Oxytocin is a recombinant hormone used to induce or strengthen uterine contractions in pregnant women to aid in labor and delivery or to control postpartum bleeding.

Brand Names
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Sir Henry H. Dale first identified oxytocin and its uterine contractile properties in 1906.13,7,20 Like all other neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin is composed of nine amino acids with a disulfide bridge between the Cys 1 and 6 residues.13,7 In the mid-1950s, synthetic oxytocin was successfully synthesized by a biochemist named Vincent du Vigneaud; he was later recognized with a Nobel prize for his work.20 Oxytocin continues to be an important tool in modern obstetrics to induce labor when indicated and to manage postpartum hemorrhage.20,21 It is estimated that labor induction with oxytocin is used in almost 10% of deliveries globally.7

It should be noted that there are risks associated with oxytocin intervention during childbirth. Oxytocin should be used judiciously only when necessary and by experienced healthcare practitioners.21

Although most commonly linked to labor and delivery, oxytocin actually has broad peripheral and central effects.13 It plays an important role in pair bonding, social cognition and functioning, and even fear conditioning.14 Oxytocin also serves a role in metabolic homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation.7,19

Approved, Vet approved
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Protein Structure
Protein Chemical Formula
Protein Average Weight
1007.187 Da
>DB00107 sequence
Download FASTA Format
  • Oxitocina
  • Oxytocin



Administration of exogenous oxytocin is indicated in the antepartum period to initiate or improve uterine contractions for vaginal delivery in situations where there is fetal or maternal concern.22 For example, It may be used to induce labor in cases of Rh sensitization, maternal diabetes, preeclampsia at or near term, and when delivery is indicated due to prematurely ruptured membranes.15,22 Importantly, oxytocin is not approved or indicated for elective induction of labor. Oxytocin may be used to reinforce labor in select cases of uterine inertia and as adjunctive therapy in the management of incomplete or inevitable abortion. In the postpartum period, oxytocin may be used to induced contractions in the 3rd stage of labor and to control postpartum bleeding or hemorrhage.22

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Adjunct therapy in management ofIncomplete abortion•••••••••••••••••••••
Adjunct therapy in management ofInevitable abortion•••••••••••••••••••••
Management ofPost-partum bleeding•••••••••••••••••••••
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Oxytocin is a nonapeptide, pleiotropic hormone that exerts important physiological effects.6,8 It is most well known to stimulate parturition and lactation, but also has important physiological influences on metabolic and cardiovascular functions, sexual and maternal behaviour, pair bonding, social cognition, and fear conditioning.6,11,14

It is worth noting that oxytocin receptors are not limited to the reproductive system but can be found in many peripheral tissues and in central nervous system structures including the brain stem and amygdala.11,12,13,14

Mechanism of action

Oxytocin plays a vital role in labour and delivery.9 The hormone is produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted from the paraventricular nucleus to the posterior pituitary where it is stored.9,10 It is then released in pulses during childbirth to induce uterine contractions.9

The concentration of oxytocin receptors on the myometrium increases significantly during pregnancy and reaches a peak in early labor.22 Activation of oxytocin receptors on the myometrium triggers a downstream cascade that leads to increased intracellular calcium in uterine myofibrils which strengthens and increases the frequency of uterine contractions.22,10,6

In humans, most hormones are regulated by negative feedback; however, oxytocin is one of the few that is regulated by positive feedback.10 The head of the fetus pushing on the cervix signals the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary of the mother.10 Oxytocin then travels to the uterus where it stimulates uterine contractions.10 The elicited uterine contractions will then stimulate the release of increasing amounts of oxytocin.10 This positive feedback loop will continue until parturition.10

Since exogenously administered and endogenously secreted oxytocin result in the same effects on the female reproductive system, synthetic oxytocin may be used in specific instances during the antepartum and postpartum period to induce or improve uterine contractions.10,22

AOxytocin receptor

Oxytocin is administered parenterally and is fully bioavailable. It takes approximately 40 minutes for oxytocin to reach steady-state concentrations in the plasma after parenteral administration.23

