- Cholinergic Agents
- Accession Number
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Drug Drug Description Botulinum toxin type B A purified form of botulinum toxin type B used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of cervical dystonia and sialorrhea. Botulinum toxin type A A purified form of botulinum toxin type A used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of chronic sialorrhea, muscle spasticity, and dystonia, as well as in cosmetic applications. Nicotine A stimulatory alkaloid found in tobacco products that is often used for the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms and as an aid to smoking cessation. Cevimeline A muscarinic agonist with parasympathomimetic activities that is used for the symptomatic treatment of dry mouth in patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. Trospium An antimuscarinic agent used to treat the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Oxyphenonium For the treatment of visceral spasms Benzatropine An anticholinergic drug used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and extrapyramidal symptoms, except tardive dyskinesia. Ipratropium An anticholinergic drug used in the control of symptoms related to bronchospasm in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Trihexyphenidyl An antispasmodic drug used as an adjunct drug in the management of parkinsonism and as a treatment for extrapyramidal symptoms caused by drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Tacrine An anticholinesterase drug used for the management of Alzheimer's disease symptoms. Procyclidine An antispasmodic drug used to treat parkinsonism of various types and in the treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms. Profenamine An antidyskinetic phenothiazine used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbamoylcholine A direct acting miotic agent administered ophthalmically to decrease intraocular pressure after cataract surgery, and to induce miosis during surgery. Hyoscyamine An anticholinergic indicated to treat functional gastrointestinal disorders, biliary and renal colic, and acute rhinitis. Gallamine triethiodide A nondepolarizing nerve blocker used in addition to anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation. Darifenacin An M3 muscarinic receptor blocker used to treat urinary incontinence. Anisotropine methylbromide For use in conjunction with antacids or histamine H2-receptor antagonists in the treatment of peptic ulcer, to reduce further gastric acid secretion and delay gastric emptying. Pyridostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used for symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis and congenital myasthenic syndromes and to reverse neuromuscular blockade by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Atropine A muscarinic antagonist used to treat poisoning by muscarinic agents, including organophosphates and other drugs. Mecamylamine A nicotine antagonist used to treat moderate to severe essential hypertension and uncomplicated malignant hypertension. Pirenzepine An antimuscarinic agent used to treat peptic ulcers, gastric ulcers, and duodenal ulcers. Galantamine A cholinesterase inhibitor used to manage mild to moderate dementia associated with Alzheimer's Disease. Isoflurophate For use in the eye to treat certain types of glaucoma and other eye conditions, such as accommodative esotropia. Atracurium besylate A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker used to facilitate endotracheal intubation and relax skeletal muscles during surgery. Pralidoxime A cholinesterase reactivator used to treat organophosphate poisoning. Scopolamine A belladonna alkaloid with anticholinergic effects indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Malathion A parasympathomimetic organophosphate used to treat head lice. Propantheline An antimuscarinic agent used to treat urinary incontinence, hyperhidrosis, as well as cramps and spasms of the stomach, intestines, and bladder. Dicyclomine An antimuscarinic agent used to treat IBS. Tropicamide A muscarinic receptor antagonist used to induce mydriasis and cycloplegia for diagnostic procedures. Biperiden A muscarinic receptor antagonist used to treat parkinsonism and control extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptic drugs. Donepezil An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat the behavioral and cognitive effects of Alzheimer's Disease and other types of dementia. Quinidine A medication used to restore normal sinus rhythm, treat atrial fibrillation and flutter, and treat ventricular arrhythmias. Methantheline For the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis, gastritis, biliary dyskinesia, pylorosplasm, and reflex neurogenic bladder in children. Demecarium For the topical treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma. Desloratadine A second generation tricyclic antihistamine used to treat seasonal and non seasonal allergic rhinitis, pruritus, and urticaria. Cyclopentolate An anticholinergic used to cause mydriasis and cycloplegia for diagnostic testing. Physostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat glaucoma and anticholinergic toxicity. Glycopyrronium An anticholinergic agent used to treat hyperhidrosis, severe drooling, COPD, used with other medications to treat ulcers, and used in anesthesia. Rivastigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Edrophonium A cholinesterase inhibitor used to diagnose and evaluate myasthenia gravis. Bethanechol A muscarinic agonist used to treat postoperative and postpartum nonobstructive functional urinary retention and neurogenic atony of the bladder with retention. Tolterodine A muscarinic receptor antagonist used to treat overactive bladder with urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Echothiophate An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in ophthalmic preparations to increase the drainage of intraocular fluid; most commonly used for the treatment of glaucoma. Pilocarpine A muscarinic cholinergic agonist used on the eye to treat elevated intraocular pressure, various types of glaucoma, and to induce miosis. Also available orally to treat symptoms