Ammonium chloride

Identification

Name
Ammonium chloride
Accession Number
DB06767
Description

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is highly soluble in water producing mildly acidic solutions.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 53.491
Monoisotopic: 53.00322684
Chemical Formula
ClH4N
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
  • E 510
  • E-510
  • FEMA NO. 4494
  • Ins no.510
  • Ins-510

Pharmacology

Indication
  1. Expectorant in cough syrups.
  2. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium Chloride depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid. Ammonium Chloride Injection, USP, after dilution in isotonic sodium chloride injection, may be indicated in the treatment of patients with: (1) hypochloremic states and (2) metabolic alkalosis.
Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Systemic acidifier. In liver ammonium chloride is converted into urea with the liberation of hydrogen ions ( which lowers the pH) and chloride.

Mechanism of action

Ammonium chloride increases acidity by increasing the amount of hydrogen ion concentrations.

Ammonium chloride can be used as an expectorant due to its irritative action on the bronchial mucosa. This effect causes the production of respiratory tract fluid which in order facilitates the effective cough.

Absorption

Completely absorbed within 3–6 h. In healthy persons, absorption of ammonium chloride given by mouth was practically complete. Only 1 to 3% of the dose was recovered in the feces.

Volume of distribution

Data not found.

Protein binding

Data not found.

Metabolism

Ammonium ion is converted to urea in the liver; chloride ion replaces bicarbonate.

Route of elimination

Excretion: Urine

Half-life

Unknown

Clearance

Data not found.

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

LD50 "Rat" after oral administration is: 1650 mg/kg. Overdosage of Ammonium Chloride has resulted in a serious degree of metabolic acidosis, disorientation, confusion and coma. If metabolic acidosis occur following overdosage, the administration of an alkalinizing solution such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate will serve to correct the acidosis.

Patients administering Ammonium chloride should be watched to the signs of ammonia toxicity including (pallor, sweating, irregular breathing, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, local and general twitching, tonic convulsions and coma). It should be used with caution in patients with high total CO2 and buffer base secondary to primary respiratory acidosis. Intravenous administration should be slow to avoid local irritation and toxic effects.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Ammonium chloride.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Ammonium chloride which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Ammonium chloride.
AclidiniumAmmonium chloride may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAmmonium chloride may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acidax Inj 0.9% USPLiquidIntravenousWentworth Hall1986-12-311997-05-30Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ammonium ChlorideInjection, solution, concentrate5 meq/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-02-282012-01-01US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ecopp Long Acting Antibacterial DisinfectantLiquid0.05 mg/250mLExtracorporealShenzhen Econin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.2020-03-28Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acididyn TabAmmonium chloride (32.4 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (178.2 mg)TabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-22Canada flag
Babys Own Cough SyrAmmonium chloride (910 mg) + Guaifenesin (1 g) + Mepyramine maleate (160 mg)LiquidOralG.T. Fulford Pharmaceuticals1977-12-311998-06-25Canada flag
Balminil Codeine Night Time + ExpectorantAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Codeine phosphate (3.33 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)LiquidOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc2003-06-032015-10-01Canada flag
Balminil Night-timeAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)SyrupOralTEVA Canada Limited2001-03-20Not applicableCanada flag
Bemosin TabAmmonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1988-12-312003-07-16Canada flag
Betasin TabAmmonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralBio Vita1987-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Bronch EzeAmmonium chloride (100 mg) + Ephedrine hydrochloride (4 mg)SyrupOralPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1984-12-312000-08-18Canada flag
Bronchodex Fort-DM SyrAmmonium chloride (129.6 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Levomenthol (.405 mg) + Mepyramine maleate (10 mg) + Sodium citrate (64.8 mg)SyrupOralTherapex Division De E Z Em Canada Inc1980-12-311997-07-22Canada flag
CalmylinAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Codeine phosphate (3.33 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)SyrupOralTEVA Canada Limited1981-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Calmylin #4 SyrAmmonium chloride (125 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (15 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg)SyrupOralTechnilab Pharma Inc.1992-12-312003-09-24Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ecopp Long Acting Antibacterial DisinfectantAmmonium chloride (0.05 mg/250mL)LiquidExtracorporealShenzhen Econin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.2020-03-28Not applicableUS flag
Ecopp Portable Virus ProectionAmmonium chloride (0.007 g/3.5g) + Chlorine dioxide (0.595 g/3.5g)GranuleExtracorporealShenzhen Econin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.2020-03-28Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
G04BA01 — Ammonium chlorideB05XA04 — Ammonium chloride
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal halides. These are inorganic compounds containing 'other non-metals' and halogen.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Other non-metal halides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Other non-metal halides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic chloride salts
Substituents
Inorganic chloride salt / Inorganic salt / Other non-metal halide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
ammonium salt, inorganic chloride (CHEBI:31206)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
01Q9PC255D
CAS number
12125-02-9
InChI Key
NLXLAEXVIDQMFP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/ClH.H3N/h1H;1H3
IUPAC Name
ammonium chloride
SMILES
[NH4+].[Cl-]

References

General References
  1. product info [Link]
KEGG Compound
C12538
PubChem Compound
25517
PubChem Substance
347827792
ChemSpider
23807
RxNav
712
ChEBI
31206
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200939
PharmGKB
PA448392
Wikipedia
Ammonium_chloride
AHFS Codes
  • 40:04.00 — Acidifying Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedOtherEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherBioequivalence / Healthy Volunteers1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentSkin Burns1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Syrup100 mg/4mL
LiquidIntravenous
TabletOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous5 meq/1mL
Syrup20 mg/5mL
Syrup90 mg/5mL
Syrup110 mg/5mL
Syrup80 mg/4mL
SolutionOral125 mg/5mL
LiquidOral
Solution / dropsOral135 mg/5mL
Syrup135 mg
Syrup135 mg/5mL
Syrup100 mg/5mL
SyrupOral
SolutionOral131.5 mg/5mL
Syrup137 mg/5mL
Syrup107.5 mg/5mL
Solution / dropsOral50 mg/5mL
Syrup250 mg/100mL
LiquidExtracorporeal0.05 mg/250mL
GranuleExtracorporeal
Syrup125 mg/5mL
SyrupOral14 mg/5ml
SolutionOral50 mg/5mL
Syrup120 mg/5mL
Solution / dropsOral125 mg/5mL
SyrupOral135 mg
Syrup25 mg/5mL
SolutionOral110 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral100 mg/5mL
Syrup44 mg/5mL
Solution / dropsOral100 mg/5mL
Syrup50 mg/5mL
Syrup150 mg/5mL
SyrupOral
SyrupOral50 g
Syrup45 mg/5mL
SyrupOral0.7 g
SyrupOral0.35 g
Granule700 mg
Granule50 gr
Syrup75 mg/5mL
SyrupOral2 g
Syrup12.5 mg/5mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)350 ° C (Sublimes)NIOSH, 2016
boiling point (°C)SublimesNIOSH, 2016
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility124.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.21ALOGPS
logP0.61ChemAxon
logS0.37ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on October 21, 2020 01:55

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