Diosmin

Identification

Summary

Diosmin is a citrus flavonoid medication used to support vascular health.

Generic Name
Diosmin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB08995
Background

Chronic venous insufficiency is a common condition the western population. Compression and pharmacotherapy are frequently used to manage chronic venous insufficiency, improving circulation and symptoms of venous disease.6

Diosmin is a bioflavonoid isolated from various plants or synthesized from hesperidin. It is used for the improvement of capillary fragility or venous insufficiency, including chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and hemorrhoids. Diosmin is widely available over-the-counter and demonstrates a favourable a favorable safety profile.7,16,20

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 608.5447
Monoisotopic: 608.174120354
Chemical Formula
C28H32O15
Synonyms
  • 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone 7-rhamnoglucoside
  • 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-rutinoside
  • diosmetin 7-neohesperidoside
  • Diosmetin 7-O-rutinoside
  • Diosmin
  • Diosmina
  • Diosmine
  • Diosminum
External IDs
  • SE 4601

Pharmacology

Indication

Diosmin is used over-the-counter alone or with ingredients such as hesperidin and diosmetin to support vein and capillary function.17,18

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Diosmin is a venoactive drug supporting circulatory health through various actions on blood vessels; it supports lymphatic drainage and improves microcirculation while increasing venous tone and elasticity. For these reasons, diosmin is frequently taken by individuals with chronic venous disease to support vascular health and has been demonstrated to improve quality of life.3,17 In addition to the above effects, diosmin exerts antioxidant activity and scavenges oxygen free radicals, reducing levels of oxidative stress normally detected through biomarkers such as prostaglandins isoprostane precursors.1

In one clinical study, mean content of TNF alpha, VEGF-C, VEGF-A IL-6, in addition to FGF2 were decreased by after the therapy with diosmin; findings were statistically significant. Additionally, a decrease in edema and mean leg circumference of patients taking diosmin for three months was observed in a clinical study.3 Diosmin has been demonstrated to enhance the metabolism of glucose in diabetic disorders.14

Mechanism of action

Diosmin helps to maintain circulatory system structure and function, particularly vein strength and competence.17 The molecular mechanism of action of diosmin has not been established.3 Several resources indicate that diosmin binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, however clinical relevance to vascular function is unknown.11,12,13 One study demonstrates that oral diosmin exerts effects on the in vitro metabolism of noradrenaline by varicose veins, potentially benefitting vascular health.9

TargetActionsOrganism
UAryl hydrocarbon receptor
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Diosmin is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.2 After a 900 mg single oral dose in a study using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, Cmax was 4.2±3.8 ng·mL-1, Tmax was 18.7±9.9 hours, and AUC0~96 was 185.4±166.2 ng·mL-1 in healthy volunteers.15 Another pharmacokinetic study of 5 adults revealed a Cmax of 417±94.1 ng/dL.18

Volume of distribution

A pharmacokinetic study of 5 adults revealed a volume of distribution of 62.1±7.9 L.18

Protein binding

Diosmin binds to serum albumin.4

Metabolism

Degradation products of diosmin such as alkyl-phenolic acids confirm a metabolic pattern similar to that of other flavonoids.2

Route of elimination

Pharmacokinetic data show absence of urinary elimination for diosmin and its aglycone diosmetin. Minor metabolites are found to be eliminated in the urine as glucuronic acid conjugates.2

Half-life

Diosmin half-life ranges from 26 to 43 hours.2 One study using a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method after a single 900 mg dose of diosmin demonstrated a half-life of 60.2±85.7 hours in healthy volunteers.15

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

The LD50 of diosmin is >3g/kg in animal studies, with an LD50 of great than 3000 mg/kg in rats.15 No cases of overdose have been reported, however, an overdose is likely to result in gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, dyspepsia, vomiting, and diarrhea.20

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbemaciclibThe serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Diosmin.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AcetohexamideThe metabolism of Acetohexamide can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe metabolism of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Diosmin.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AlectinibThe metabolism of Alectinib can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Diosmin.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food.

