Cefepime

Identification

Summary

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

Generic Name
Cefepime
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01413
Background

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic developed in 1994. Cefepime is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both than third-generation antibiotics. Cefepime is usually reserved to treat severe nosocomial pneumonia, infections caused by multi-resistant microorganisms (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 480.561
Monoisotopic: 480.124959288
Chemical Formula
C19H24N6O5S2
Synonyms
  • (6R,7R)-7-{[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino}-3-[(1-methylpyrrolidinium-1-yl)methyl]-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate
  • Cefepima
  • Cefepime
  • Cefepimum
External IDs
  • BMY 28142
  • BMY-28142

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Enterobacter species. Also for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic patients and uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis) caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, when the infection is severe, or caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis, when the infection is mild to moderate, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia with these microorganisms. Also for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only) or Streptococcus pyogenes and complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, viridans group streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, or Bacteroides fragilis.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic developed in 1994. Cefepime is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both than third-generation antibiotics. Cefepime has good activity against important pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, and multiple drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Whereas other cephalosporins are degraded by many plasmid- and chromosome-mediated beta-lactamases, cefepime is stable and is a front line agent when infection with Enterobacteriaceae is known or suspected

Mechanism of action

Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins). Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms. The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs).

TargetActionsOrganism
APenicillin-binding protein 2
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
APeptidoglycan synthase FtsI
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
APenicillin-binding protein 3
inhibitor
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
APenicillin-binding protein 2
inhibitor
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of cefepime after an IM dose of 50 mg/kg was 82.3 (±15)% in eight patients.

Volume of distribution
  • 18.0 ±2.0 L
  • 0.3 ±0.1 L/kg [Pediatric]
Protein binding

The serum protein binding of cefepime is approximately 20% and is independent of its concentration in serum.

Metabolism

Hepatic. Cefepime is metabolized to N-methylpyrrolidine (NMP) which is rapidly converted to the N-oxide (NMP-N-oxide).

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Elimination of cefepime is principally via renal excretion with an average (±SD) half-life of 2 (±0.3) hours and total body clearance of 120 (±8) mL/min in healthy volunteers. Cefepime is excreted in human milk.

Half-life

2.0 (± 0.3) hours in normal patients. The average half-life in patients requiring hemodialysis was 13.5 (± 2.7) hours and in patients requiring continuous peritoneal dialysis was 19.0 (± 2.0) hours.

Clearance
  • 120 mL/min [Healthy adult male receiving a single 30-minute IV infusions of cefepime]
  • 3.3 +/-1.0 mL/min/kg [Petriatic patients (2 months – 11 years of age) receiving a single IV dose]
Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include seizures, encephalopathy, and neuromuscular excitability.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirCefepime may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Abciximab can be decreased when used in combination with Cefepime.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefepime is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefepime is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Cefepime is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenCefepime may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Cefepime.
AclidiniumCefepime may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineCefepime may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Cefepime.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Cefepime hydrochlorideI8X1O0607P123171-59-5LRAJHPGSGBRUJN-OMIVUECESA-N
International/Other Brands
Axepim / Cepimax / Cepimex
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CefepimeInjection, solution1 g/50mLIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2008-08-05Not applicableUS flag
Cefepime for InjectionPowder, for solution2 g / vialIntravenousApotex Corporation2009-03-19Not applicableCanada flag
Cefepime for InjectionPowder, for solution1 g / vialIntramuscular; IntravenousApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cefepime for Injection USPPowder, for solution2 g / vialIntravenousTelip, Llc, A Subsidiary Of Teligent, Inc.2021-07-09Not applicableCanada flag
Cefepime for Injection USPPowder, for solution1 g / vialIntramuscular; IntravenousTelip, Llc, A Subsidiary Of Teligent, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cefepime for Injection, USPPowder, for solution2 g / vialIntravenousQilu Pharmaceutical Co. LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cefepime for Injection, USPPowder, for solution1 g / vialIntramuscular; IntravenousQilu Pharmaceutical Co. LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Cefepime Hydrochloride and DextroseInjection, solution2 g/50mLIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUS flag
Cefepime Hydrochloride and DextroseInjection, solution1 g/50mLIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUS flag
MaxipimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/1IntravenousHospira, Inc.2013-02-182020-01-31US flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-cefepimePowder, for solution2 g / vialIntravenousApotex Corporation2018-05-14Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-cefepimePowder, for solution1 g / vialIntramuscular; IntravenousApotex Corporation2018-05-14Not applicableCanada flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/1Intramuscular; IntravenousApotex Corporation2007-06-182019-01-31US flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/1IntravenousApotex Corp.2017-03-30Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/1IntravenousQilu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.2016-02-01Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/20mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2021-03-31Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution1 g/20mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2014-10-10Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution1 g/1Intramuscular; IntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-07-01Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution1 g/1Intramuscular; IntravenousPiramal Critical Care Inc.2019-05-20Not applicableUS flag
CefepimeInjection, powder, for solution2 g/1IntravenousApotex Corp.2017-11-14Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ROXIPIME 1 GR IM/IV ENJEKTABL TOZ ICEREN FLAKON, 1 ADETCefepime (1 gr)InjectionIntramuscular; IntravenousWorld Medicine Ilac San. Ve Tic. a.s.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag

