Somatotropin

Identification

Summary

Somatotropin is a recombinant human growth hormone used as replacement therapy in various conditions of growth failure, growth hormone deficiency, and weakness in children and adults.

Brand Names
Genotropin, Humatrope, Norditropin, Norditropin Nordiflex, Nutropin, Nutropinaq, Omnitrope, Saizen, Serostim, Zomacton, Zorbtive
Generic Name
Somatotropin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00052
Background

Human growth hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and secreted by the somatotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland.1 Growth hormone plays an essential role in growth regulation during childhood as well as other basal metabolic functions, muscle and fat mass regulation, blood glucose level regulation, and lipid regulation in both children and adults.1,10 Synthesized in a strain of Escherichia coli, recombinant HGH is a polypeptide hormone that contains 191 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 22 kDa. It has an identical primary protein structure to endogenous human growth hormone.2 Recombinant HGH has been commercially available since 1985 after its development by Genentech. Somatrem was the first available recombinant HGH and was largely replaced by somatropin, another form of recombinant HGH.1

Growth hormone therapy is approved for various disorders of growth hormone deficiency, growth failure, or short stature including Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency before transplantation, Prader-Willi syndrome, a history of fetal growth restriction, short stature homeobox (SHOX) haploinsufficiency, Noonan syndrome, idiopathic short stature, and adult- or childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency.2 Recombinant growth hormone is available as a subcutaneous injection for children and adults under a wide variety of brand names.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones
Protein Structure
Db00052
Protein Chemical Formula
C990H1532N262O300S7
Protein Average Weight
22129.0 Da
Sequences
>DB00052 sequence
FPTIPLSRLFDNAMLRAHRLHQLAFDTYQEFEEAYIPKEQKYSFLQNPQTSLCFSESIPT
PSNREETQQKSNLELLRISLLLIQSWLEPVQFLRSVFANSLVYGASDSNVYDLLKDLEEG
IQTLMGRLEDGSPRTGQIFKQTYSKFDTNSHNDDALLKNYGLLYCFRKDMDKVETFLRIV
QCRSVEGSCGF
References:
  1. Therapeutic Targets Database: TTD Biologic drug sequences in fasta format [Link]
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Growth hormone
  • Growth hormone (human)
  • hGH
  • Human growth hormone
  • Recombinant human growth hormone
  • rhGH
  • Somatotropin (human)
  • Somatotropin human
  • Somatotropin human growth hormone
  • Somatropin
  • Somatropin (rDNA origin)
  • Somatropin (recombinant DNA origin)
  • Somatropin [rDNA origin]
  • Somatropin recombinant
  • Somatropin(recombinant DNA origin)
  • Somatropina
External IDs
  • CB-311
  • DA-3002
  • LY-137998
  • LY137998

Pharmacology

Indication

Somatotropin is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients who have growth failure due to an inadequate secretion of endogenous growth hormone, short stature associated with Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), idiopathic short stature (ISS), short stature or growth failure in short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) deficiency, and short stature born small for gestational age (SGA).11,12 It is indicated for the treatment of growth failure in children associated with chronic kidney disease up to the time of renal transplantation.13

It is also indicated for adults with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency, either alone or associated with multiple hormone deficiencies (hypopituitarism), as a result of pituitary disease, hypothalamic disease, surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. It is also used to treat childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency in adults due to congenital, genetic, acquired, or idiopathic causes.12

Somatotropin is indicated for the treatment of wasting or cachexia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy to increase lean body mass and body weight and improve physical endurance.9

Somatotropin is indicated for the treatment of short bowel syndrome in adult patients receiving specialized nutritional support.8

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Somatotropin induces growth in nearly every tissue and organ in the body.10 It stimulates linear growth and cartilaginous growth of long bones. In children with short stature, growth hormone increases both the number and size of muscle cells. It also promotes the growth of internal organs, and it also increases red cell mass. By promoting nitrogen retention, growth hormone increases cellular protein synthesis. Growth hormone also retains potassium and phosphorus in the serum, which may be the result of cell growth. Growth hormone stimulates the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate and collagen and increases the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline. It has negligible effects on serum calcium levels. Although increased calcium excretion in the urine is observed, calcium absorption from the intestine is simultaneously enhanced.7 In end-stage renal disease, growth hormone was shown to improve several nutritional parameters, such as increases in serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), serum albumin, and transferrin, as well as a reduction in blood urea nitrogen.5

