Cetylpyridinium is a compound used to reduce plaque and gingivitis, as well as whiten teeth.
- Brand Names
- Cepacol Antibacterial Mouthwash, Crest Mouthwash, Orajel Bleeding Gum Rinse, Orasep Reformulated Dec 2013
- Generic Name
- DrugBank Accession Number
Cetylpyridinium is a quaternary ammonium with broad-spectrum antiseptic properties. Its salt form, cetylpyridinium chloride, is typically found as an active ingredient in mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, throat sprays, breath sprays, and nasal sprays. In these products, it generally mediates an antiseptic activity and protective action against dental plaque and reducing gingivitis.
- Small Molecule
- Average: 304.541
- Chemical Formula
Typically employed as the cetylpyridinium chloride salt, this compound is commonly used as an active ingredient in various over-the-counter mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, and mouth sprays where it is generally indicated for antiseptic actions, gingivitis and plaque prevention, as well as action or prevention against some other oropharyngeal bacterial infections 1,3,4.Reduce drug development failure ratesBuild, train, & validate machine-learning modelswith evidence-based and structured datasets.Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
- Associated Conditions
- Associated Therapies
- Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Cetylpyridinium chloride is considered a cationic disinfectant with properties and uses similar to other such cationic surfactants 5. In particular, cetylpyridinium chloride has demonstrated a rapid bactericidal and fungicide effect on gram-positive pathogens and yeasts, respectively 1. Cetylpyridinium chloride is subsequently utilized in a variety of preparations for the local treatment of minor infections 5. Despite the variety of formulations in which cetylpyridinium chloride may appear as an active ingredient, it is generally accepted that it only elicits a local effect 5 owing to the compound's relatively poor absorption by route of exposure 6.
- Mechanism of action
When incorporated into mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, or mouth sprays, cetylpyridinium chloride is expected to elicit a mechanism of action that decreases new dental plaque growth, decreases or removes existing dental plaque, diminishes the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and inhibits the production of virulence factors 3. Cetylpyridinium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound that demonstrates a broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity 3. It possesses a cationic surface active agent surfactant which can absorb readily to oral surfaces 3. The molecules of this agent have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups 3. In action, the positively charged hydrophilic region of cetylpyridinium chloride molecules enables the compound to interact with microbial cell surfaces and even integrate into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane 3. Consequently, there is a resultant disruption of bacterial membrane integrity causing a leakage of bacterial cytoplasmic components, interference with cellular metabolism, inhibition of cell growth, and ultimately - cell death 3. Moreover, cetylpyridinium chloride can also inhibit the synthesis of insoluble glucan by streptococcal glucosyltransferase, adsorb to pellicle-covered enamel, and inhibit co-adhesion of bacteria, and bind streptococcus mutans biofilms 3. This ability of cetylpyridinium chloride to be able to adsorb to pellicle covered enamel imparts substantivity to the compound molecules - that is retention in the mouth and continued antimicrobial activity for a period of time after rinsing 3. Taking these mechanisms into consideration, cetylpyridinium chloride may be considered an active ingredient that is effective in the treatment and prevention of bacterial or fungal disorders of the oropharyngeal cavity 1.
Most available formulations consisting of cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient are either mouthwashes, tootpastes, lozenges, or mouth sprays. The oral retention of cetylpyridinium chloride given as 1 min mouth rinse of 10 mL of 2.2 MMOL solution was recorded as 65% of the administered dose 7.
Additionally, it has been recorded that quaternary ammonium compounds like Cetylpyridinium chloride are generally poorly absorbed by the oral route 6. Furthermore, although systemic absorption from the parenteral route of administration is possible, systemic effects from percutaneous absorption through intact skin is considered rare 6.
- Volume of distribution
No readily available data regarding the volume of distribution of cetylpyridinium chloride is available 6 and various products that actually contain cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient suggest that no pharmacokinetic data are available for the agent 8.
- Protein binding
No readily available data regarding the protein binding of cetylpyridinium chloride is available 6 and various products that actually contain cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient suggest that no pharmacokinetic data are available for the agent 8.