Products

Products
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International/Other Brands
Barosmin / Dalfon (Servier) / Detralex / Diosven / Dioven / Diovenor / Flebosmil / Flebosten / Insuven / Litosmil / Ven-Detrex / Venosmine
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AVEFLON TABLETDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAPEX PHARMACY MARKETING SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Daflon 1000mg Film-Coated TabletDiosmin (900 mg) + Hesperidin (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSERVIER MALAYSIA SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
daflon 500mg tabletsDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSERVIER MALAYSIA SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Davmorid Film Coated TabletDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralY.S.P. INDUSTRIES (M) SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
DIOFLEX TABLETDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)TabletOralPRIME PHARMACEUTICAL SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
DIOKERN 450 MG/50 MG FILM KAPLI TABLET,30 ADETDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, coatedOralDROGSAN İLAÇLARI SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DIOKERN 450 MG/50 MG FILM KAPLI TABLET,60 ADETDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, coatedOralDROGSAN İLAÇLARI SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Dofomin 500mg TabletDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)TabletOralIMEKS PHARMA SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Euvein Film Coated TabletDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMedicell Pharmaceutical(malaysia) Sdn.bhd2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Hemaron TabletDiosmin (450 mg) + Hesperidin (50 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralNoripharma Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Analpram AdvancedDiosmin (600 mg/1) + Calcium magnesium potassium carbonate chloride hydroxide (30 mg/1) + Hydrocortisone acetate (25 mg/1g) + Pramoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1g)KitTopicalSebela Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-08-072016-08-31US flag
Analpram AdvancedDiosmin (600 mg/1) + Calcium magnesium potassium carbonate chloride hydroxide (30 mg/1) + Hydrocortisone acetate (25 mg/1g) + Pramoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1g)KitOral; TopicalSebela Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-08-072017-02-28US flag
Analpram AdvancedDiosmin (600 mg/1) + Calcium magnesium potassium carbonate chloride hydroxide (30 mg/1) + Hydrocortisone acetate (25 mg/1g) + Pramoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1g)KitOral; TopicalSebela Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-08-072017-02-28US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C05CA03 — DiosminC05CA53 — Diosmin, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavonoid-7-o-glycosides. These are phenolic compounds containing a flavonoid moiety which is O-glycosidically linked to carbohydrate moiety at the C7-position.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Flavonoids
Sub Class
Flavonoid glycosides
Direct Parent
Flavonoid-7-O-glycosides
Alternative Parents
4'-O-methylated flavonoids / 3'-hydroxyflavonoids / 5-hydroxyflavonoids / Flavones / Phenolic glycosides / O-glycosyl compounds / Chromones / Disaccharides / Methoxyphenols / Phenoxy compounds
show 15 more
Substituents
1-benzopyran / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 3'-hydroxyflavonoid / 4p-methoxyflavonoid-skeleton / 5-hydroxyflavonoid / Acetal / Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Anisole
show 31 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
rutinoside, disaccharide derivative, monomethoxyflavone, glycosyloxyflavone, dihydroxyflavanone (CHEBI:4631) / flavones (C10039)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
7QM776WJ5N
CAS number
520-27-4
InChI Key
GZSOSUNBTXMUFQ-YFAPSIMESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H32O15/c1-10-21(32)23(34)25(36)27(40-10)39-9-19-22(33)24(35)26(37)28(43-19)41-12-6-14(30)20-15(31)8-17(42-18(20)7-12)11-3-4-16(38-2)13(29)5-11/h3-8,10,19,21-30,32-37H,9H2,1-2H3/t10-,19+,21-,22+,23+,24-,25+,26+,27+,28+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-7-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4H-chromen-4-one
SMILES
COC1=C(O)C=C(C=C1)C1=CC(=O)C2=C(O)C=C(O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO[C@@H]4O[C@@H](C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]4O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3O)C=C2O1

References

Synthesis Reference

Rajiv Sakhardande, Manmohan Nimbalkar, Navin Khatri, Subarao Patil, Santosh Bhalekar, Rajendra Patil, Pandharinath Firake (2011). Process for the preparation of diosmin (WO2010092592A2).IFI CLAIMS PATENT SERVICES.https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2010092592A2/en