The metabolic effects of growth hormone are caused by the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1. Generally, growth hormone leads cells to enter an anabolic protein state with increased amino acid uptake, protein synthesis, and decreased catabolism of proteins.10 The diabetogenic effect of larger doses of growth hormone is well documented in the literature: somatotropin antagonizes insulin action in vivo, causing insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. It increases glucose production through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis from the liver and kidney 4 and suppresses glucose uptake in the adipose tissue.3 In mice, growth hormone increased mRNA expression of 2 major gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy-kinase and glucose-6-phosphatase.4 The risk for impaired glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity may be increased in susceptible patients, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus, such as obesity, Turner syndrome, or a family history of diabetes mellitus. The development of new-onset type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was observed in patients receiving somatotropin treatment.7

Growth hormone stimulates lipolysis via activation of the hormone-sensitive lipase in the adipose tissue, thereby increasing circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in the plasma. It also leads to a reduction of fat stores and decreased serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.7 In contrast to the effects seen in the adipose tissue, growth hormone promotes cellular uptake of free fatty acids in skeletal muscle by increasing the activity of lipoprotein lipase. Growth hormone may cause hyperinsulinism following beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance; however, there is some evidence that growth hormone directly promotes beta-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.4

Mechanism of action

In conditions of growth failure, growth hormone deficiency, low body mass, and malnutrition, somatotropin treatment acts to mimic and restore the actions of endogenous growth hormone of stimulating linear bone growth, increasing bone mass, increasing muscle and reduced fat mass, and regulating blood glucose and lipid levels.1 Somatotropin mediates its effects both directly by somatotropin and indirectly by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is upregulated by growth hormone. It binds to the human growth hormone receptor (GHR), which is a dimeric receptor expressed in target cells in the liver and cartilage.7 Upon binding of growth hormone, GHR dimerizes and interacts with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), subsequently leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and the GH receptor. The signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is initiated, where transcription factors such as STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 are translocated into the nucleus to stimulate target gene transcription.10

At the epiphysis or growth plate, growth hormone increases linear growth by promoting differentiation of prechondrocytes and expansion of osteoblasts. Growth hormone binding to its receptor in the liver and cartilage promotes the production of IGF-1, which acts on type 1 IGF receptors to also stimulate linear growth. In the liver, activated growth hormone receptor signalling leads to increased production of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS), which are proteins that bind to IGF-1 in a ternary complex to increase its half-life.1

TargetActionsOrganism
AGrowth hormone receptor
ligand
Humans
AProlactin receptor
ligand
Humans
Absorption

When somatotropin was administered subcutaneously at the dose of 0.024 mg/kg or 3 IU/m2, the Cmax ranged from 13.8 (±5.8) to 17.1 (±10.0) ng/mL and the Tmax was four to five hours. Following intravenous infusion of 33 ng/kg/min of somatotropin in patients with growth hormone deficiency, the mean steady-state serum levels of approximately 23.1 (±15.0) ng/mL were reached at 150 minutes.7

Volume of distribution

Information is unavailable.

Protein binding

While there is no information regarding the protein binding profile of recombinant human growth hormones, endogenous growth hormone is typically complexed with growth hormone-binding protein, which is a soluble form of growth hormone receptor, when it is incubated with plasma in vitro.6

Metabolism

Information is unavailable.

Route of elimination

Information is unavailable.

Half-life

When somatotropin was administered subcutaneously at the dose of 0.024 mg/kg or 3 IU/m2, the mean apparent terminal half-life was Following intravenous infusion of 33 ng/kg/min of somatotropin in patients with growth hormone deficiency, the terminal elimination half-life was approximately 21.1 (±5.1) minutes.7

Clearance

Following intravenous infusion of 33 ng/kg/min of somatotropin in patients with growth hormone deficiency, the mean clearance rate was approximately 2.3 (±1.8) mL/min/kg or 139 (±105) mL/min.7

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

The oral LD50 is 242 mg/kg in rats and 828 mg/kg in mice. The inhalatory LD50 is 710 mg/m3 and dermal LD50 is 1100 mg/kg in rats. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice is 828 mg/kg.14

Hypoglycemia followed by hyperglycemia, possibly with fluid retention, can be observed in somatropin overdose. Long-term or excessive use of growth hormone can lead to the signs and symptoms of gigantism and acromegaly.7

