Accession Number

Carbidopa presents a chemical denomination of N-amino-alpha-methyl-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine monohydrate. It potently inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and due to its chemical properties, it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Due to its activity, carbidopa is always administered concomitantly with levodopa. An individual formulation containing solely carbidopa was generated to treat nausea in patients where the combination therapy levodopa/carbidopa is not efficient reducing nausea.9

The first approved product by the FDA containing only carbidopa was developed by Amerigens Pharmaceuticals Ltd and approved on 2014.10 On the other hand, the combination treatment of carbidopa/levodopa was originally developed by Watson Labs but the historical information by the FDA brings back to the approval of this combination therapy developed by Mayne Pharma in 1992.11

Small Molecule
Average: 226.2292
Monoisotopic: 226.095356946
Chemical Formula
  • (-)-L-alpha-Hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic acid monohydrate
  • (S)-(−)-carbidopa
  • (S)-carbidopa
  • (αS)-α-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxy-α-methylbenzenepropanoic acid
  • Carbidopa
  • Carbidopa (anhydrous)
  • Carbidopa anhydrous
  • Carbidopum
  • L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-2-hydrazinopropionic acid
  • L-α-methyldopahydrazine
External IDs
  • MK-486



Carbidopa is indicated with levodopa for the treatment of symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism and symptomatic parkinsonism followed by carbon monoxide or manganese intoxication.Label

The combination therapy is administered for the reduction of levodopa-driven nausea and vomiting.Label

The product of carbidopa should be used in patients where the combination therapy of carbidopa/levodopa provide less than the adequate daily dosage.Label

As well carbidopa can be used in patients where the dosages of carbidopa and levodopa require individual titration.Label

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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When mixed with levodopa, carbidopa inhibits the peripheral conversion of levodopa to dopamine and the decarboxylation of oxitriptan to serotonin by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. This results in an increased amount of levodopa and oxitriptan available for transport to the central nervous system. Carbidopa also inhibits the metabolism of levodopa in the GI tract, thus, increasing the bioavailability of levodopa.4

The presence of additional units of circulating levodopa can increase the effectiveness of the still functional dopaminergic neurons and it has been shown to alleviate symptoms for a time. The action of carbidopa is very important as levodopa is able to cross the blood-brain barrier while dopamine cannot.8 Hence the administration of carbidopa is essential to prevent the transformation of external levodopa to dopamine before reaching the main action site in the brain.

The coadministration of carbidopa with levodopa has been shown to increase the half-life of levodopa more than 1.5 times while increasing the plasma level and decreasing clearance. The combination therapy has also shown an increase of the recovery of levodopa in urine instead of dopamine which proves a reduced metabolism. This effect has been highly observed by a significant reduction in levodopa requirements and a significant reduction in the presence of side effects such as nausea. It has been observed that the effect of carbidopa is not dose-dependent.9

Mechanism of action

Carbidopa is an inhibitor of the DDC which in order, inhibits the peripheral metabolism of levodopa.3 DDC is very important in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan to serotonin and the modification of L-DOPA to dopamine.4

DDC can be found in the body periphery and in the blood-brain barrier.4 The action of carbidopa is focused on peripheral DDC as this drug cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.8 Hence, it will prevent the metabolism of levodopa in the periphery but it will not have any activity on the generation of dopamine in the brain.

AAromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

When levodopa/carbidopa is administered orally, 40-70% of the administered dose is absorbed.12 Once absorbed, carbidopa shows bioavailability of 58%.5 A maximum concentration of 0.085 mcg/ml was achieved after 143 min with an AUC of 19.28 mcg.min/ml.6

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution reported for the combination therapy of carbidopa/levodopa is of 3.6 L/kg.7 However, carbidopa is widely distributed in the tissues, except in the brain.12 After one hour, carbidopa is found mainly in the kidney, lungs, small intestine and liver.1

Protein binding

It is widely accepted that the protein binding of carbidopa is 76%. However, more studies are required or the presentation of the source of this information.