Categories

ATC Codes
J01DE01 — CefepimeJ01RA06 — Cefepime and amikacin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3'-quaternary ammonium cephalosporins. These are cephalosporins that are substituted at the 3'-position by a quaternary ammonium group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Lactams
Sub Class
Beta lactams
Direct Parent
3'-quaternary ammonium cephalosporins
Alternative Parents
N-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives / 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles / 1,3-thiazines / 2-amino-1,3-thiazoles / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Heteroaromatic compounds / Tetraalkylammonium salts / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Carboxylic acid salts / Azetidines
show 14 more
Substituents
1,3-thiazol-2-amine / 2,4-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole / 3'-quaternary ammonium cephalosporin / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Amine / Amino acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azetidine
show 30 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
cephalosporin, oxime O-ether (CHEBI:478164)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
807PW4VQE3
CAS number
88040-23-7
InChI Key
HVFLCNVBZFFHBT-ZKDACBOMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N6O5S2/c1-25(5-3-4-6-25)7-10-8-31-17-13(16(27)24(17)14(10)18(28)29)22-15(26)12(23-30-2)11-9-32-19(20)21-11/h9,13,17H,3-8H2,1-2H3,(H3-,20,21,22,26,28,29)/b23-12-/t13-,17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
1-{[(6R,7R)-7-[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetamido]-2-carboxylato-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl]methyl}-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium
SMILES
CO\N=C(/C(=O)N[C@@H]1C(=O)N2[C@]1([H])SCC(C[N+]1(C)CCCC1)=C2C([O-])=O)C1=CSC(N)=N1

References

Synthesis Reference

Vijay Handa, Anand Kamat, Meenakshisunderam Sivakumaran, "Process for preparing cefepime." U.S. Patent US20050043531, issued February 24, 2005.

US20050043531
General References
  1. Chapman TM, Perry CM: Cefepime: a review of its use in the management of hospitalized patients with pneumonia. Am J Respir Med. 2003;2(1):75-107. [Article]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015483
KEGG Drug
D02376
KEGG Compound
C08111
PubChem Compound
5479537
PubChem Substance
46507919
ChemSpider
4586395
BindingDB
50350470
RxNav
20481
ChEBI
478164
ChEMBL
CHEMBL186
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000455
PharmGKB
PA164754876
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Cefepime
FDA label
Download (244 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAntibiotic Reaction / Febrile Neutropenia / Leukemias / Pediatrics Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentBacteremia / Septic1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentPeritoneal Dialysis Associated Peritonitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFebrile Neutropenia1
4RecruitingTreatmentFebrile Neutropenia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
3CompletedTreatmentEnterobacteriaceae, Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentFebrile Neutropenia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Antibioticos Ltd.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • GC Hanford Manufacturing Co.
  • Orchid Healthcare
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Sagent Pharmaceuticals
  • Sandoz
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for solution
InjectionParenteral
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 g/1
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous2 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 g/20mL
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous100 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous2 g/20mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 g
Powder, for solutionIntravenous2 g / vial
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 g/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 g/50mL
Injection, powder, for solution1 G
Injection, powder, for solution2 G
InjectionIntramuscular
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1 G/3ML
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral2 G/10ML
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral500 MG/1.5ML
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1000 MG/3ML
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral2000 MG/10ML
Injection
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral1000 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous2 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 g / vial
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Powder500 mg/1vial
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Maxipime 2 gram vial43.04USD vial
Cefepime hcl 2 gram vial40.36USD vial
Maxipime 1 gm piggyback vial23.24USD vial
Maxipime 1 gram vial21.7USD vial
Cefepime hcl 1 gm vial20.33USD vial
Cefepime 2 gm injection0.51USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0173 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.37ALOGPS
logP-4.3ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area150.04 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity141.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.53 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9819
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9332
Caco-2 permeable-0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9066
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7965
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5353
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7455
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8806
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8068
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6023
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7233
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.736
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8741
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6986
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8378
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8854
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6625
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9051
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6571
Rat acute toxicity2.3513 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9015
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function
Cell wall formation; PBP-2 is responsible for the determination of the rod shape of the cell. It synthesizes cross-linked peptidoglycan from lipid intermediates.
Gene Name
mrdA
Uniprot ID
P0AD65
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight
70856.1 Da
References
  1. Grassi GG, Grassi C: Cefepime: overview of activity in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993 Nov;32 Suppl B:87-94. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Essential cell division protein that is required for the synthesis of peptidoglycan at the division septum (PubMed:1103132, PubMed:9614966). Catalyzes the synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan fr...
Gene Name
ftsI
Uniprot ID
P0AD68
Uniprot Name
Peptidoglycan synthase FtsI
Molecular Weight
63876.925 Da
References
  1. Grassi GG, Grassi C: Cefepime: overview of activity in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993 Nov;32 Suppl B:87-94. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pbpB
Uniprot ID
Q51504
Uniprot Name
Cell division protein
Molecular Weight
62855.78 Da
References
  1. Grassi GG, Grassi C: Cefepime: overview of activity in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993 Nov;32 Suppl B:87-94. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Penicillin binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pbpA
Uniprot ID
Q9X6V3
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight
72212.855 Da
References
  1. Grassi GG, Grassi C: Cefepime: overview of activity in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993 Nov;32 Suppl B:87-94. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [Article]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID
Q16348
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [Article]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [Article]

Drug created on July 19, 2007 15:47 / Updated on September 28, 2021 07:54