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcarboseSomatotropin may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Somatotropin.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Somatotropin.
AcetohexamideSomatotropin may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Somatotropin is combined with Acipimox.
AcyclovirThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be increased when combined with Somatotropin.
AgomelatineThe metabolism of Agomelatine can be increased when combined with Somatotropin.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be increased when combined with Somatotropin.
AlbiglutideSomatotropin may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of Albiglutide.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Somatotropin is combined with Alendronic acid.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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International/Other Brands
BioTropin (Biotech General)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Genotropin1.6 mg/0.25mLSubcutaneousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-12-20Not applicableUS flag
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.6 mg / syrSubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2013-09-18Not applicableCanada flag
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.6 mg / syrSubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2013-09-18Not applicableCanada flag
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.4 mg / syrSubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2020-09-17Not applicableCanada flag
Genotropin12 mg/1mLSubcutaneousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-12-20Not applicableUS flag
Genotropin1 mg/0.25mLSubcutaneousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-12-20Not applicableUS flag
Genotropin2 mg/0.25mLSubcutaneousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-12-20Not applicableUS flag
GenotropinPowder, for solution1 mg / syrSubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2013-09-18Not applicableCanada flag
GenotropinPowder, for solution2 mg / syrSubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2013-09-18Not applicableCanada flag
GenotropinKit0.2 mg/0.25mLSubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-05-222011-06-30US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bio-tropinSomatotropin (4.8 mg / kit) + Sodium chloride (10 mL / kit)Liquid; Powder, for solutionSubcutaneousNovopharm LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bio-tropinSomatotropin (1.8 mg / kit) + Sodium chloride (10 mL / kit)Liquid; Powder, for solutionSubcutaneousNovopharm LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
HumatropeSomatotropin (12 mg)Liquid; Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2001-08-28Not applicableCanada flag
HumatropeSomatotropin (6 mg)Liquid; Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2001-09-25Not applicableCanada flag
HumatropeSomatotropin (24 mg)Liquid; Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2003-12-08Not applicableCanada flag
Nutropin - Kit Pws(10mg) & Liq(10ml) Im ScSomatotropin (10 mg / vial) + Water (10 mL / vial)Kit; Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche2002-10-082013-12-02Canada flag
Nutropin - Kit Pws(5mg) & Liq(10ml) Im ScSomatotropin (5 mg / vial) + Water (10 mL / vial)Kit; Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche1997-01-202011-07-19Canada flag
OmnitropeSomatotropin (5.8 mg / vial) + Water (1.14 mL / cartridge)Kit; Powder, for solutionSubcutaneousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Saizen 10iu - KitSomatotropin (3.3 mg / kit) + Sodium chloride (5 mL / kit)Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada1996-10-172019-02-21Canada flag
SerostimSomatotropin (6 mg / kit) + Water (1 mL / kit)Powder, for solutionSubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada1999-06-302013-07-15Canada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
H01AC01 — Somatropin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
NQX9KB6PCL
CAS number
12629-01-5

References

Synthesis Reference

Mandayam J. Narasimhan, John A. Anderson, "Process for the large scale production of human growth hormone by serial secondary suspension culture." U.S. Patent US4124448, issued January, 1963.