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available


Oxytocin is rapidly removed from the plasma by the liver and kidney.22 The enzyme oxytocinase is largely responsible for the metabolism and regulation of oxytocin levels in pregnancy and only a small percentage of the neurohormone is excreted in the urine unchanged.22,23 Oxytocinase activity increases throughout pregnancy and peaks in the plasma, placenta and uterus near term.23 The placenta is a key source of oxytocinase during gestation and produces increasing amounts of the enzyme in response to increasing levels of oxytocin produced by the mother.17,18 Oxytocinase activity is also expressed in mammary glands, heart, kidney, and the small intestine.7 Lower levels of activity can be found in the brain, spleen, liver, skeletal muscle, testes, and colon.7 The level of oxytocin degradation is negligible in non-pregnant women, men, and cord blood.23

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  • Oxytocin
Route of elimination

The enzyme oxytocinase is largely responsible for the metabolism and regulation of oxytocin levels in pregnancy; only a small percentage of the neurohormone is excreted in the urine unchanged.22,23


The plasma half-life of oxytocin ranges from 1-6 minutes. The half-life is decreased in late pregnancy and during lactation.22


In a study that observed 10 women who were given oxytocin to induce labor, the mean metabolic clearance rate was 7.87 mL/min.16

Adverse Effects
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Administration of supratherapeutic doses of exogenous oxytocin can lead to myocardial ischemia, tachycardia, and arrhythmias.10 High doses can also lead to uterine spasms, hypertonicity, or rupture.10 Oxytocin has antidiuretic properties, thus, high daily doses (as a single dose or administered slowly over 24 hours) may lead to extreme water intoxication resulting in maternal seizures, coma, and even death.10 The risk of antidiuresis and water intoxication in the mother appears to be greater when fluids are given orally.10

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AcrivastineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Oxytocin is combined with Acrivastine.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Oxytocin is combined with Adenosine.
AjmalineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Oxytocin is combined with Ajmaline.
AlbuterolThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Oxytocin is combined with Salbutamol.
AlfuzosinThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Oxytocin is combined with Alfuzosin.
Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
OxytocinInjection, solution10 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2000-08-102020-12-31US flag
OxytocinInjection, solution30 [USP'U]/500mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-10-20Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinInjection10 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.1980-04-29Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinInjection, solution2 [USP'U]/100mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2012-11-12Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinInjection, solution20 [USP'U]/500mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2016-03-18Not applicableUS flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
OxytocinInjection, solution10 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2018-04-012018-07-19US flag
OxytocinInjection100 [USP'U]/10mLIntramuscular; IntravascularHikma Farmaceutica2009-08-012014-10-01US flag
OxytocinInjection10 [USP'U]/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2008-01-242011-04-30US flag
OxytocinInjection10 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2013-02-13Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinInjection10 [iU]/1mLIntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012015-04-30US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bakumokon 5% MinoxidilOxytocin (0.01 mg/100mg) + Dutasteride (0.1 mg/100mg) + Minoxidil (5 mg/100mg)LiquidTopicalDS LABORATORIES, INC.2015-02-092017-10-19US flag
Bakumokon 7% Minoxidil SulfateOxytocin (0.01 mg/100mg) + Dutasteride (0.1 mg/100mg) + Minoxidil sulfate (7 mg/100mg)LiquidTopicalDS LABORATORIES, INC.2015-02-092017-10-11US flag
SYNTOMETRINE INJECTIONOxytocin (5 iu/ml) + Ergonovine maleate (0.5 mg/ml)InjectionIntramuscular; IntravenousPHARMACON PTE LTD1989-05-07Not applicableSingapore flag
Syntometrine Injection 5IU/1ML AmpouleOxytocin (5 IU) + Ergonovine maleate (500 mcg)InjectionIntramuscularRIGEL PHARMA SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
OxytocinOxytocin (30 [USP'U]/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2016-03-18Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinOxytocin (30 [USP'U]/500mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-10-20Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinOxytocin (2 [USP'U]/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2012-11-12Not applicableUS flag
OxytocinOxytocin (20 [USP'U]/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-10-202017-12-06US flag
OxytocinOxytocin (10 [USP'U]/500mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-10-202012-11-12US flag


ATC Codes
G02AC01 — Methylergometrine and oxytocinH01BB02 — Oxytocin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Not Available
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number


Synthesis Reference

Kerstin Uvnas-Moberg, Thomas Lundeberg, "Use of substances having oxytocin activity for preparation of medicaments for wound healing." U.S. Patent US6262021, issued August, 1988.