General References
  1. Feldo M, Wozniak M, Wojciak-Kosior M, Sowa I, Kot-Wasik A, Aszyk J, Bogucki J, Zubilewicz T, Bogucka-Kocka A: Influence of Diosmin Treatment on the Level of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Aug 28;2018:2561705. doi: 10.1155/2018/2561705. eCollection 2018. [Article]
  2. Cova D, De Angelis L, Giavarini F, Palladini G, Perego R: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oral diosmin in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1992 Jan;30(1):29-33. [Article]
  3. Feldo M, Wojciak-Kosior M, Sowa I, Kocki J, Bogucki J, Zubilewicz T, Kesik J, Bogucka-Kocka A: Effect of Diosmin Administration in Patients with Chronic Venous Disorders on Selected Factors Affecting Angiogenesis. Molecules. 2019 Sep 12;24(18). pii: molecules24183316. doi: 10.3390/molecules24183316. [Article]
  4. Barreca D, Lagana G, Bruno G, Magazu S, Bellocco E: Diosmin binding to human serum albumin and its preventive action against degradation due to oxidative injuries. Biochimie. 2013 Nov;95(11):2042-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.014. Epub 2013 Jul 22. [Article]
  5. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
  6. Sliva J: Diosmin - still an important modality in the treatment of venous insufficiency. Vnitr Lek. 2019 Summer;65(7-8):524-526. [Article]
  7. Milano G, Leone S, Fucile C, Zuccoli ML, Stimamiglio A, Martelli A, Mattioli F: Uncommon serum creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase increase during diosmin therapy: two case reports. J Med Case Rep. 2014 Jun 16;8:194. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-194. [Article]
  8. Boisnic S, Branchet MC, Gouhier-Kodas C, Verriere F, Jabbour V: Anti-inflammatory and antiradical effects of a 2% diosmin cream in a human skin organ culture as model. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018 Oct;17(5):848-854. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12778. Epub 2018 Sep 10. [Article]
  9. Araujo D, Viana F, Osswald W: Diosmin therapy alters the in vitro metabolism of noradrenaline by the varicose human saphenous vein. Pharmacol Res. 1991 Oct;24(3):253-6. doi: 10.1016/1043-6618(91)90088-f. [Article]
  10. Bogucka-Kocka A, Wozniak M, Feldo M, Kockic J, Szewczyk K: Diosmin--isolation techniques, determination in plant material and pharmaceutical formulations, and clinical use. Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Apr;8(4):545-50. [Article]
  11. Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH: Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Dec;111(16):1877-82. [Article]
  12. Ciolino HP, Wang TT, Yeh GC: Diosmin and diosmetin are agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor that differentially affect cytochrome P450 1A1 activity. Cancer Res. 1998 Jul 1;58(13):2754-60. [Article]
  13. Lee J, Song KM, Jung CH: Diosmin restores the skin barrier by targeting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in atopic dermatitis. Phytomedicine. 2021 Jan;81:153418. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153418. Epub 2020 Nov 25. [Article]
  14. Hsu CC, Lin MH, Cheng JT, Wu MC: Antihyperglycaemic action of diosmin, a citrus flavonoid, is induced through endogenous beta-endorphin in type I-like diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017 May;44(5):549-555. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12739. [Article]
  15. T.T. Zhu, M-L. Du, H.M. Su, Lun Yang: Pharmacokinetics of diosmin tablets in healthy volunteers Chinese Journal of New Drugs. [Article]
  16. Ronald Watson, Victor Preedy (2019). Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (2nd ed.). Academic Press. [ISBN:978-0-12-813822-9]
  17. Xymogen product monograph: DIOVASC (Diosmin and hesperidin) oral capsules [Link]
  18. DailyMed label: VASCULERA (diosmiplex) oral tablets [Link]
  19. ECHA Europa Registration Dossier: Diosmin [Link]
  20. Summary of Product Characteristics: Diosmin [Link]
KEGG Drug
D07858
KEGG Compound
C10039
PubChem Compound
5281613
PubChem Substance
310264956
ChemSpider
4444932
BindingDB
153267
RxNav
3489
ChEBI
4631
ChEMBL
CHEMBL231884
ZINC
ZINC000004098512
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Diosmin