US4124448
General References
  1. Reh CS, Geffner ME: Somatotropin in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and Turner syndrome in pediatric patients: a review. Clin Pharmacol. 2010;2:111-22. doi: 10.2147/CPAA.S6525. Epub 2010 Jun 1. [Article]
  2. Mehta S, Oza V, Potashner R, Zamora P, Raisingani M, Shah B: Allergic and non-allergic skin reactions associated with growth hormone therapy: elucidation of causative agents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jan 26;31(1):5-11. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2017-0309. [Article]
  3. Glenn KC, Rose KS, Krivi GG: Somatotropin antagonism of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 1988 Aug;37(4):371-83. doi: 10.1002/jcb.240370405. [Article]
  4. Kim SH, Park MJ: Effects of growth hormone on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in human. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Sep;22(3):145-152. doi: 10.6065/apem.2017.22.3.145. Epub 2017 Sep 28. [Article]
  5. Langbakke IH, Nielsen JN, Skettrup MP, Harper A, Klitgaard T, Weil A, Engelhardt E, Lange M: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of growth hormone in patients on chronic haemodialysis compared with matched healthy subjects: an open, nonrandomized, parallel-group trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Nov;67(5):776-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02962.x. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [Article]
  6. Baumann G, Vance ML, Shaw MA, Thorner MO: Plasma transport of human growth hormone in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Aug;71(2):470-3. doi: 10.1210/jcem-71-2-470. [Article]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Norditropin (somatropin) injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZORBTIVE (somatropin) for injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  9. FDA Approved Drug Products: SEROSTIM (somatropin) for injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  10. StatPearls: Physiology, Growth Hormone [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZOMACTON (somatropin) for injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: GENOTROPIN (somatropin) for injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Nutropin (somatropin) injection, for subcutaneous use [Link]
  14. Pfizer: Genotropin (Somatropin) Safety Data Sheet [Link]
UniProt
P58756
Genbank
AF374232
PubChem Substance
46506010
RxNav
314845
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201621
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001054
PharmGKB
PA451446
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Growth_hormone
FDA label
Download (241 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfertility1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSmall for Gestational Age (Disorder)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Growth Hormone Deficiency1
4CompletedDiagnosticHuman Growth Hormone Deficiency / Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure1
4CompletedPreventionHealthy Subjects (HS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency / Growth Hormone Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cognition / Human Growth Hormone Deficiency / Physical Activities / Syndrome, Metabolic1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Genentech inc
  • Serono laboratories inc
  • Cangene corp
  • Ferring pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Novo nordisk inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Emd serono inc
  • Lg life sciences ltd
Packagers
  • Bio Technology General Ltd.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • BTG Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  • EMD Canada Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • First KJM Corporation
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • Genentech Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Merck KGaA
  • Merck Serono SPA
  • Novartis AG
  • Novo Nordisk Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Serono SA
  • Vetter Pharma Fertigung GmbH and Co. KG
  • Wasserburger Arzneimittelwerk GmbH
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder
Liquid; powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral0.2 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral0.4 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral0.6 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral0.8 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1.2 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1.4 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1.6 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1.8 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral12 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral2 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral5.3 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous12 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous3 IU
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous4 IU
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5 mg
KitSubcutaneous0.2 mg/0.25mL
KitSubcutaneous0.4 mg/0.25mL
KitSubcutaneous0.6 mg/0.25mL
KitSubcutaneous0.8 mg/0.25mL
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.2 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.4 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.6 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.8 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.2 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.4 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.6 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.8 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous12 mg / pen
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous2 mg / syr
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5 mg / pen
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5.3 mg / pen
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous12 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5.3 mg/ml
Injection, powder, for solution
SolutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous8 IU
SolutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous16 IU
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral24 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral6 MG
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5.33 mg
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous12 mg/2.88mL
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous24 mg/2.88mL
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5 mg/5mL
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous6 mg/2.88mL
Liquid; powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous8 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral15 MG/1.5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral5 MG/1.5ML
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 mg/1.5mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous15 mg/1.5mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous30 mg/3mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous5 mg/1.5mL
InjectionSubcutaneous4 IU
Injection, solutionParenteral
SolutionSubcutaneous10 mg / 1.5 mL
SolutionSubcutaneous6.7 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous10 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous3.3 mg
InjectionSubcutaneous10 mg/1.5ml
InjectionSubcutaneous5 mg/1.5ml
SolutionSubcutaneous15 mg / 1.5 mL
SolutionSubcutaneous5 mg / 1.5 mL
KitSubcutaneous10 mg/10mg
KitSubcutaneous5 mg/5mg
Kit; powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 mg/2mL
LiquidSubcutaneous5 mg / mL
SolutionSubcutaneous10 mg / 2 mL
SolutionSubcutaneous20 mg / 2 mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous5 mg/2mL