General References
  1. Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E: Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):673-6. [Article]
  2. Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky IF, Ross HE, Kawamata M, Onaka T, Yanagisawa T, Kimura T, Matzuk MM, Young LJ, Nishimori K: Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):16096-101. Epub 2005 Oct 25. [Article]
  3. Carmichael MS, Humbert R, Dixen J, Palmisano G, Greenleaf W, Davidson JM: Plasma oxytocin increases in the human sexual response. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jan;64(1):27-31. [Article]
  4. Paquin J, Danalache BA, Jankowski M, McCann SM, Gutkowska J: Oxytocin induces differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 9;99(14):9550-5. Epub 2002 Jul 1. [Article]
  5. Jankowski M, Danalache B, Wang D, Bhat P, Hajjar F, Marcinkiewicz M, Paquin J, McCann SM, Gutkowska J: Oxytocin in cardiac ontogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 31;101(35):13074-9. Epub 2004 Aug 17. [Article]
  6. Arrowsmith S, Wray S: Oxytocin: its mechanism of action and receptor signalling in the myometrium. J Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Jun;26(6):356-69. doi: 10.1111/jne.12154. [Article]
  7. Ding C, Leow MK, Magkos F: Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management. Obes Rev. 2019 Jan;20(1):22-40. doi: 10.1111/obr.12757. Epub 2018 Sep 25. [Article]
  8. Carter CS, Kenkel WM, MacLean EL, Wilson SR, Perkeybile AM, Yee JR, Ferris CF, Nazarloo HP, Porges SW, Davis JM, Connelly JJ, Kingsbury MA: Is Oxytocin "Nature's Medicine"? Pharmacol Rev. 2020 Oct;72(4):829-861. doi: 10.1124/pr.120.019398. [Article]
  9. Uvnas-Moberg K, Ekstrom-Bergstrom A, Berg M, Buckley S, Pajalic Z, Hadjigeorgiou E, Kotlowska A, Lengler L, Kielbratowska B, Leon-Larios F, Magistretti CM, Downe S, Lindstrom B, Dencker A: Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth - a systematic review with implications for uterine contractions and central actions of oxytocin. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Aug 9;19(1):285. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2365-9. [Article]
  10. Osilla EV, Sharma S: Oxytocin . [Article]
  11. Gutkowska J, Jankowski M: Oxytocin: Old Hormone, New Drug. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2009 Dec 9;2(3):168-183. doi: 10.3390/ph203168. [Article]
  12. Mitre M, Kranz TM, Marlin BJ, Schiavo JK, Erdjument-Bromage H, Zhang X, Minder J, Neubert TA, Hackett TA, Chao MV, Froemke RC: Sex-Specific Differences in Oxytocin Receptor Expression and Function for Parental Behavior. Gend Genome. 2017 Dec 1;1(4):142-166. doi: 10.1089/gg.2017.0017. [Article]
  13. Gimpl G, Fahrenholz F: The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Physiol Rev. 2001 Apr;81(2):629-83. doi: 10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.629. [Article]
  14. Jones C, Barrera I, Brothers S, Ring R, Wahlestedt C: Oxytocin and social functioning. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2017 Jun;19(2):193-201. [Article]
  16. Perry RL, Satin AJ, Barth WH, Valtier S, Cody JT, Hankins GD: The pharmacokinetics of oxytocin as they apply to labor induction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 May;174(5):1590-3. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9378(96)70611-7. [Article]
  17. Mathur VS, Walker JM: Oxytocinase in plasma and placenta in normal and prolonged labour. Br Med J. 1968 Jul 13;3(5610):96-7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.3.5610.96. [Article]
  18. Klimek R: Oxytocinase as the most important marker of fetal development. Early Pregnancy. 2001 Jan;5(1):38-9. [Article]
  19. Gutkowska J, Jankowski M, Antunes-Rodrigues J: The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2014 Feb;47(3):206-14. Epub 2014 Mar 18. [Article]
  20. den Hertog CE, de Groot AN, van Dongen PW: History and use of oxytocics. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Jan;94(1):8-12. doi: 10.1016/s0301-2115(00)00311-0. [Article]