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLower Extremity Lymphedema1
4CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Vein Thrombosis / Post Thrombotic Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentVenous Insufficiency1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Congestive Syndrome / Pelvic Varices / Venous Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Venous Disease of Lower Limbs1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) / Diseases1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) / Hemorrhoids1
2, 3CompletedPreventionInfertility1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentHypermenorrhea1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOral; Topical
KitTopical
Granule
CreamTopical
Granule, for solutionOral
TabletOral150 MG
TabletOral300 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral
TabletOral
Powder, for suspensionOral
Capsule
Powder, for suspensionOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)277-278https://www.chemsrc.com/en/cas/520-27-4_329710.html
boiling point (°C)926.8±65.0 https://www.chemsrc.com/en/cas/520-27-4_329710.html
water solubility0.019 ± 0.005 mg/Lhttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/21071/4/9
logP2.05https://www.chemsrc.com/en/cas/520-27-4_329710.html
pKa6.10±0.40https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB6443258.htm
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.54 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP-0.44ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count15ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area234.29 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity142.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability59.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-5ba2996dd1e65cd9aef6
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-0298000000-0bbbfc4f4a4f06eabd19
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1249000000-89e125689ac3c8ab2522
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0079000000-3ec59b6cb85bb16ee539
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0059000000-23c28bc86f2cb99c8879

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes...
Gene Name
AHR
Uniprot ID
P35869
Uniprot Name
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Molecular Weight
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH: Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Dec;111(16):1877-82. [Article]
  2. Ciolino HP, Wang TT, Yeh GC: Diosmin and diosmetin are agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor that differentially affect cytochrome P450 1A1 activity. Cancer Res. 1998 Jul 1;58(13):2754-60. [Article]
  3. Lee J, Song KM, Jung CH: Diosmin restores the skin barrier by targeting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in atopic dermatitis. Phytomedicine. 2021 Jan;81:153418. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153418. Epub 2020 Nov 25. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
Curator comments
Data supported by in vitro studies only. Clinical relevance is unknown.
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Barreca D, Lagana G, Bruno G, Magazu S, Bellocco E: Diosmin binding to human serum albumin and its preventive action against degradation due to oxidative injuries. Biochimie. 2013 Nov;95(11):2042-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.014. Epub 2013 Jul 22. [Article]
  2. Naso L, Martinez VR, Lezama L, Salado C, Valcarcel M, Ferrer EG, Williams PAM: Antioxidant, anticancer activities and mechanistic studies of the flavone glycoside diosmin and its oxidovanadium(IV) complex. Interactions with bovine serum albumin. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016 Sep 15;24(18):4108-4119. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.06.053. Epub 2016 Jun 28. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Yoo HH, Lee M, Chung HJ, Lee SK, Kim DH: Effects of diosmin, a flavonoid glycoside in citrus fruits, on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 5;55(18):7620-5. doi: 10.1021/jf070893f. Epub 2007 Aug 4. [Article]
  2. Neerati P, Bedada SK: Effect of diosmin on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Apr;67(2):339-44. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2014.09.010. Epub 2014 Oct 1. [Article]
  3. Rajnarayana K, Venkatesham A, Krishna DR: Influence of some bioflavonoids on the transport of nitrendipine. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2008;23(3-4):299-310. doi: 10.1515/dmdi.2008.23.3-4.299. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
This information is supported by in vitro data only. Clinical relevance is unknown.
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
This information is supported by in vitro data only. Clinical relevance is unknown.
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
This information is supported by in vitro data only. Clinical relevance is unknown.
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Gzona Bajraktari, Johanna Weiss: The aglycone diosmetin has the higher perpetrator drug-drug interaction potential compared to the parent flavone diosmin Journal of Functional Foods. [Article]

Drug created on June 16, 2014 18:43 / Updated on April 16, 2021 04:48