SolutionSubcutaneous5 mg / 2 mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous20 mg/2mL
KitSubcutaneous13.5 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous18 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous22.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 mg
InjectionSubcutaneous15 mg/1.5ml
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.3 MG/ML
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5 MG/ML
Injection, solutionParenteral10 MG/1.5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous10 MG/1.5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous15 MG/1.5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral; Subcutaneous5 MG/1.5ML
KitSubcutaneous1.5 mg/1.13mL
KitSubcutaneous5.8 mg/1mL
Kit; powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous0.67 MG
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous8 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous3.33 MG
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous8 MG
Injection, solution5.83 MG/ML
Injection, solution8 MG/ML
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5 mg/3mL
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous8.8 mg/3mL
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5 mg / vial
SolutionSubcutaneous5.83 mg / mL
SolutionSubcutaneous8 mg / mL
SolutionSubcutaneous8 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous20 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
InjectionSubcutaneous
Injection, solution
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous8.8 mg / vial
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous8.8 mg/1.51mL
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous3.33 mg
Injection, solution8 mg/1ml
Injection, solution5.83 mg/1ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous6.0 mg/ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous12 mg/ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous20 mg/ml
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous1.33 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous6 mg
KitSubcutaneous4 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous5 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous6 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous8.8 mg/2mL
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous1.33 mg
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous10 MG
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous2 MG
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous20 MG
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous4 MG
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous7 MG
KitSubcutaneous10 mg/1
KitSubcutaneous10 mg/10mL
KitSubcutaneous5 mg/1
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous15 mg/1.5ml
Injection, powder, for solution10 MG/ML
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous1.3 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous4 IU
Injection, powder, for solution4 mg/1vial
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous10.0 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous4 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionSubcutaneous4 mg
KitSubcutaneous8.8 mg/1mL
Solution10 mg/1.5ml
Solution5 mg/1.5ml
Powder1.6 mg/1vial
Injection, powder, for solution10 mg/1ml
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Humatrope 24 mg cartridge1822.9USD cartridge
Norditropin flexpro 15 mg/1.51179.54USD ml
Norditropin 15 mg/1.5ml Solution 1.5ml Cartridge1168.32USD cartridge
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 15 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml1168.32USD pen
Norditropin 15 mg/1.5 ml cartridge1123.38USD ml
Norditropin nordiflx 15 mg/1.51123.38USD ml
Genotropin 12 mg Solution928.36USD each
Humatrope 12 mg cartridge911.45USD cartridge
Nutropin 10 mg vial784.7USD vial
Nutropin aq 20 mg/2ml pen cart759.55USD ml
Nutropin aq nuspin 20 pen cart759.55USD ml
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 10 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml753.86USD pen
Norditropin nordiflex 30 mg/3748.92USD ml
Saizen 8.8 mg Solution Vial626.1USD vial
Saizen Click.Easy 8.8 mg Solution Vial626.1USD vial
Saizen 8.8 mg vial602.02USD vial
Protropin 10 mg Solution Vial549.9USD vial
Humatrope 6 mg cartridge455.72USD cartridge
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.8 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)433.56USD box
Serostim 8.8 mg vial418.66USD vial
Nutropin 5 mg vial392.35USD vial
Saizen 5 mg Solution Vial391.31USD vial
Genotropin 5.8 mg Cartridge391.21USD cartridge
Norditropin 5 mg/1.5ml Solution 1.5ml Cartridge389.44USD cartridge
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 5 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml389.44USD pen
Saizen 5 mg vial376.26USD vial
Serostim 6 mg vial332.86USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.6 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)326.67USD box
Omnitrope 5.8 mg Solution Vial283.38USD vial
Serostim 5 mg vial277.38USD vial
Protropin 5 mg Solution Vial274.95USD vial
Tev-Tropin 5 mg Solution Vial259.45USD vial
Tev-tropin 5 mg vial239.51USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.4 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)228.45USD box
Serostim 4 mg vial221.9USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)154.72USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 2 mg150.46USD each
Genotropin miniquick 1.8 mg135.41USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.6 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)123.78USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.6 mg120.37USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)110.52USD box
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.4 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)108.78USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.4 mg105.32USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)92.83USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.2 mg90.28USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)77.36USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1 mg75.23USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.8 mg60.19USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.6 mg45.14USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.4 mg30.09USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.2 mg15.05USD each
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5288703No1994-02-222011-10-07US flag
CA2252535No2009-06-232017-04-24Canada flag
CA1326439No1994-01-252011-01-25Canada flag
US6152897No2000-11-282018-11-20US flag
US5898030No1999-04-272016-04-27US flag
US8672898Yes2014-03-182022-07-02US flag
US8684969Yes2014-04-012026-04-20US flag
US9132239Yes2015-09-152032-08-01US flag
US8920383Yes2014-12-302027-01-17US flag
US7686786No2010-03-302026-08-03US flag
US6899699Yes2005-05-312022-07-01US flag
US9108002Yes2015-08-182026-07-26US flag
USRE41956Yes2010-11-232021-07-21US flag
US6004297Yes1999-12-212019-07-28US flag
USRE43834No2012-11-272019-01-28US flag
US5849700No1998-12-152015-12-15US flag
US5849704No1998-12-152015-12-15US flag
US8841252No2014-09-232017-12-26US flag
US6235004No2001-05-222019-01-28US flag
US9486588Yes2016-11-082022-07-02US flag
US9457154Yes2016-10-042028-03-27US flag
USRE46363Yes2017-04-112027-02-03US flag
US9687611Yes2017-06-272027-08-27US flag
US9775953Yes2017-10-032027-01-17US flag
US8579869Yes2013-11-122023-12-30US flag
US7762994Yes2010-07-272024-11-23US flag
US9861757Yes2018-01-092026-07-20US flag
US9616180Yes2017-04-112026-07-20US flag
US10220155Yes2019-03-052027-01-17US flag
US10357616No2019-07-232026-01-20US flag
US10376652No2019-08-132026-01-20US flag