  21. Hidalgo-Lopezosa P, Hidalgo-Maestre M, Rodriguez-Borrego MA: Labor stimulation with oxytocin: effects on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016;24:e2744. doi: 10.1590/1518-8345.0765.2744. Epub 2016 Jul 25. [Article]
  22. FDA Approved Drug Products: Pitocin (oxytocin) injection [Link]
  23. Prescribers Digital Reference (PDR): Oxytocin - Drug Summary [Link]
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Dosage Forms
SolutionIntravenous10.00 UI
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 iu/ml
Injection, solution
Injection, solution16.7 MICROGRAMMI/ML
Injection, solution8.3 MICROGRAMMI/ML
SolutionIntravenous5 IU
SolutionIntravenous10 IU
SolutionParenteral10 IU
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 IU
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1000000 IU
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravascular100 [USP'U]/10mL
InjectionIntravenous10 [USP'U]/1mL
InjectionIntravenous10 [iU]/1mL
InjectionIntravenous100 [USP'U]/10mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 [USP'U]/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 [USP'U]/500mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 [USP'U]/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 [USP'U]/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 [USP'U]/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 [USP'U]/500mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30 [USP'U]/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30 [USP'U]/500mL
Injection, solutionParenteral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous10 unit / mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 unit / mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 IU/ml
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 [USP'U]/1mL
InjectionParenteral10 IU
InjectionIntravenous5 IU
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 i.u./ml
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 [iU]/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral5 U.I./ML
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 IU/ml
SolutionParenteral50 IU
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 IU
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 iu/ml
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 IU
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solutionIntramuscular5 mg/5mg
InjectionIntravenous10 IU/ml
SolutionParenteral5.000 UI
SolutionIntravenous5.000 UI
Solution10 IU/1ml
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Oxytocin powder1762.25USD g
Oxytocin 10 unit/ml vial9.84USD vial
Pitocin 10 unit/ml vial1.6USD ml
Oxytocin-lr 40 unit/500 ml0.09USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w-lr 40 unit/500 ml0.07USD ml
Oxytocin-d5lr 30 unit/500 ml0.06USD ml
Oxytocin-lr 20 unit/500 ml0.06USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w-lr 15 unit/500 ml0.05USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w-lr 20 unit/500 ml0.05USD ml
Oxytocin-lr 10 unit/500 ml0.05USD ml
Oxytocin-d5-1/4ns 15 unit/2500.04USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w 40 unit/1000 ml0.04USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w-lr 10 unit/500 ml0.04USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w 20 unit/1000 ml0.03USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w 30 unit/1000 ml0.03USD ml
Oxytocin-lr 30 unit/500 ml0.03USD ml
Oxytocin-ns 30 unit/1000 ml0.03USD ml
Oxytocin-d5w 10 unit/1000 ml0.02USD ml
Oxytocin-lr 5 unit/500 ml0.02USD ml
Oxytocin-ns 40 unit/1000 ml0.02USD ml
Oxytocin-d5-1/2ns 10 unit/10000.01USD ml
Oxytocin-d5-1/2ns 20 unit/10000.01USD ml
Oxytocin-d5-1/2ns 30 unit/10000.01USD ml
Oxytocin-d5-ns 20 unit/1000 ml0.01USD ml
Oxytocin-ns 10 unit/1000 ml0.01USD ml
Oxytocin-ns 20 unit/1000 ml0.01USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)192-194 ℃https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB0366966.htm
hydrophobicity-2.7Not Available
isoelectric point5.51Not Available