No readily available data regarding the metabolism of cetylpyridinium chloride is available 6 and various products that actually contain cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient suggest that no pharmacokinetic data are available for the agent 8.
- Route of elimination
As the quaternary ammonium compound cetylpyridinium chloride is poorly absorbed by oral route, relatively large amounts of the compound are therefore eliminated in faeces 6.
No readily available data regarding the half-life of cetylpyridinium chloride is available 6 and various products that actually contain cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient suggest that no pharmacokinetic data are available for the agent 8.
No readily available data regarding the clearance of cetylpyridinium chloride is available 6 and various products that actually contain cetylpyridinium chloride as an active ingredient suggest that no pharmacokinetic data are available for the agent 8.
- Adverse Effects
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Ingestion of cetylpyridinium chloride in large doses may cause gastric upset and central nervous system depression 9. However, such overdose symptoms are only observed in doses 70 times greater than the concentrations of cetylpyridinium chloride found in most over-the-counter cetylpyridinium chloride products 9.
- Not Available
- Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
- Not Available
- Drug Interactions
- This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.Not Available
- Food Interactions
- No interactions found.
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- Product Ingredients
Ingredient UNII CAS InChI Key Cetylpyridinium bromide O77BKZ14DE 140-72-7 DVBJBNKEBPCGSY-UHFFFAOYSA-M Cetylpyridinium chloride D9OM4SK49P 6004-24-6 NFCRBQADEGXVDL-UHFFFAOYSA-M
- Over the Counter Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image ACT Advanced Care Plaque Guard Antigingivitis Antiplaque Clean Mint Mouthwash 0.7 mg/1mL Oral Chattem, Inc. 2015-02-02 2021-09-22 ACT Advanced Care Plaque Guard Antigingivitis Antiplaque Frosted Mint Mouthwash 0.7 mg/1mL Oral Chattem, Inc. 2015-02-02 2021-01-22 Advanced Guard Rinse 1 mg/100mL Oral H-E-B 2013-06-25 Not applicable Alcohol Free Mouthwash 0.7 mg/1mL Oral H-E-B 2009-04-16 Not applicable Alcohol Free Antiseptic Mouthwash 0.7 mg/1mL Oral Rite Aid 2019-12-16 Not applicable Alcohol Free Antiseptic Rinse 0.07 mg/100L Oral Demoulas Super Markets Inc 2012-04-16 Not applicable Alcohol Free Antiseptic Mouthwash 0.7 mg/1mL Oral Kroger co 2009-05-15 Not applicable Alcohol Free Antiseptic Oral Rinse 0.07 mg/100L Oral Topco Associates LLC 1990-02-15 Not applicable Antiplaque solution Mouthwash 0.5 mg/1mL Buccal Sage Products LLC 2009-01-09 Not applicable Antiseptic Rinse 0.7 mg/1mL Oral Your Military Exchanges 2010-06-28 Not applicable
- Mixture Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image (badiful) Antibacterial Wipes Cetylpyridinium chloride (5 mg/100mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (13 mg/100mL) + Chlorphenesin (2 mg/100mL) + Propylene glycol (2 mg/100mL) Swab Topical ZHANGZHOU KANGBEI HYGIENIC PRODUCTS CO., LTD. 2020-05-31 Not applicable Actisep Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.1 g/100mL) + Benzocaine (2 g/100mL) + Levomenthol (0.5 g/100mL) Spray Topical Actipharma, Inc 2015-12-28 Not applicable Actisep Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.1 g/100mL) + Benzocaine (2 g/100mL) + Levomenthol (0.5 g/100mL) Solution Topical Actipharma, Inc 2015-12-28 Not applicable Alcohol Wet Tissue Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.1 g/100g) + Chlorphenesin (0.05 g/100g) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (0.1 g/100g) + Ethanol (75 g/100g) Swab Topical SHANDONG PROVINCE RUNHE SANITARY MATERIALS CO.,LTD. 2020-04-13 Not applicable Alcohol Wet Tissue Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.1 g/100g) + Ethanol (75 g/100g) Swab Topical SHANDONG PROVINCE RUNHE SANITARY MATERIALS CO.,LTD. 2020-04-13 Not applicable Alcohol Wipes Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.025 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.0125 g/100g) + Ethanol (75 g/100g) Cloth Topical Guangzhou Shentai Hygienic Products Co., Ltd. 2021-07-08 Not applicable AMIGDAL-B® Cetylpyridinium chloride (1 mg) + Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride (0.2 mg) Tablet Buccal; Oral COLOMPACK S.A 2009-06-12 Not applicable Antibiotic Lozenges Cetylpyridinium chloride (1.3 mg / loz) + Benzocaine (5.0 mg / loz) + Polymyxin B sulfate (1500 unit / loz) + Tyrothricin (1.5 mg / loz) Lozenge Oral Nutribon (1986) Inc. 1994-12-31 2003-07-25 Antiseptic Hand Wipes Cetylpyridinium chloride (1 mg/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (2 mg/1g) + Polyaminopropyl biguanide (15 mg/1g) Swab Topical Jiebao Daily Chemical (Xiangxi)Co.,Ltd 2020-06-04 Not applicable Balminil Loz Cetylpyridinium chloride (2.5 mg) + Benzocaine (5 mg) Lozenge Oral Rougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc 1961-12-31 2000-09-07
- Unapproved/Other Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image (badiful) Antibacterial Wipes Cetylpyridinium chloride (5 mg/100mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (13 mg/100mL) + Chlorphenesin (2 mg/100mL) + Propylene glycol (2 mg/100mL) Swab Topical ZHANGZHOU KANGBEI HYGIENIC PRODUCTS CO., LTD. 2020-05-31 Not applicable Breath mellow Azalea Peach Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.0085 g/17mL) Spray Topical Curescript 2021-02-01 Not applicable Breath mellow Water Lily Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.0085 g/17mL) Spray Topical Curescript 2021-02-01 Not applicable Dr. Protector Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05 g/100mL) Liquid Topical Sungwon Cosmetic Inc. 2020-03-04 Not applicable Duble X Concentration Gargle Liquid Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.0023 g/100mL) Paste Dental DONG IL PHARMS CO.,LTD 2019-12-10 2020-01-02 E-zen Gargle Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.005 g/100mL) Liquid Dental Jn Pharm 2014-02-08 Not applicable Exoden Powder Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.043 g/100g) + Domiphen bromide (0.12 1/100g) Powder Topical Lifeon Corp. 2021-03-09 Not applicable Exoden Powder Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.084 g/70g) + Domiphen bromide (0.3 1/70g) Powder Topical Lifeon Corp. 2016-04-07 2019-09-26 Niguo Disinfectant wipes-80 Sheets Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.15505 g/801) + Propylene glycol (2.8352 g/801) Cloth Extracorporeal Hebei Sileda Sanitary Products Co., Ltd. 2020-06-28 Not applicable
- ATC Codes
- D08AJ03 — Cetylpyridinium
- D08AJ — Quaternary ammonium compounds
- D08A — ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS
- D08 — ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS
- D — DERMATOLOGICALS
- B05CA — Antiinfectives
- B05C — IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS
- B05 — BLOOD SUBSTITUTES AND PERFUSION SOLUTIONS
- B — BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMING ORGANS
- Drug Categories
- Anti-Infective Agents
- Anti-Infective Agents, Local
- Antiseptics and Disinfectants
- Blood and Blood Forming Organs
- Blood Substitutes and Perfusion Solutions
- Compounds used in a research, industrial, or household setting
- Household Products
- Irrigating Solutions
- Medicated Dressings
- Medicated Dressings With Antiinfectives
- Miscellaneous Anti-infectives
- Mouthwashes and Gargles
- Pyridinium Compounds
- Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
- Surface-Active Agents
- Throat Preparations
- Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
- This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinium derivatives. These are compounds containing a pyridinium ring, which is the cationic form of pyridine.
