Tropicamide

Identification

Name
Tropicamide
Accession Number
DB00809
Description

Tropicamide is an alkaloid atropine‐derived anticholinergic drug and a non‐selective antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors.3 Usually available in ophthalmic formulations, tropicamide is used to cause mydriasis and cycloplegia for eye exams or ocular procedures.1 It is also used in combination with hydroxyamphetamine for the same indication.9 Oral tropicamide has been investigated as a potential drug to relieve sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson's Disease.1

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 284.3529
Monoisotopic: 284.152477894
Chemical Formula
C17H20N2O2
Synonyms
  • Tropicamid
  • Tropicamida
  • Tropicamide
  • Tropicamidum
External IDs
  • Ro 1-7683

Pharmacology

Pharmacology
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Indication

Tropicamide is indicated to induce mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) and cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye) in diagnostic procedures.8 It is used in combination with hydroxyamphetamine for the same indication.9

Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Tropicamide is an anticholinergic drug and that works by non‐selectively blocking muscarinic receptors to cause mydriasis and cycloplegia. It relaxes the pupillary sphincter to dilate the pupil.1 The onset of tropicamide‐induced mydriasis is about 10 to 15 minutes,3 with optimal effect occurring 25 to 30 minutes post-administration. Mydriasis caused by tropicamide wears off within four to eight hours, but it was seen up to 24 hours in some individuals. Tropicamide causes accommodation by causing contraction of the ciliary muscle. The cycloplegic effect occurs within 20 to minutes following administration, with a duration of action of four to 10 hours. Tropicamide can elevate intraocular pressure.1 The ophthalmic use of tropicamide is not typically associated with serious systemic adverse events.5

One randomized pilot study showed that oral tropicamide alleviated perceived symptoms of sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson's Disease: anticholinergics are believed to restore the dopaminergic to cholinergic activity imbalance in neurodegenerative diseases.1 Similarly in one case report, tropicamide administered via ophthalmic solution relieved clozapine-induced sialorrhea.2 Interestingly, in rodent models, tropicamide suppressed drug-induced tremulous jaw movements which are often used as a model of parkinsonian tremor: the significance of this finding requires further investigations.4

Mechanism of action

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in numerous ocular functions. The M3 subtype is predominantly expressed by smooth muscle cells of the sphincter pupillae, which is a circular muscle of the iris, and ciliary muscles. In response to light or binding of acetylcholine, M3 receptor signalling leads to contraction of the sphincter pupillae and pupil constriction. Contraction of the ciliary muscle via M3 receptor signalling also leads to accommodation, adjusting the lens for near vision.6 The eye is also innervated by parasympathetic nerves: ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction.7

Tropicamide is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist that binds to all subtypes of muscarinic receptors. By binding to muscarinic receptors, tropicamide relaxes the pupillary sphincter muscle and causes pupil dilation.1 By blocking the muscarinic receptors of the ciliary body, tropicamide also prevents accommodation.6 Like other muscarinic antagonists, tropicamide inhibits the parasympathetic drive, allowing the sympathetic nervous system responses to dominate.1 Tropicamide is thought to ameliorate sialorrhea by blocking M4 receptors expressed on salivary glands and reducing hypersalivation.1

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Humans
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Humans
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Following ocular administration of 40 μL drops of 0.5% tropicamide in female subjects, tropicamide reached its mean peak concentration in plasma of 2.8 ± 1.7 ng/mL (mean ± SD) at five minutes.5

Volume of distribution

No information can be found.

Protein binding

The extent of protein binding has not been established. Tropicamide binds to albumin.[A230168]

Metabolism

No information can be found.

Route of elimination

No information can be found.

Half-life

Tropicamide has a plasma half-life of 30 minutes.2

Clearance

No information can be found.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 865 mg/kg in rats and 565 mg/kg in mice. Intraperitoneal LD50 is 1210 mg/kg in rats and 695 mg/kg in mice. Subcutaneous LD50 is 872 mg/kg in rats and 665 mg/kg in mice.10

There is limited information on tropicamide overdose. Systemic adverse effects, such as tachycardia, central nervous system disturbances, and muscle rigidity have been reported with the use of tropicamide. Psychotic reactions, behavioral disturbances, and vasomotor or cardio-respiratory collapse have been reported with the use of anticholinergic in children.8

