DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.

Article Details


Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, Plumb RW, Loveland JE, Howe KL, Andrews TD, Searle S, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Jones MC, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Babbage S, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford D, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Chen Y, Clarke G, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Collier RE, Corby N, Crosier M, Cummings AT, Davies J, Dhami P, Dunn M, Dutta I, Dyer LW, Earthrowl ME, Faulkner L, Fleming CJ, Frankish A, Frankland JA, French L, Fricker DG, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori J, Gilbert JG, Glison C, Grafham DV, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Guy J, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Harrison ES, Hart EA, Heath PD, Henderson CD, Hopkins BL, Howard PJ, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan S, Kershaw JK, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nisbett J, Nordsiek G, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Porter KM, Pandian R, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Povey S, Ramsey Y, Rand V, Scharfe M, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims SK, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Swarbreck D, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Thomas DW, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Ashurst JL, Coulson A, Blocker H, Durbin R, Sulston JE, Hubbard T, Jackson MJ, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J, Dunham I

DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.

Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):369-74.

PubMed ID
15164053 [ View in PubMed

Chromosome 9 is highly structurally polymorphic. It contains the largest autosomal block of heterochromatin, which is heteromorphic in 6-8% of humans, whereas pericentric inversions occur in more than 1% of the population. The finished euchromatic sequence of chromosome 9 comprises 109,044,351 base pairs and represents >99.6% of the region. Analysis of the sequence reveals many intra- and interchromosomal duplications, including segmental duplications adjacent to both the centromere and the large heterochromatic block. We have annotated 1,149 genes, including genes implicated in male-to-female sex reversal, cancer and neurodegenerative disease, and 426 pseudogenes. The chromosome contains the largest interferon gene cluster in the human genome. There is also a region of exceptionally high gene and G + C content including genes paralogous to those in the major histocompatibility complex. We have also detected recently duplicated genes that exhibit different rates of sequence divergence, presumably reflecting natural selection.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1P00519Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1P23219Details
Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrataseP13716Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1O95477Details
Dopamine beta-hydroxylaseP09172Details
Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1Q99720Details
Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1P15291Details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1Q16773Details
HCG20471, isoform CRA_cQ5T1J1Details
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3P37058Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1Q05586Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8P51970Details
Riboflavin kinaseQ969G6Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6O95139Details
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alphaP19793Details
Interleukin-11 receptor subunit alphaQ14626Details
Serine palmitoyltransferase 1O15269Details
Ceramide glucosyltransferaseQ16739Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrialP30837Details
Isoleucine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicP41252Details
Carnitine O-acetyltransferaseP43155Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1P00352Details
Phosphoserine aminotransferaseQ9Y617Details
Glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), mitochondrialP23378Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3AQ8TCU5Details
Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrialQ05932Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1P02763Details
Protein AMBPP02760Details
Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 2P20594Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 3P43005Details
Choline transporter-like protein 1Q8WWI5Details
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalinP80188Details
78 kDa glucose-regulated proteinP11021Details
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine phosphorylaseQ13126Details
Tyrosine-protein kinase SYKP43405Details
Tubulin beta-4B chainP68371Details
Endoplasmic reticulum mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-alpha-mannosidaseQ9UKM7Details
Death-associated protein kinase 1P53355Details
Cathepsin L2O60911Details
Cathepsin L1P07711Details
Calcineurin subunit B type 2Q96LZ3Details
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9P50750Details
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1BQ00975Details
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferaseQ14032Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2O75899Details
Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2O60674Details
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1P09467Details
Carbonic anhydrase 9Q16790Details
Toll-like receptor 4O00206Details
Golgi-associated plant pathogenesis-related protein 1Q9H4G4Details
Complement component C8 gamma chainP07360Details
Steroidogenic factor 1Q13285Details
Angiopoietin-1 receptorQ02763Details
Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1Q9NZQ7Details
Nuclear receptor ROR-betaQ92753Details
BDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptorQ16620Details
DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 3Q9NRF9Details
High affinity copper uptake protein 1O15431Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2P19652Details
Solute carrier family 28 member 3Q9HAS3Details
BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 1Q99933Details
TGF-beta receptor type-1P36897Details
Prostaglandin reductase 1Q14914Details
Proteasome subunit beta type-7Q99436Details
Very low-density lipoprotein receptorP98155Details
Epididymal-specific lipocalin-9Q8WX39Details
Glycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1Q7Z4J2Details
Bile salt-activated lipaseP19835Details
Adenylate kinase 8Q96MA6Details
Neuronal calcium sensor 1P62166Details
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase BP05062Details
Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPaseP55072Details
Intracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4Q5JVS0Details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6Q9BX84Details
Cytoplasmic aconitate hydrataseP21399Details
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 6Q9UGQ3Details
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 8Q9NY64Details
Odorant-binding protein 2aQ9NY56Details
Sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2CQ8N130Details
Frataxin, mitochondrialQ16595Details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3Q92570Details
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein KP61978Details
60S ribosomal protein L35P42766Details
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 13Q76LX8Details
Dual specificity testis-specific protein kinase 1Q15569Details
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinaseQ14680Details
Muscle, skeletal receptor tyrosine-protein kinaseO15146Details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 3Q9HCF6Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily V member 2Q8TDN2Details
Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomeraseP41222Details
Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3Q99500Details
V-type proton ATPase subunit G 1O75348Details
Cell surface hyaluronidaseQ9UHN6Details
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gammaP22612Details