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1. Oxytocin receptor
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vasopressin receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for oxytocin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Oxytocin receptor
Molecular Weight
42770.99 Da
  1. Spyranti Z, Fragiadaki M, Magafa V, Borovickova L, Spyroulias GA, Cordopatis P, Slaninova J: In position 7 L- and D-Tic-substituted oxytocin and deamino oxytocin: NMR study and conformational insights. Amino Acids. 2010 Jul;39(2):539-48. doi: 10.1007/s00726-009-0470-1. Epub 2010 Jan 27. [Article]
  2. Frantz MC, Rodrigo J, Boudier L, Durroux T, Mouillac B, Hibert M: Subtlety of the structure-affinity and structure-efficacy relationships around a nonpeptide oxytocin receptor agonist. J Med Chem. 2010 Feb 25;53(4):1546-62. doi: 10.1021/jm901084f. [Article]
  3. Gimpl G, Reitz J, Brauer S, Trossen C: Oxytocin receptors: ligand binding, signalling and cholesterol dependence. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:193-204. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00417-2. [Article]
  4. Ahn TG, Han SJ, Cho YS, An TH, Pak SC, Flouret G: In vivo activity of the potent oxytocin antagonist on uterine activity in the rat. In Vivo. 2004 Nov-Dec;18(6):763-6. [Article]
  5. Furman DJ, Chen MC, Gotlib IH: Variant in oxytocin receptor gene is associated with amygdala volume. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Jul;36(6):891-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.12.004. Epub 2011 Jan 3. [Article]
  6. Ding C, Leow MK, Magkos F: Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management. Obes Rev. 2019 Jan;20(1):22-40. doi: 10.1111/obr.12757. Epub 2018 Sep 25. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
Cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of prolyl residues within peptides that are up to approximately 30 amino acids long.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prolyl endopeptidase
Molecular Weight
80698.945 Da
  1. Irazusta J, Silveira PF, Gil J, Varona A, Casis L: Effects of hydrosaline treatments on prolyl endopeptidase activity in rat tissues. Regul Pept. 2001 Sep 15;101(1-3):141-7. [Article]
  2. Bausback HH, Ward PE: Vascular, post proline cleaving enzyme: metabolism of vasoactive peptides. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;198 Pt A:397-404. [Article]
  3. Yoshimoto T, Nishimura T, Kita T, Tsuru D: Post-proline cleaving enzyme (prolyl endopeptidase) from bovine brain. J Biochem. 1983 Oct;94(4):1179-90. [Article]
  4. Mannisto PT, Garcia-Horsman JA: Mechanism of Action of Prolyl Oligopeptidase (PREP) in Degenerative Brain Diseases: Has Peptidase Activity Only a Modulatory Role on the Interactions of PREP with Proteins? Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 Feb 14;9:27. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00027. eCollection 2017. [Article]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Release of an N-terminal amino acid, cleaves before cysteine, leucine as well as other amino acids. Degrades peptide hormones such as oxytocin, vasopressin and angiotensin III, and plays a role in maintaining homeostasis during pregnancy. May be involved in the inactivation of neuronal peptides in the brain. Cleaves Met-enkephalin and dynorphin. Binds angiotensin IV and may be the angiotensin IV receptor in the brain.
Specific Function
Aminopeptidase activity
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase
Molecular Weight
117348.14 Da
  1. Ding C, Leow MK, Magkos F: Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management. Obes Rev. 2019 Jan;20(1):22-40. doi: 10.1111/obr.12757. Epub 2018 Sep 25. [Article]
  2. Nakamura H, Itakuara A, Okamura M, Ito M, Iwase A, Nakanishi Y, Okada M, Nagasaka T, Mizutani S: Oxytocin stimulates the translocation of oxytocinase of human vascular endothelial cells via activation of oxytocin receptors. Endocrinology. 2000 Dec;141(12):4481-5. doi: 10.1210/endo.141.12.7832. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Neurophysin 1 specifically binds oxytocin.Oxytocin causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus and of the mammary gland.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Oxytocin-neurophysin 1
Molecular Weight
12721.51 Da
  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  2. Land H, Grez M, Ruppert S, Schmale H, Rehbein M, Richter D, Schutz G: Deduced amino acid sequence from the bovine oxytocin-neurophysin I precursor cDNA. Nature. 1983 Mar 24-30;302(5906):342-4. [Article]
  3. Rao VV, Loffler C, Battey J, Hansmann I: The human gene for oxytocin-neurophysin I (OXT) is physically mapped to chromosome 20p13 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;61(4):271-3. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Mediates interactions of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE). These are nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins which accumulate in vascular tissue in aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. Acts as a mediator of both acute and chronic vascular inflammation in conditions such as atherosclerosis and in particular as a complication of diabetes. AGE/RAGE signaling plays an important role in regulating the production/expression of TNF-alpha, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Interaction with S100A12 on endothelium, mononuclear phagocytes, and lymphocytes triggers cellular activation, with generation of key proinflammatory mediators. Interaction with S100B after myocardial infarction may play a role in myocyte apoptosis by activating ERK1/2 and p53/TP53 signaling (By similarity). Receptor for amyloid beta peptide. Contributes to the translocation of amyloid-beta peptide (ABPP) across the cell membrane from the extracellular to the intracellular space in cortical neurons. ABPP-initiated RAGE signaling, especially stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), has the capacity to drive a transport system delivering ABPP as a complex with RAGE to the intraneuronal space. Can also bind oligonucleotides.
Specific Function
Advanced glycation end-product receptor activity
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor
Molecular Weight
42802.385 Da
  1. Yamamoto Y, Higashida H: RAGE regulates oxytocin transport into the brain. Commun Biol. 2020 Feb 13;3(1):70. doi: 10.1038/s42003-020-0799-2. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at July 14, 2024 17:59