent 2 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Pms-Salbutamol 400 mcg/ml Liquid0.05USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Hfa 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.04USD dose
Airomir Cfc-Free 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
Apo-Salvent Cfc Free 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
Ventolin Hfa 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6352684No2002-03-052009-11-28US flag
CA2125667No2000-03-132012-12-04Canada flag
CA2125665No2001-06-122012-12-04Canada flag
US5775321No1998-07-072015-07-07US flag
US6451289No2002-09-172021-03-21US flag
US6446627No2002-09-102017-12-18US flag
US6702997No2004-03-092021-12-28US flag
US6632842No2003-10-142021-12-28US flag
US6558651Yes2003-05-062017-06-19US flag
US6743413Yes2004-06-012021-12-01US flag
US6938796Yes2005-09-062018-07-16US flag
US6997349Yes2006-02-142018-07-16US flag
US6431168Yes2002-08-132018-12-08US flag
US7107986Yes2006-09-192018-12-06US flag
US7500444Yes2009-03-102026-08-26US flag
US6315173Yes2001-11-132018-06-23US flag
US7143908Yes2006-12-052018-07-16US flag
US6170717Yes2001-01-092018-06-23US flag
US7350676Yes2008-04-012019-02-24US flag
US7832351Yes2010-11-162023-12-19US flag
US6161724Yes2000-12-192018-07-16US flag
US6510969Yes2003-01-282018-06-23US flag
US6966467Yes2005-11-222018-06-23US flag
US6435372Yes2002-08-202018-07-16US flag
US7566445No2009-07-282017-06-04US flag
US8834849No2014-09-162017-06-04US flag
US7105152No2006-09-122023-09-12US flag
US8132712No2012-03-132028-09-07US flag
US6006745No1999-12-282016-12-28US flag
US7256310No2007-08-142024-10-08US flag
US8765153No2014-07-012023-12-08US flag
US5836299No1998-11-172015-11-17US flag
US6453795Yes2002-09-242017-06-05US flag
US8733341Yes2014-05-272031-04-16US flag
US9027967Yes2015-05-122027-10-01US flag
US7104470Yes2006-09-122017-04-04US flag
US7246615Yes2007-07-242016-12-01US flag
US7896264Yes2011-03-012025-11-26US flag
US7988001Yes2011-08-022022-02-04US flag
US7802568Yes2010-09-282019-08-26US flag
US6149054Yes2000-11-212017-06-16US flag
US6726124Yes2004-04-272017-04-04US flag
US7396341Yes2008-07-082027-04-10US flag
US6846413Yes2005-01-252019-02-28US flag
US6176442Yes2001-01-232016-12-01US flag
US7837235Yes2010-11-232028-09-13US flag
US5964416Yes1999-10-122017-04-04US flag
US7284474Yes2007-10-232025-02-26US flag
US6977042Yes2005-12-202019-02-28US flag
US6988496Yes2006-01-242020-08-23US flag
US6871646No2005-03-292021-06-23US flag
US8978966Yes2015-03-172032-07-13US flag
US6701917No2004-03-092021-06-23US flag
US7540282Yes2009-06-022023-11-06US flag
US6748947No2004-06-152021-06-23US flag
US8006690No2011-08-302021-06-23US flag
US6718972No2004-04-132021-06-23US flag
US9216260Yes2015-12-222031-12-28US flag
US8651103Yes2014-02-182028-09-26US flag
US9463289No2016-10-112031-05-18US flag
US9463288Yes2016-10-112025-11-19US flag
US9415009No2016-08-162030-05-28US flag
US9731087Yes2017-08-152031-11-18US flag
US9808587No2017-11-072031-05-18US flag
US9861771No2018-01-092020-10-11US flag
US10022510Yes2018-07-172031-11-18US flag
US10022509No2018-07-172031-05-18US flag
US10086156No2018-10-022031-05-18US flag
US10124131Yes2018-11-132031-11-18US flag
US9782550Yes2017-10-102036-02-28US flag
US9782551Yes2017-10-102036-02-28US flag
US10569034Yes2020-02-252037-02-16US flag
US10561808Yes2020-02-182032-07-01US flag
US10695512No2020-06-302031-05-18US flag
US10765820Yes2020-09-082025-11-19US flag
US10918816Yes2021-02-162036-06-14US flag
US11000653Yes2021-05-112039-06-18US flag
US11173259Yes2021-11-162041-01-06US flag
US11266796Yes2021-08-222041-08-22US flag
US11344685Yes2020-03-262040-03-26US flag
US11351317Yes2018-08-102038-08-10US flag
US11357935Yes2019-03-242039-03-24US flag
US11395889No2011-05-182031-05-18US flag
US11439777Yes2020-11-242040-11-24US flag
US11464923Yes2020-12-192040-12-19US flag


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)147-149Lunts, L.H.C. and Toon, P.; U.S. Patent 3,644,353; February 22,1972; assigned to Allen & Hanburys Ltd.