- Organic compounds
- Super Class
- Organoheterocyclic compounds
- Pyridines and derivatives
- Sub Class
- Pyridinium derivatives
- Direct Parent
- Pyridinium derivatives
- Alternative Parents
- Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Organic cations
- Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic cation / Organic nitrogen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Pyridinium
- Molecular Framework
- Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
- External Descriptors
- pyridinium ion (CHEBI:32914)
- Affected organisms
- Humans and other mammals
- CAS number
- InChI Key
- IUPAC Name
- General References
- Pitten FA, Kramer A: Efficacy of cetylpyridinium chloride used as oropharyngeal antiseptic. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(7):588-95. [Article]
- Albert-Kiszely A, Pjetursson BE, Salvi GE, Witt J, Hamilton A, Persson GR, Lang NP: Comparison of the effects of cetylpyridinium chloride with an essential oil mouth rinse on dental plaque and gingivitis - a six-month randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Aug;34(8):658-67. [Article]
- The Role of Cetylpyridinium Chloride Mouthwash In The Treatment of Periodontitis. [Link]
- Electronic Medicines Compendium: Cetylpyridinium chloride formulations [Link]
- Electronic Medicines Compendium: Covonia Cold & Flu Formula Monograph [Link]
- IPCS INCHEM: Quaternary ammonium profile [Link]
- Pubchem: Cetylpyridinium Chloride Profile [Link]
- Electronic Medicines Compendium: Lemsip Cough for Mucus Cough & Catarrh 100mg/2.5mg/5ml Oral Solution Monograph [Link]
- Electronic Medicines Database: Calgel Teething Gel Monograph [Link]
- DailyMed: Advanced Guard (cetylpyridinium chloride) oral rinse [Link]
- Lloyd's Farmacia: Neo Formitrol (cetylpyridinium chloride) buccal tablets [Link]
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- Clinical Trials
Phase Status Purpose Conditions Count 4 Completed Prevention Dental Decay 1 4 Completed Prevention Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis 1 4 Completed Prevention Gingivitis / Periodontal Disease (Diagnosis) / Plaque, Dental 1 4 Completed Treatment Gingivitis 1 4 Completed Treatment Gingivitis / Plaque, Dental 3 4 Recruiting Prevention Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Mouthwashes / Polymerase Chain Reaction / Viral Load 1 4 Unknown Status Prevention Gingivitis 1 4 Unknown Status Prevention Oral Biofilm / Periodontitis / Plaque, Dental 1 3 Completed Supportive Care Healthy Subjects (HS) 1 3 Completed Treatment Gingival Diseases 2
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Dosage Forms
Form Route Strength Mouthwash Oral 0.7 mg/1mL Solution Topical Spray Topical Rinse Oral 0.07 mg/100L Tablet, chewable Oral Tablet, chewable Oral 10 mg Solution Buccal; Oral 500 mg Tablet Oral 600 MG Tablet Buccal; Oral Rinse Oral 0.07 kg/100L Rinse Oral 0.7 mg/1mL Mouthwash Oral 0.07 kg/100L Mouthwash Buccal 0.05 % Mouthwash Buccal 0.5 mg/1mL Solution Oral Mouthwash Buccal 0.7 mg/1mL Tablet Oral Solution Buccal; Oral Tablet, chewable Buccal Liquid Dental Spray Topical 0.0085 g/17mL Mouthwash Topical 0.3394 g/473mL Kit Dental; Oral Rinse Oral .75 mg/1mL Spray Oral 0.85 mg/1mL Solution Oral Liquid Oral 0.05 g/100mL Lozenge Oral 1.4 mg Lozenge Oral 1.4 mg / loz Mouthwash Buccal Mouthwash Buccal 0.5 mg / mL Liquid; mouthwash Buccal Mouthwash Oral Solution Topical Solution Topical 2 MG/ML Tablet Oral Solution Oral 0.283 g/473mL Solution Buccal 0.075 % w/w Mouthwash Buccal 0.075 % w/w Rinse Dental 0.75 mg/1mL Rinse Dental 15 mg/20mL Mouthwash Dental 10.5 mg/20mL Mouthwash Dental 15 mg/20mL Rinse Oral 0.5 mg/1mL Rinse Topical 0.014 g/20mL Rinse Oral 0.014 g/1mL Rinse Oral 0.02 g/20mL Rinse Oral 0.05 g/1mL Mouthwash Buccal 0.07 % w/w Rinse Oral 0.014 g/20mL Mouthwash Oral Kit; rinse Buccal 0.5 mg/1mL Gel Dental Gel Oral Cloth Topical Swab Topical Solution Topical 5 g/100g Liquid Topical 0.05 g/100mL Paste Dental 0.0023 g/100mL Paste Dental 2.296 g/100mL Mouthwash Dental 1 mg/1mL Liquid Dental 0.005 g/100mL Mouthwash Oral 0.07 g/1mL Ointment Topical Lozenge Oral 1.34 mg / loz Solution Oral 2.296 g Powder Topical Rinse Oral 0.07 g/100mL Spray Oral Rinse Oral 0.07 g/20mL Paste Dental Tablet, soluble Oral Pastille Oral 1.5 MG Lozenge Oral Liquid Oral 0.7 mg/1mL Liquid Buccal; Topical Kit Oral Kit Oral 0.0005 mg/1mL Lozenge Buccal Mouthwash Oral 0.5 mg/1mL Rinse Oral 1 mg/100mL Spray Topical 0.05 g/100g Spray Topical 0.05 mL/100mL Liquid; mouthwash Oral .05 % Rinse Dental 0.07 g/100g Mouthwash Oral .05 % Tablet Oral 1.5 MG Tablet Oral 1 MG Cloth Extracorporeal Tablet Buccal Liquid Oral 0.5 mg/1mL Liquid Oral .001 mL/1mL Mouthwash Buccal; Topical Rinse Oral 0.07 g/1mL Mouthwash Oral .47 mL/474mL Liquid Dental 500 ug/1mL Mouthwash Dental 0.07 % w/w Liquid Topical Gel Rinse Oral Lozenge Oral 1.66 mg Kit Oral .5 mg/1mL Kit Buccal; Oral .5 mg/1mL Rinse Buccal; Oral 0.5 mg/1mL Rinse Buccal Rinse Buccal 5 [iU]/1mL Kit Buccal Kit Buccal; Oral Spray Topical .027 mL/60mL Liquid Oral 1 mg/100mL Spray Oral Tablet Transmucosal Swab Buccal 0.5 mg/1mL Kit Buccal 0.5 mg/1mL Kit Oral; Topical Kit Dental 500 mg/20mL Gum Dental 500 mg/20mL Lozenge Oral Kit Oral 0.5 mg/1mL Rinse Buccal 0.5 mg/1mL Mouthwash Buccal 0.05 % w/w Rinse Oral 0.0005 g/1g Rinse Oral 0.075 mg/0.1mL Kit Buccal .5 [iU]/1mL Lozenge Oral 0.46 mg Lozenge Oral 0.33 mg Lozenge Oral 0.5 mg Lozenge Oral 0.35 mg Liquid Oral 0.07 g/100g Aerosol Oral; Topical Lozenge Lozenge Oral 1.5 mg Tablet Oral 0.33 mg
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Experimental Properties
- Not Available
- Predicted Properties
Property Value Source Water Solubility 6.53e-06 mg/mL ALOGPS logP 3.18 ALOGPS logP 3.47 ChemAxon logS -7.7 ALOGPS Physiological Charge 1 ChemAxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon Polar Surface Area 3.88 Å2 ChemAxon Rotatable Bond Count 15 ChemAxon Refractivity 99.14 m3·mol-1 ChemAxon Polarizability 42.21 Å3 ChemAxon Number of Rings 1 ChemAxon Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon Ghose Filter Yes ChemAxon Veber's Rule No ChemAxon MDDR-like Rule No ChemAxon
- Predicted ADMET Features
- Not Available
- Mass Spec (NIST)
- Not Available
Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available
Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on September 19, 2021 19:53