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)76 °C at pH 3.5Gomez-Orellana, I. et al., Protein Sci. 7:1352-1358 (1998)
hydrophobicity-0.411Not Available
isoelectric point5.27Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function
Receptor for pituitary gland growth hormone involved in regulating postnatal body growth. On ligand binding, couples to the JAK2/STAT5 pathway (By similarity).The soluble form (GHBP) acts as a rese...
Gene Name
GHR
Uniprot ID
P10912
Uniprot Name
Growth hormone receptor
Molecular Weight
71498.885 Da
References
  1. Walenkamp MJ, Wit JM: Genetic disorders in the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor-I axis. Horm Res. 2006;66(5):221-30. [Article]
  2. Wu XY, Xu Z, Chen C, Liu FK, Li JS: [Correlation of growth hormone receptor expression to preoperative radiosensitivity of rectal cancer patients]. Ai Zheng. 2006 Sep;25(9):1162-7. [Article]
  3. Adriani M, Garbi C, Amodio G, Russo I, Giovannini M, Amorosi S, Matrecano E, Cosentini E, Candotti F, Pignata C: Functional interaction of common gamma-chain and growth hormone receptor signaling apparatus. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15;177(10):6889-95. [Article]
  4. Choi JH, Kim HS, Kim SH, Yang YR, Bae YS, Chang JS, Kwon HM, Ryu SH, Suh PG: Phospholipase Cgamma1 negatively regulates growth hormone signalling by forming a ternary complex with Jak2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;8(12):1389-97. Epub 2006 Nov 26. [Article]
  5. Bernstein RM, Leigh SR, Donovan SM, Monaco MH: Hormones and body size evolution in papionin primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Feb;132(2):247-60. [Article]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
  7. Reh CS, Geffner ME: Somatotropin in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and Turner syndrome in pediatric patients: a review. Clin Pharmacol. 2010;2:111-22. doi: 10.2147/CPAA.S6525. Epub 2010 Jun 1. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and...
Gene Name
PRLR
Uniprot ID
P16471
Uniprot Name
Prolactin receptor
Molecular Weight
69505.045 Da
References
  1. Keeler C, Jablonski EM, Albert YB, Taylor BD, Myszka DG, Clevenger CV, Hodsdon ME: The kinetics of binding human prolactin, but not growth hormone, to the prolactin receptor vary over a physiologic pH range. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 6;46(9):2398-410. Epub 2007 Feb 6. [Article]
  2. Ahmed TA, Buzzelli MD, Lang CH, Capen JB, Shumate ML, Navaratnarajah M, Nagarajan M, Cooney RN: Interleukin-6 inhibits growth hormone-mediated gene expression in hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):G1793-803. Epub 2007 Mar 29. [Article]
  3. Moderscheim TA, Gorba T, Pathipati P, Kokay IC, Grattan DR, Williams CE, Scheepens A: Prolactin is involved in glial responses following a focal injury to the juvenile rat brain. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 30;145(3):963-73. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [Article]
  4. Cunningham BC, Bass S, Fuh G, Wells JA: Zinc mediation of the binding of human growth hormone to the human prolactin receptor. Science. 1990 Dec 21;250(4988):1709-12. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Jurgens G, Lange KH, Reuther LO, Rasmussen BB, Brosen K, Christensen HR: Effect of growth hormone on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in healthy elderly men. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Mar;71(3):162-8. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2002.121373. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Jurgens G, Lange KH, Reuther LO, Rasmussen BB, Brosen K, Christensen HR: Effect of growth hormone on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in healthy elderly men. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Mar;71(3):162-8. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2002.121373. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wu SJ, Robinson JR: Transport of human growth hormone across Caco-2 cells with novel delivery agents: evidence for P-glycoprotein involvement. J Control Release. 1999 Nov 1;62(1-2):171-7. doi: 10.1016/s0168-3659(99)00035-8. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on October 16, 2021 12:31