Identification

Summary

Bromhexine is a mucolytic drug used to decrease the viscosity of mucus in the airway, enhancing mucus clearance.

Generic Name
Bromhexine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09019
Background

Bromhexine is mucolytic agent used for a variety of respiratory conditions associated with increased mucus secretion. It is derived from the Adhatoda vasica plant and aids in the clearance of excess mucus, improving breathing and reducing cough. It was introduced into the market in 1963, and is widely available as an over-the-counter drug in many countries.1 Recently, bromhexine and its metabolite ambroxol have garnered interest for the potential prevention and treatment of COVID-19 due to their interactions with cell receptors in the lungs.5,6

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 376.13
Monoisotopic: 373.999323944
Chemical Formula
C14H20Br2N2
Synonyms
  • 3,5-dibromo-N(alpha)-cyclohexyl-N(alpha)-methyltoluene-alpha-2-diamine
  • Bromexina
  • Bromhexina
  • Bromhexine
  • Bromhexinum
  • N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-(2-amino-3,5-dibrombenzyl)amine
External IDs
  • NA 274

Pharmacology

Indication

Bromohexine is used alone or with other ingredients such as diphenhydramine, dextromethorphan, and guaifenesin to reduce mucus viscosity and clear mucus in conditions associated with mucus hypersecretion, including the common cold, influenza, respiratory tract infections, or other conditions.11

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Bromhexine thins airway secretions, improving breathing and discomfort associated with thick mucus in airways associated with a variety of respiratory conditions.1,9,11

Mechanism of action

Inflammation of the airways, increased mucus secretion, and altered mucociliary clearance are the hallmarks of various diseases of the respiratory tract. Mucus clearance is necessary for lung health; bromhexine aids in mucus clearance by reducing the viscosity of mucus and activating the ciliary epithelium11, allowing secretions to be expelled from the respiratory tract.1

Recent have studies have demonstrated that bromhexine inhibits the transmembrane serine protease 2 receptor (TMPRSS2) in humans. Activation of TMPRSS2 plays an important role in viral respiratory diseases such as influenza A and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Inhibition of receptor activation and viral entry by bromhexine may be effective in preventing or treating various respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19.5 In vitro studies have suggested the action of ambroxol (a metabolite of bromhexine) on the angiogensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2), prevents entry of the viral envelope-anchored spike glycoprotein of SARS-Cov-2 into alveolar cells or increases the secretion of surfactant, preventing viral entry.6

TargetActionsOrganism
UTransmembrane protease serine 2Not AvailableHumans
UAngiotensin-converting enzyme 2
binder
Humans
Absorption

After oral administration, bromhexine demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics when given in doses of 8-32 mg. Bromhexine is readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract at a rapid rate. This drug undergoes extensive first-pass effect in the range of 75-80%.3,11 The bioavailability is therefore reduced to approximately 22-27%.11

Volume of distribution

After intravenous administration in a pharmacokinetic study, bromhexine was found to be widely distributed. Bromhexine is known to cross the blood-brain barrier; small concentrations may cross the placenta. The average volume of distribution of bromhexine was 1209 ± 206 L (19 L/kg). Lung tissue concentrations of bromhexine two hours after a dose were 1.5 to 3.2 times higher in bronchial tissues than plasma concentrations. Pulmonary parynchema concentrations were 3.4 to 5.9 times higher when compared to plasma concentrations.11

Protein binding

Bromhexine is approximately 95% bound to plasma proteins.11

Metabolism

Bromhexine is almost completely metabolized to a variety of hydroxylated metabolites in addition to dibromanthranilic acid. Ambroxol is a known metabolite of bromhexine.11 In one study of human plasma, (E)-4-hydroxydemethylbromhexine (E-4-HDMB) and (E)-3-hydroxydemethylbromhexine (E-3-HDMB) were quantified as major metabolites of ambroxol, and (Z)-4-hydroxydemethylbromhexine and (Z)-3-hydroxydemethylbromhexine were quantified as minor metabolites.4

Route of elimination

After a dose of bromhexine was administered during a pharmacokinetic study, approximately 97% of the radiolabeled dose was detected in the urine; under 1% was detected as the parent drug.11

Half-life

Following single oral doses ranging from 8 and 32 mg, the terminal half-life of bromhexine has been measured between 6.6 and 31.4 hours.11

Clearance

The clearance of bromhexine ranges from 843-1073 mL/min, within the range of the hepatic circulation.11