of dry mouth associated with Sjogren's syndrome and radiotherapy. Pentolinium Used to produce controlled hypotension during surgical procedures and in hypertensive crises. Trimethaphan For the controlled reduction of blood pressure during surgery and in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Ambenonium A cholinesterase inhibitor that targets both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors indicated for the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Orphenadrine A muscarinic antagonist used as an adjunct for the symptomatic relief of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. Tubocurarine Tubocurarine is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent and the first identified curare alkaloid. Curare is one of the names used to describe plant-derived poisons used by indigenous South Americans to... Varenicline A partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors used as an aid in smoking cessation. Pancuronium A neuromuscular blocker used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. Pipecuronium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax muscles during anesthesia and surgical procedures. Vecuronium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax muscles or as an adjunct in general anesthesia during surgical procedures. Neostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis by improving muscle tone. Tiotropium A long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Solifenacin A muscarinic antagonist with antispasmodic properties used to treat urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and urinary frequency associated with an overactive bladder. 1,10-Phenanthroline Not Available Acetylcholine A parasympathomimetic neurotransmitter used to induce miosis of the iris in seconds after delivery of the lens in cataract surgery, in penetrating keratoplasty, iridectomy and other anterior segment surgery where rapid miosis may be required. Arecoline An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the... Huperzine A Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease. Lobeline Investigated for use/treatment in addictions. GTS-21 Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Fesoterodine An antimuscarinic agent used in the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Methacholine A parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity in subjects who do not have clinically apparent asthma. Epibatidine Not Available Hexamethonium A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been... Dexetimide A muscarinic antagonist that has been used to treat neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Benzetimide is the (-)-enantimorph of dexetimide. Chlorphenoxamine An antihistamine used as an antipruritic. Benactyzine Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug used as an antidepressant in the treatment of depression and associated anxiety. Benactyzine is no longer widely used in medicine, although it is still a... Butylscopolamine An antispasmodic and anticholinergic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of abdominal cramping and pain. Coumaphos This drug is a fat-soluble phosphorothioate agent that kills both insects and mites. It is non-volatile in nature and is well known by a variety of names as such a... Dichlorvos Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate is a drug of the organophosphate class, frequently used as an insecticide for the control of indoor pests and for the protection of stored products... Fenthion Fenthion is an organothiophosphate drug used as an insecticide, avicide, and acaricide. Its mode of action is explained by cholinesterase enzyme inhibition, which is similar to other organophosphates. Fenthion is... Imidacloprid Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid, which is a class of neuro-active insecticides modeled after nicotine. Imidacloprid is a patented chemical, Imidacloprid is manufactured by Bayer Cropscience (part of Bayer AG) and... Metrifonate Metrifonate or trichlorfon is an irreversible organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is a prodrug which is activated non-enzymatically into 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate. Propiverine An antimuscarinic agent used to treat urinary incontinence or increased urinary frequency or urgency. Methanesulfonyl Fluoride Methanesulfonyl Fluoride has been used in trials studying the treatment of Safety. Atracurium A neuromuscular blocker indicated to relax muscles during mechanical ventilation under general anesthesia or intubation. Phenglutarimide Not Annotated Paraoxon Not Annotated Otilonium A spasmolytic medication used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Emepronium Not Annotated Gallamine Not Annotated Bornaprine An anticholinergic drug indicated in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, dyskinesia, akathisia, parkinsonism, and Parkinson's disease. Alcuronium A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to tubocurarine. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant. Distigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction or myasthenia gravis. Obidoxime Not Annotated Mivacurium A short-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to induce anesthesia during intubation and promote skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. Xanomeline Xanomeline is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02831231 (Pilot Study Comparing Effects of Xanomeline Alone to Xanomeline Plus Trospium). Hexafluronium Used as an adjunct with succinylcholine (or suxamethonium chloride) to prolong muscle relaxation and to prevent succinylcholine-induced muscle fasciculations. Phenserine For the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). NGX267 Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Acotiamide Acotiamide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dyspepsia and Functional Dyspepsia. Posiphen Posiphen is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02925650 (Safety, Tolerability, PK and PD of Posiphen® in Subjects With Early Alzheimer's Disease). Carbaryl A medication used in shampoo to remove lice.
- Drugs & Drug Targets