The loss of the hydrazine functional group (probably as molecular nitrogen) represents the major metabolic pathway for carbidopa. There are several metabolites of carbidopa metabolism including 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropionic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropionic acid, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropionic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyllactic acid, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyllactic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetone (1,2).1

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Route of elimination

In animal studies, 66% of the administered dose of carbidopa was eliminated via the urine while 11% was found in feces. These studies were performed in humans and it was observed a urine excretion covering 50% of the administered dose.1


The reported half-life of carbidopa is of approximately 107 minutes.6


The reported clearance rate for the combination therapy of levodopa/carbidopa is 51.7 L/h.7

Adverse Effects
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The LD50 of carbidopa is reported to be in the rat of 4810 mg/kg.MSDS In animal studies, carbidopa showed no incidences on neoplasia and showed no effect on the fertility status and development.Label

No reports of overdosage have been registered with the carbidopa-only product. In the event of overdosage, immediate gastric lavage is recommended as well as intravenous fluid administration. Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring is required.Label

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AbacavirCarbidopa may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseCarbidopa may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Carbidopa is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Carbidopa which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Carbidopa which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenCarbidopa may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Carbidopa which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Carbidopa which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumCarbidopa may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineCarbidopa may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Product Images
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
LodosynTablet25 mg/1OralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2012-09-252017-06-30US flag
LodosynTablet25 mg/1OralBausch Health US, LLC2010-04-13Not applicableUS flag
LodosynTablet25 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-11-132017-05-24US flag
LodosynTablet25 mg/1OralBristol Myers Squibb Pharma Company2009-06-012013-10-19US flag0056 051120180907 15195 a5iyv3
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-03-10Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralNorthStar Rx LLC2019-10-21Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma Limited2019-10-21Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2017-02-142019-01-31US flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralIngenus Pharmaceuticals Nj, Llc2016-03-022016-03-02US flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralNovel Laboratories, Inc.2017-10-20Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralEdenbridge Pharmaceuticals LLC.2016-02-19Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2014-04-04Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2017-10-20Not applicableUS flag
CarbidopaTablet25 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2017-10-20Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Aa-levocarb CRCarbidopa (25 mg) + Levodopa (100 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAa Pharma Inc2009-02-04Not applicableCanada flag
Aa-levocarb CRCarbidopa (50 mg) + Levodopa (200 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAa Pharma Inc2003-11-13Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgCarbidopa (10 mg) + Levodopa (100 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mgCarbidopa (25 mg) + Levodopa (250 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/100mgCarbidopa (25 mg) + Levodopa (100 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Carbidopa and LevodopaCarbidopa hydrate (50 mg/1) + Levodopa (200 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2004-06-162011-06-30US flag
Carbidopa and LevodopaCarbidopa hydrate (25 mg/1) + Levodopa (100 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, LLC2000-04-26Not applicableUS flag
Carbidopa and levodopaCarbidopa hydrate (10 mg/1) + Levodopa (100 mg/1)TabletOralCardinal Health1993-09-012015-09-15US flag
Carbidopa and LevodopaCarbidopa hydrate (25 mg/1) + Levodopa (100 mg/1)TabletOralNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2008-10-28Not applicableUS flag
Carbidopa and LevodopaCarbidopa hydrate (25 mg/1) + Levodopa (100 mg/1)TabletOralCardinal Health2011-02-11Not applicableUS flag


Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. These are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Phenylpropanoic acids
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Amphetamines and derivatives / Alpha amino acids and derivatives / Phenylpropanes / Catechols / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Alkylhydrazines / Organopnictogen compounds
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1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Alkylhydrazine / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Amphetamine or derivatives / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Benzenoid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, catechols, hydrazines (CHEBI:39585)

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key
(2S)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydrazinyl-2-methylpropanoic acid
C[[email protected]@](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)(NN)C(O)=O