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

The oral LD50 of bromhexine in rats is 6 g/kg.12 The observed symptoms of accidental overdose with bromhexine are consistent with the known adverse effects of bromhexine, including headache, nausea, and vomiting, among other symptoms. Provide symptomatic treatment and contact poison control services if an overdose is confirmed or suspected.11

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Bromhexine hydrochlorideYC2ZOM3Z8V611-75-6UCDKONUHZNTQPY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Amiorel (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Bisolmed (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Bisolvon (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Bisolvon Chesty (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Fluibron
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AXCEL BROMHEXINE (CHILDREN) SYRUPSyrupOralKOTRA PHARMA (M) SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
AXCEL BROMHEXINE TABLETTabletOralKOTRA PHARMA (M) SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
AXINE SYRUP 4MG/5MLSyrupOralROYCE PHARMA MANUFACTURING SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
AXINE TABLET 8MGTabletOralROYCE PHARMA MANUFACTURING SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BEACOLYTIC ELIXIR 4MG/5MLElixirOralDUOPHARMA MANUFACTURING (BANGI) SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BEACOLYTIC TABLET 8MGTabletOralDUOPHARMA MANUFACTURING (BANGI) SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BISCOMIN SYRUP 4mg/5mlSyrupOralMALAYSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BISCOMIN TABLETS 8MGTabletOralMALAYSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BISLAN TABLET 8MGTabletOralY.S.P. INDUSTRIES (M) SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
BROMHEXINE ELIXIRElixir4 mg/5mlOralบริษัท พาตาร์แลบ (2517) จำกัด จำกัด2013-05-08Not applicableThailand flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ATHEN JARABEBromhexine hydrochloride (0.08 g) + Guaifenesin (2 g)SyrupOralCOLOMPACK S.A.2014-04-022016-05-06Colombia flag
BREMIEL® JARABE ADULTOSBromhexine hydrochloride (0.08 g) + Guaifenesin (2 g)SyrupOralCOASPHARMA S.A.S.2011-08-23Not applicableColombia flag
BREMIEL®JARABE PEDIATRICOBromhexine hydrochloride (0.04 g) + Guaifenesin (1 g)SyrupOralCOASPHARMA S.A.S.2011-08-092018-10-11Colombia flag
BRO-GU SOLUCION ORALBromhexine hydrochloride (80 mg) + Guaifenesin (2000 mg)SolutionOralCOASPHARMA S.A.S.2018-06-05Not applicableColombia flag
BROMYLBromhexine hydrochloride (0.08 g) + Guaifenesin (2 g)SyrupOralFABRIFARMA S.A.2018-05-072019-01-24Colombia flag
BRONCODEX®Bromhexine hydrochloride (0.08 g) + Guaifenesin (2 g)SyrupOralCOLOMPACK S.A.2018-03-23Not applicableColombia flag
BRONCODEX® JARABE NIŃOSBromhexine hydrochloride (0.04 g) + Guaifenesin (1 g)SyrupOralCOLOMPACK S.A.2018-03-23Not applicableColombia flag
DOSFLEM ® ADULTOSBromhexine hydrochloride (0.08 g) + Guaifenesin (2 g)SyrupOralFABRIFARMA S.A.2018-01-05Not applicableColombia flag
DOSFLEM ® NIŃOSBromhexine hydrochloride (40 mg) + Guaifenesin (1000 mg)SyrupOralFABRIFARMA S.A.2018-01-05Not applicableColombia flag
DURO-TUSS EXPECTORANT COUGH LIQUIDBromhexine hydrochloride (12 mg/15mL) + Pholcodine (15 mg/15mL)ElixirOralINOVA PHARMACEUTICALS (SINGAPORE) PTE. LIMITED1994-02-02Not applicable

Categories

ATC Codes
R05CB02 — Bromhexine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylmethylamines. These are compounds containing a phenylmethtylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted by an methanamine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylmethylamines
Direct Parent
Phenylmethylamines
Alternative Parents
Benzylamines / 2-bromoanilines / Cyclohexylamines / Bromobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Aryl bromides / Trialkylamines / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organobromides
show 1 more
Substituents
2-bromoaniline / Amine / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aralkylamine / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Aryl bromide / Aryl halide / Benzylamine / Bromobenzene / Cyclohexylamine
show 11 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organobromine compound, tertiary amino compound, substituted aniline (CHEBI:77032)
Affected organisms
  • Rat
  • Mouse