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Aclidinium.
AlloinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alloin can be decreased when used in combination with Tropicamide.
AmantadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Amantadine.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Tropicamide.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Tropicamide.
Anisotropine methylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisotropine methylbromide is combined with Tropicamide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Aripiprazole.
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Atracurium.
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atracurium besylate is combined with Tropicamide.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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International/Other Brands
Better (Taiwan Biotech) / Camide (Ibn Sina) / Ciclomidrin (Latinofarma) / Dilate (Incepta) / Eyetrop (Apex) / Losemin (Oasis) / Midax (Rompharm) / Midric (Sanbe) / Minims Tropicamide (Bausch & Lomb) / Mydral (Ocusoft) / Mydramide (Fischer) / Mydriaticum (Ciba Vision) / Mydricol (Unimed) / Ocu-Tropic (Ocumed) / Tropicacyl (Akorn)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Minims TropicamideSolution / dropsOphthalmicBausch Health, Canada Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
MydriacylSolution1 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1969-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
MydriacylSolution0.5 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1951-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
R.O.-tropamideLiquidOphthalmicRichmond Pharmaceuticals Inc.1992-12-311997-08-11Canada flag
TropicamideSolution0.5 %OphthalmicPharma Stulln Inc.1994-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
TropicamideSolution1 %OphthalmicPharma Stulln Inc.1994-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Tropicamide 1% - Liq Oph 10mg/mlLiquidOphthalmicRivex Ophthalmics Inc.1997-09-152003-07-28Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MydriacylSolution / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.1959-04-01Not applicableUS flag
MydriacylSolution5 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.1959-04-012003-06-30US flag
MydriacylSolution / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.1959-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Odan-tropicamideSolutionOphthalmicOdan Laboratories Ltd1985-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Odan-tropicamideSolutionOphthalmicOdan Laboratories Ltd1985-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
PMS-tropicamide Oph Sltn 1%Solution / dropsOphthalmicPharmascience Inc1992-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
TropicamideSolution / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicREMEDYREPACK INC.2017-09-202020-05-04US flag
TropicamideSolution / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicHenry Schein Inc.2015-05-13Not applicableUS flag
TropicamideSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicSandoz Inc.2000-06-09Not applicableUS flag
TropicamideSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.2000-09-29Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BIOGLOZYL® SOLUCIONOFTALMICATropicamide (5 mg) + Phenylephrine (50 mg)SolutionOphthalmic2018-08-09Not applicableColombia flag
Diophenyl-T SolutionTropicamide (0.8 %) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5 %)SolutionOphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated1994-12-312019-08-01Canada flag
MYDRIASERT 0,28 MG/5,4 MG GÖZ INSERTI ,10 INSERTTropicamide (0.28 mg) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5.4 mg)InsertOphthalmicTHEA PHARMA İLAÇ TİC.LTD.ŞTİ.2020-08-142020-03-13Turkey flag
MYDRIASERT 0,28 MG/5,4 MG GÖZ INSERTI ,20 INSERTTropicamide (0.28 mg) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5.4 mg)InsertOphthalmicTHEA PHARMA İLAÇ TİC.LTD.ŞTİ.2020-08-142020-03-13Turkey flag
MYDRIASERT 0,28 MG/5,4 MG GÖZ INSERTI ,50 INSERTTropicamide (0.28 mg) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5.4 mg)InsertOphthalmicTHEA PHARMA İLAÇ TİC.LTD.ŞTİ.2020-08-142020-03-13Turkey flag
ParemydTropicamide (2.5 mg/1mL) + Hydroxyamfetamine hydrobromide (10 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.1992-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Phenyltrope Oph SolnTropicamide (0.8 %) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5.0 %)SolutionOphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated1985-12-312019-08-01Canada flag
T-P OFTENOTropicamide (8 mg) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (50 mg)SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic2014-06-18Not applicableColombia flag
TOTIFEN® 2F1012501000Tropicamide (5 mg) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (50 mg)SolutionOphthalmic2018-02-26Not applicableColombia flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Mydriatic-3Tropicamide (10 mg/1mL) + Cyclopentolate hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (25 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof Llc2018-05-012019-07-01US flag
Mydriatic-4Tropicamide (10 mg/1mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (5 mg/1mL) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (25 mg/1mL) + Proparacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-05-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01FA06 — TropicamideS01FA56 — Tropicamide, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetamides. These are amide derivatives of phenylacetic acids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylacetamides
Direct Parent
Phenylacetamides
Alternative Parents
Pyridines and derivatives / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alcohol / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Carbonyl group / Carboxamide group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
N0A3Z5XTC6
CAS number
1508-75-4
InChI Key
BGDKAVGWHJFAGW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H20N2O2/c1-2-19(12-14-8-10-18-11-9-14)17(21)16(13-20)15-6-4-3-5-7-15/h3-11,16,20H,2,12-13H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)propanamide
SMILES
CCN(CC1=CC=NC=C1)C(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1

