Pectin

Identification

Brand Names
Luden's Drops, Sucrets
Generic Name
Pectin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11158
Background

Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide commercially derived from the cell wall of higher plants.2 It is composed of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units linked in the positions 1-4.7 The carboxylic group of the constituents of pectin can exist in the form of esters, free acids, ammonium, potassium or sodium salts or as acid amides. Under the FDA regulation, pectin qualifies as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) food substance. This status allows pectin to be used with no limitations.6

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Synonyms
  • Pectin
External IDs
  • E-440

Pharmacology

Indication

Pectin is used in food as a gelling agent and stabilizer. As a medical drug, it has obtained a great interest in its potential use as a source of dietary fiber, lipid, cholesterol, serum glucose and insulin level lowering effect, gastric emptying delay.2 Some recent studies have researched the possibility of using pectin for the formation of nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle of drugs.3

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Pectin increases viscosity and volume of stools which helps it to be used for constipation and diarrhea.5 It is reported as well to present lowering effects of different body components. This effect depends on the type of pectin which indicated that this effect is related to the composition of the correspondent pectin. Nonetheless, this data is still unclear and more studies need to be performed to conclude this effect of pectin.4

Mechanism of action

Pectin is an adsorbent that binds to bacteria, toxins and other irritants in the intestinal mucosa. Pectin is able to decrease the pH in the intestinal lumen and provides a soothing effect on the irritated mucosa.5

Absorption

Pectin is not absorbed and it is not distributed in the body.5

Volume of distribution

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Protein binding

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Metabolism

Pectin is depolymerized and de-esterified to a very small extent. It passes to the small intestine as a macromolecule and the majority of the pectin is eliminated unchanged.8

Route of elimination

Pectin is completely excreted in the feces, including a small amount of trigalacturonic acid that can be found in the colon.5

Half-life

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Clearance

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Pectin is a substance determined to be safe.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Berry Breezer Throat DropLozenge7 mg/1OralTopco Associates2013-03-22Not applicableUS flag
Berry Breezer Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralDollar General Corporation2016-03-22Not applicableUS flag
Berry Breezer Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralCVS Health2015-05-18Not applicableUS flag
Berry Breezer Throat Relief DropLozenge7 mg/1OralFamily Dollar2018-01-25Not applicableUS flag
Berry Soother Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralMeijer Distribution2018-07-13Not applicableUS flag
Berry Throat DropLozenge7 mg/1OralWalmart2018-03-15Not applicableUS flag
Breezers Cool BerryLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2019-03-24Not applicableUS flag
Breezers Creamy StrawberryLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2016-08-03Not applicableUS flag
Breezers Tropical ChillLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2016-11-21Not applicableUS flag
CVS Clean Label Throat Relief PopsLozenge12 mg/1OralCVS PHARMACY2019-04-11Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AXCEL KAOPEC SUSPENSIONPectin (20 mg/5ml) + Kaolin (1 g/5ml)SuspensionOralKOTRA PHARMA (M) SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Benylin DM With Pectin Freezer PopsPectin (150 mg / unit) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (7.5 mg / unit)LiquidOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cepacol Sore Throat and CoatingPectin (5 mg/1) + Benzocaine (15 mg/1)LozengeOralReckitt Benckiser2011-08-042014-03-01US flag
Cepacol Sore Throat Plus CoatingPectin (5 mg/1) + Benzocaine (15 mg/1)LozengeOralCombe Incorporated2006-08-312013-12-10US flag
Diaret LiqPectin (150 mg / 30 mL) + Kaolin (3.078 g / 30 mL)LiquidOralProduits Francais Labs Inc.1981-12-311997-05-30Canada flag
Diaret TabPectin (45 mg / tab) + Aluminum hydroxide (70 mg / tab) + Attapulgite (350 mg / tab) + Zinc phenolsulfonate (30 mg / tab)TabletOralProduits Francais Labs Inc.1981-12-311997-05-30Canada flag
DiarexPectin (300 mg / 30 g) + Kaolin (6.156 g / 30 g)LiquidOralPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1977-12-311999-10-19Canada flag
Diarex TabPectin (45 mg / tab) + Aluminum hydroxide (70 mg / tab) + Attapulgite (350 mg / tab) + Zinc phenolsulfonate (30 mg / tab)TabletOralNutribon (1986) Inc.1995-12-311996-09-30Canada flag
Diban CapPectin (71.4 mg) + Atropine sulfate anyhdrous (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1998-02-182001-01-30Canada flag
Diban CapPectin (71.4 mg) + Atropine sulfate anyhdrous (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralAyerst Laboratories1992-12-311999-04-12Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Herbon Banana Man GoodypopsPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (50 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31US flag
Herbon Berry BuddiesPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (50 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31US flag
Herbon Rockhopper Orange GoodypopPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (6.82 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31US flag
Herbon Rockhopper Strawberry GoodypopPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (6.82 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A07BC01 — Pectin
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
89NA02M4RX
CAS number
9000-69-5
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Thakur BR, Singh RK, Handa AK: Chemistry and uses of pectin--a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1997 Feb;37(1):47-73. [Article]
  2. Wikiera A, Irla M, Mika M: [Health-promoting properties of pectin]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2014 Jan 2;68:590-6. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1102342. [Article]
  3. Verma AK, Kumar A: Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of negatively charged pectin nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel. Cancer Nanotechnol. 2013;4(4-5):99-102. doi: 10.1007/s12645-013-0041-8. Epub 2013 Jun 12. [Article]
  4. Brouns F, Theuwissen E, Adam A, Bell M, Berger A, Mensink RP: Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;66(5):591-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.208. Epub 2011 Dec 21. [Article]
  5. Kluwer W. (2008). Clinical pharmacology made incredibly easy (3rd ed.). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  6. FDA regulations [Link]
  7. Dissolutiontech [Link]
  8. ScienceDirect [Link]
PubChem Substance
347911137
RxNav
32987
Wikipedia
Pectin
MSDS
Download (47.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentBismuth / Helicobacter Pylori Infection / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4CompletedTreatmentGastroesophageal Reflux1
4CompletedTreatmentHelicobacter Pylori Infection1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBismuth / Helicobacter Pylori Infection / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHelicobacter Pylori Infection2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAntimicrobial Susceptibility Testing / Helicobacter Pylori Infection2
3CompletedTreatmentConstipation / Hypomotility1
3WithdrawnPreventionPredictable BTP at Swallowing in in Head/Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy Already Receiving Opioid Therapy for Background Pain1
2CompletedSupportive CareAdvanced Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentSlow Transit Constipation1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionOral
Suspension
LozengeOral7 mg/1
LozengeOral12 mg/1
Tablet
TabletOral
CapsuleOral
LozengeOral
LozengeOral5.4 mg/1
LozengeOral2.8 mg/1
PasteOral; Topical
SolutionOral
LozengeOral2 mg/1
LozengeOral1.7 mg/1
LiquidOral
LozengeOral0.1 g/100g
LozengeOral5 mg/4.2g
LozengeOral10 mg/1
LozengeOral11.5 mg/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)6.1ºC'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)415.5ºC at 760 mmHg'MSDS'
water solubilityPartially soluble in cold water'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:52