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
Q1J152VB1P
CAS number
3572-43-8
InChI Key
OJGDCBLYJGHCIH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H20Br2N2/c1-18(12-5-3-2-4-6-12)9-10-7-11(15)8-13(16)14(10)17/h7-8,12H,2-6,9,17H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
2,4-dibromo-6-{[cyclohexyl(methyl)amino]methyl}aniline
SMILES
CN(CC1=CC(Br)=CC(Br)=C1N)C1CCCCC1

References

Synthesis Reference

童元峰杨庆云张嵩张对良. (2015). Production method of bromhexine hydrochloride(Worldwide CN2013103399540A ).https://patents.google.com/patent/CN103396323A/en

General References
  1. Zanasi A, Mazzolini M, Kantar A: A reappraisal of the mucoactive activity and clinical efficacy of bromhexine. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2017 Mar 20;12:7. doi: 10.1186/s40248-017-0088-1. eCollection 2017. [Article]
  2. Ansarin K, Tolouian R, Ardalan M, Taghizadieh A, Varshochi M, Teimouri S, Vaezi T, Valizadeh H, Saleh P, Safiri S, Chapman KR: Effect of bromhexine on clinical outcomes and mortality in COVID-19 patients: A randomized clinical trial. Bioimpacts. 2020;10(4):209-215. doi: 10.34172/bi.2020.27. Epub 2020 Jul 19. [Article]
  3. Bechgaard E, Nielsen A: Bioavailability of bromhexine tablets and preliminary pharmacokinetics in humans. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1982 Oct-Dec;3(4):337-44. doi: 10.1002/bdd.2510030407. [Article]
  4. Liu J, Chen X, Hu Y, Cheng G, Zhong D: Quantification of the major metabolites of bromhexine in human plasma using RRLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Apr 6;51(5):1134-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2009.11.024. Epub 2009 Dec 1. [Article]
  5. Habtemariam S, Nabavi SF, Ghavami S, Cismaru CA, Berindan-Neagoe I, Nabavi SM: Possible use of the mucolytic drug, bromhexine hydrochloride, as a prophylactic agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection based on its action on the Transmembrane Serine Protease 2. Pharmacol Res. 2020 Jul;157:104853. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104853. Epub 2020 Apr 30. [Article]
  6. Alkotaji M: Azithromycin and ambroxol as potential pharmacotherapy for SARS-CoV-2. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Dec;56(6):106192. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106192. Epub 2020 Oct 10. [Article]
  7. Gupta PR: Ambroxol - Resurgence of an old molecule as an anti-inflammatory agent in chronic obstructive airway diseases. Lung India. 2010 Apr;27(2):46-8. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.63603. [Article]
  8. Jauch R, Bozler G, Hammer R, Koss FW, Karlsson M, Vitek E, Haring I, Beschke K, Hadamovsky S, Maass D, Wollmann R: [Ambroxol, studies of biotransformation in man and determination in biological samples (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(5a):904-11. [Article]
  9. NPRA Product Information: Salmodil (salbutamol sulfate/bromhexine hydrochloride) oral syrup [Link]
  10. NPRA Product Information: Rexom Unizet (diphenhydramine hydrochloride/bromhexine hydrochloride/ammonium chloride) oral syrup [Link]
  11. AUSTRALIAN PRODUCT INFORMATION – BISOLVON® CHESTY (BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) for oral use [Link]
  12. Fischer Scientific MSDS: Bromhexine hydrochloride [Link]
KEGG Drug
D07542
PubChem Compound
2442
PubChem Substance
310264976
ChemSpider
2348
BindingDB
50239965
RxNav
1753
ChEBI
77032
ChEMBL
CHEMBL253376
ZINC
ZINC000000608220
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Bromhexine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Increased Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Treatment Efficacy1
3CompletedTreatmentAbnormal Mucus Secretions / Respiratory Tract Diseases1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
0Enrolling by InvitationPreventionAntimalarials / Antirheumatic Agents / Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Enzyme Inhibitors / Hydroxychloroquine1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Granule8 MG
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solution4 MG/2ML
SolutionOral2 MG/ML
SuppositoryRectal16 MG
SuppositoryRectal8 MG
SolutionOral
SolutionOral8 MG/5ML
TabletOral8 mg/1
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 g
Tablet, solubleOral8 mg
TabletOral8 mg
Tablet, sugar coatedOral8 mg/1
SolutionOral8 MG/10ML
TabletOral12 MG
SolutionOral12 MG/ML
SolutionOral8 MG/ML
PowderNot applicable1000 g/1000g
TabletOral
SyrupOral0.16 g
CreamOral; Vaginal
SyrupOral50 mg
SyrupOral0.08 g
Powder
SolutionOral12 mg/15ml
ElixirOral12 mg/15mL
SolutionOral
SolutionOral80 mg
Tablet
ElixirOral
TabletOral8.00 mg
SyrupOral
ElixirOral
SolutionOral0.08 g
SolutionOral160 mg
SyrupOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral8 mg
SyrupOral80 mg
SolutionOral0.16 g
SyrupOral160 mg
SyrupOral8 mg/10ml
SyrupOral40 mg
ElixirOral4 mg/5ml
SyrupOral0.08 g
Tablet, film coatedOral
Solution
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
Capsule
Capsule8 mg
SolutionOral4 mg/5ml
Solution4 mg/5ml
Syrup
ElixirOral4 mg/5ml
SyrupOral4 mg/5ml
Solution2 mg/1ml
SyrupOral8 mg/5ml
Tablet, film coated
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)232-235https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB3249453.htm
boiling point (°C)413.8https://www.guidechem.com/dictionary/en/3572-43-8.html
water solubility<1 mg/mLhttps://www.scbt.com/p/bromhexine-hydrochloride-611-75-6https://www.scbt.com/p/bromhexine-hydrochloride-611-75-6
logP5.14https://www.guidechem.com/dictionary/en/3572-43-8.html
pKa8.69https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB92617054.htm
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00362 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.08ALOGPS
logP4.42ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.32ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity85.56 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0095000000-2c4f15e31beb22fd1178
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-4d3be1605bfa79609959
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-428c05c13a2a9e326945
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0390000000-b0ece5d5d6f8b78af198