References

General References
  1. Hong D, Tripathy K: Tropicamide . [PubMed:31082113]
  2. Kilic O, Ozturk M, Gozcelioglu EA: Tropicamide ophthalmic solution reduces clozapine-induced sialorrhea: a case report Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2017 Jul 8;27(4):431-434.
  3. Mouly S, Mahe I, Haouchine B, Sanson-le-Pors MJ, Blain P, Tillet Y, Dewailly J, Mongold JJ, Bergmann JF: Pharmacodynamics of a new ophthalmic mydriatic insert in healthy volunteers: potential alternative as drug delivery system prior to cataract surgery. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jun;98(6):547-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_362.x. [PubMed:16700815]
  4. Betz AJ, McLaughlin PJ, Burgos M, Weber SM, Salamone JD: The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct;194(3):347-59. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17594079]
  5. Vuori ML, Kaila T, Iisalo E, Saari KM: Systemic absorption and anticholinergic activity of topically applied tropicamide. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1994 Summer;10(2):431-7. doi: 10.1089/jop.1994.10.431. [PubMed:8083562]
  6. Broadley KJ, Kelly DR: Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Molecules. 2001 Feb 28;6(3):142-193.
  7. McDougal DH, Gamlin PD: Autonomic control of the eye. Compr Physiol. 2015 Jan;5(1):439-73. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140014. [PubMed:25589275]
  8. DailyMed Label: Tropicamide Ophthalmic Solution/Drops [Link]
  9. DailyMed Label: PAREMYD (hydroxyamphetamine and tropicamide) ophthalmic solution [Link]
  10. Cayman Chemical: Tropicamide Safety Data Sheet [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014947
KEGG Drug
D00397
PubChem Compound
5593
PubChem Substance
46505924
ChemSpider
5391
BindingDB
82371
RxNav
10869
ChEBI
9757
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200604
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000345
PharmGKB
PA164749389
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Tropicamide
AHFS Codes
  • 52:24.00 — Mydriatics
MSDS
Download (73.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCorneal Transplant / Grafting, Corneal / Keratoplasty, Lamellar / Transplantation, Cornea / Transplantation, Corneal1
4CompletedDiagnosticPreterm, Infant1
4CompletedPreventionIntraocular Pressure1
4CompletedScreeningRetinopathy of Prematurity1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticRefractive Errors1
4Unknown StatusPreventionMyopia1
3CompletedDiagnosticMydriasis2
3CompletedOtherCataracts / Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss / Mydriasis1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts1
3CompletedTreatmentEye Diseases1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Alcon laboratories inc
  • Pharmafair inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon universal ltd
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Miza pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Accutome Inc.
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Eye Care and Cure Corp.
  • Eye Supply Usa Inc.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Medical Ophthalmics
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Wilson Ophthalmic Corp.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Injection, solutionIntraocular
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic1 %
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
InsertOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tropicamide powder72.83USD g
Mydriacyl 1% Solution 15ml Bottle59.84USD bottle
Tropicamide 0.5% Solution 15ml Bottle17.99USD bottle
Tropicamide 1% Solution 15ml Bottle17.75USD bottle
Mydriacyl 1% Solution 3ml Bottle17.28USD bottle
Tropicamide 1% Solution 3ml Bottle13.99USD bottle
Tropicamide 1% Solution 2ml Bottle7.99USD bottle
Mydriacyl 1% eye drops5.54USD ml
Tropicamide 1% eye drops2.52USD ml
Paremyd eye drops1.28USD ml
Mydriacyl 1 % Solution1.21USD ml
Tropicamide 0.5% eye drops1.06USD ml
Mydriacyl 0.5 % Solution0.94USD ml
Tropicacyl 1% eye drops0.71USD ml
Tropicacyl 0.5% eye drops0.67USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)96.5 °CPhysProp
logP1.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.375 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.42ALOGPS
logP1.38ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.02ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity82.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9943
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9777
Caco-2 permeable+0.5986
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5777
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8947
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9442
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6694
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7731
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7878
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7241
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.895
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8184
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6008
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6905
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7473
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8754
Rat acute toxicity2.4857 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9686
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8009
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.19 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-8c6533b9c36099d52c7c
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-cf89fdf233a948aed049
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-4930000000-ca3db93b017c3a6fb89b

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Betz AJ, McLaughlin PJ, Burgos M, Weber SM, Salamone JD: The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct;194(3):347-59. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17594079]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Betz AJ, McLaughlin PJ, Burgos M, Weber SM, Salamone JD: The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct;194(3):347-59. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17594079]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Betz AJ, McLaughlin PJ, Burgos M, Weber SM, Salamone JD: The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct;194(3):347-59. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17594079]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Betz AJ, McLaughlin PJ, Burgos M, Weber SM, Salamone JD: The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct;194(3):347-59. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17594079]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on April 12, 2021 12:00