water solubility1.41E+004 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP1.4Not Available
logS-1.22ADME Research, USCD
pKa10.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.15 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.12Chemaxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4Chemaxon
Physiological Charge1Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area72.72 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count5Chemaxon
Refractivity67.87 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability26.86 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterYesChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9812
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9659
Caco-2 permeable-0.7112
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.684
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8781
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9673
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8974
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7074
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9197
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9287
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9343
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8834
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8409
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9734
Rat acute toxicity2.5275 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9564
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9288
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSsplash10-0ff9-9710000000-a986fa7cee66bc21b185
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-0900000000-1c9889f5fc33443c7b3b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-afe3df5bdead805eacaf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-1d8b235dd1e02960dba1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0090000000-6fee6c25dfbf9c3a7c13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-0d38029df88ee8018d9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-0950000000-9572451e9f596ae94494
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-05c59c5c9d63de269feb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-8ef6b84074e243e637bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0090000000-e288fafc6755fa4abcba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-5569e08c145733118852
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0296-0940000000-f3558c829fecc8fea6f0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-9b7ad78396782fd2237d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-19973e6238f364b40ec6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-0190000000-bec72774da692a955281
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-9d1b7a0e974ab4c5c2cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-98cef35812448be3e2db
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0090000000-182d7b602151e8ac7849
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0950000000-935c99cfc4690ce298f1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-064806e46a30b7dd760b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-6acca58ec4a7b6892bb1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-6b18a64209aa89c42af0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ec-4900000000-70c609482357e411ae42
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0090000000-127c8a78dd75e131e46a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0950000000-a3cef97d0495f36363a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-af9a8ad8ae6e7ade3b9b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-c95568abe549433d67e8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-06178e64d95e7221bccb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ec-4900000000-339502da9d74d89569f0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-039f3f4bbefe1a1588d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0190000000-99e78b87fa74322fae1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-637588735361fe2a9ad0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-b19c47ea3e07181932ab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-009x-7900000000-6091051edb1a5c40218e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-9400000000-ff279a7ba0390c8a14df
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00r2-0930000000-00b798f29eb25b7a4565
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0910000000-04b2657948bbb7af3d7c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0390000000-4a6ba6880e00c081e67d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-007c-0960000000-fef238dd6424dad29c75
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-4900000000-ee509ac3ea48c551c671
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0f76-4920000000-825c4af9822161800267
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-7900000000-db94fa53069dc07077e9
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
AdductCCS Value (Å2)Source typeSource
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)


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Pharmacological action
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
  1. Brichetto L, Milanese M, Song P, Patrone M, Crimi E, Rehder K, Brusasco V: Beclomethasone rapidly ablates allergen-induced beta 2-adrenoceptor pathway dysfunction in human isolated bronchi. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Jan;284(1):L133-9. Epub 2002 Aug 16. [Article]
  2. Chong LK, Suvarna K, Chess-Williams R, Peachell PT: Desensitization of beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses by short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in human lung mast cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;138(3):512-20. [Article]
  3. Yamanishi T, Chapple CR, Yasuda K, Yoshida K, Chess-Williams R: Role of beta-adrenoceptor subtypes in mediating relaxation of the pig bladder trigonal muscle in vitro. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22(4):338-42. [Article]
  4. Brouri F, Hanoun N, Mediani O, Saurini F, Hamon M, Vanhoutte PM, Lechat P: Blockade of beta 1- and desensitization of beta 2-adrenoceptors reduce isoprenaline-induced cardiac fibrosis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 6;485(1-3):227-34. [Article]
  5. Choudhry S, Ung N, Avila PC, Ziv E, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres A, Gorman JD, Salari K, Rodriguez-Santana JR, Toscano M, Sylvia JS, Alioto M, Castro RA, Salazar M, Gomez I, Fagan JK, Salas J, Clark S, Lilly C, Matallana H, Selman M, Chapela R, Sheppard D, Weiss ST, Ford JG, Boushey HA, Drazen JM, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Silverman EK, Burchard EG: Pharmacogenetic differences in response to albuterol between Puerto Ricans and Mexicans with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Mar 15;171(6):563-70. Epub 2004 Nov 19. [Article]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
  1. Baker JG: The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;144(3):317-22. [Article]
Pharmacological action
Curator comments
agonist with low affininty
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
43518.615 Da
  1. Hoffmann C, Leitz MR, Oberdorf-Maass S, Lohse MJ, Klotz KN: Comparative pharmacology of human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes--characterization of stably transfected receptors in CHO cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;369(2):151-9. Epub 2004 Jan 17. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [Article]
  2. Kenworthy KE, Bloomer JC, Clarke SE, Houston JB: CYP3A4 drug interactions: correlation of 10 in vitro probe substrates. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;48(5):716-27. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at May 22, 2024 18:47