Targets

Drugtargets2
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insights and accelerate drug research.
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Learn more
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plasma membrane-anchored serine protease that participates in proteolytic cascades of relevance for the normal physiologic function of the prostate (PubMed:25122198). Androgen-induced TMPRSS2 activates several substrates that include pro-hepatocyte growth factor/HGF, the protease activated receptor-2/F2RL1 or matriptase/ST14 leading to extracellular matrix disruption and metastasis of prostate cancer cells (PubMed:15537383, PubMed:26018085, PubMed:25122198). In addition, activates trigeminal neurons and contribute to both spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia (By similarity).
Specific Function
Scavenger receptor activity
Gene Name
TMPRSS2
Uniprot ID
O15393
Uniprot Name
Transmembrane protease serine 2
Molecular Weight
53858.845 Da
References
  1. Habtemariam S, Nabavi SF, Ghavami S, Cismaru CA, Berindan-Neagoe I, Nabavi SM: Possible use of the mucolytic drug, bromhexine hydrochloride, as a prophylactic agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection based on its action on the Transmembrane Serine Protease 2. Pharmacol Res. 2020 Jul;157:104853. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104853. Epub 2020 Apr 30. [Article]
  2. Maggio R, Corsini GU: Repurposing the mucolytic cough suppressant and TMPRSS2 protease inhibitor bromhexine for the prevention and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pharmacol Res. 2020 Jul;157:104837. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104837. Epub 2020 Apr 22. [Article]
  3. Depfenhart M, de Villiers D, Lemperle G, Meyer M, Di Somma S: Potential new treatment strategies for COVID-19: is there a role for bromhexine as add-on therapy? Intern Emerg Med. 2020 Aug;15(5):801-812. doi: 10.1007/s11739-020-02383-3. Epub 2020 May 26. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
Curator comments
Ambroxol is a major metabolite of bromhexine.
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin...
Gene Name
ACE2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYF1
Uniprot Name
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Molecular Weight
92462.4 Da
References
  1. Olaleye OA, Kaur M, Onyenaka CC: Ambroxol Hydrochloride Inhibits the Interaction between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Protein's Receptor Binding Domain and Recombinant Human ACE2. bioRxiv. 2020 Sep 14. doi: 10.1101/2020.09.13.295691. [Article]
  2. Alkotaji M: Azithromycin and ambroxol as potential pharmacotherapy for SARS-CoV-2. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Dec;56(6):106192. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106192. Epub 2020 Oct 10. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin...
Gene Name
ACE2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYF1
Uniprot Name
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Molecular Weight
92462.4 Da
References
  1. Olaleye OA, Kaur M, Onyenaka CC: Ambroxol Hydrochloride Inhibits the Interaction between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Protein's Receptor Binding Domain and Recombinant Human ACE2. bioRxiv. 2020 Sep 14. doi: 10.1101/2020.09.13.295691. [Article]

Drug created at June 24, 2014 16:22 / Updated at May 07, 2021 21:33