Synthesis Reference


General References
  1. Vickers S, Stuart EK, Bianchine JR, Hucker HB, Jaffe ME, Rhodes RE, Vandenheuvel WJ: Metabolism of carbidopa (1-(-)-alpha-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic acid monohydrate), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, in the rat, rhesus monkey, and man. Drug Metab Dispos. 1974 Jan-Feb;2(1):9-22. [PubMed:4150141]
  2. Vickers S, Stuart EK, Hucker HB: Further studies on the metabolism of carbidopa, (minus)-L-alpha-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-methylbenzenepropanoic acid monohydrate, in the human, Rhesus monkey, dog, and rat. J Med Chem. 1975 Feb;18(2):134-8. [PubMed:804550]
  3. Mittur A, Gupta S, Modi NB: Pharmacokinetics of Rytary((R)), An Extended-Release Capsule Formulation of Carbidopa-Levodopa. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017 Sep;56(9):999-1014. doi: 10.1007/s40262-017-0511-y. [PubMed:28236251]
  4. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72. [PubMed:11106255]
  5. Yeh KC, August TF, Bush DF, Lasseter KC, Musson DG, Schwartz S, Smith ME, Titus DC: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Sinemet CR: a summary of human studies. Neurology. 1989 Nov;39(11 Suppl 2):25-38. [PubMed:2685649]
  6. Nyholm D, Lewander T, Gomes-Trolin C, Backstrom T, Panagiotidis G, Ehrnebo M, Nystrom C, Aquilonius SM: Pharmacokinetics of levodopa/carbidopa microtablets versus levodopa/benserazide and levodopa/carbidopa in healthy volunteers. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012 May-Jun;35(3):111-7. doi: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e31825645d1. [PubMed:22549097]
  7. Chana P, Fierro A, Reyes-Parada M, Saez-Briones P: [Pharmacokinetic comparison of Sinemet and Grifoparkin (levodopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg) in Parkinson s disease: a single dose study]. Rev Med Chil. 2003 Jun;131(6):623-31. [PubMed:12942590]
  8. Rang, H. P. and Dale, M. M. (2012). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  9. Ahlskog J. (2009). Parkinson's disease treatment guide for physicians. Oxford University Press. [ISBN:978-0-19-537177-2]
  10. FDA approvals [Link]
  11. FDA approvals [Link]
  12. Glown [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
PDB Entries
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAkinesia / Delayed Levodopa Onset / Mobility decreased / Motor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDyskinesia / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentImpulse-control disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentNonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)7
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease With End of Dose Wearing Off1


  • Aton pharma inc
  • Aton Pharma Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
Dosage Forms
PowderNot applicable1 kg/1kg
TabletOral10 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral25 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
GelIntraduodenal20 MG/ML
GelIntraileal5 mg/1mL
GelEnteral20 mg/ml
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral250 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral125 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral150 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral175 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, coatedOral25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral37.5 mg
Tablet, coatedOral12.5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral43.75 mg
Tablet, coatedOral175 MG
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral125 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mg
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg
Tablet, coatedOral75 mg
TabletOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 MG
CapsuleOral200 MG
Tablet, for suspensionOral100 MG
CapsuleOral145 MG
CapsuleOral195 MG
CapsuleOral245 MG
CapsuleOral95 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
TabletOral25 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral50 mg
TabletOral12.5 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral40.5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral18.75 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral12.5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral31.25 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral37.5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral50 mg
Tablet, coatedOral31.25 mg
Tablet, for suspensionOral1.25 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Carbidopa powder27.54USD g
Lodosyn 25 mg tablet2.53USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6500867No2002-12-312020-06-29US flag
US6797732No2004-09-282020-06-29US flag
US9089607No2015-07-282028-12-26US flag
US8377474No2013-02-192028-12-26US flag
US8454998No2013-06-042028-12-26US flag
US7094427No2006-08-222022-05-29US flag
US8557283No2013-10-152028-12-26US flag
US9089608No2015-07-282028-12-26US flag
US9463246No2016-10-112028-12-26US flag
US9533046No2017-01-032028-12-26US flag
US9901640No2018-02-272028-12-26US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
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    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)203-208 °C'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)DecomposesChemspider
water solubility3.8 mg/L'MSDS'
logP-1.9Kirk K., Yoshida S., and Haufe G. Fluorine and Health. (2008)
pKa2.3Konduru N. and Madhuri G. (2014). IJPSR. Vol. 5
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility3.73 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area115.81 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.77 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8638
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9659
Caco-2 permeable-0.7517
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5584
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9619
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9952
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9484
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7843
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8017
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6267
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9615
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9741
Rat acute toxicity2.0520 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9868
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9413
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available


Pharmacological action
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Molecular Weight
53925.815 Da
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Durso R, Evans JE, Josephs E, Szabo G, Evans B, Fernandez HH, Browne TR: Variable absorption of carbidopa affects both peripheral and central levodopa metabolism. J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;40(8):854-60. [PubMed:10934669]
  3. Yee RE, Cheng DW, Huang SC, Namavari M, Satyamurthy N, Barrio JR: Blood-brain barrier and neuronal membrane transport of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Nov 15;62(10):1409-15. [PubMed:11709201]
  4. Kaufmann H, Saadia D, Voustianiouk A, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Yahr MD, Nardin R, Freeman R: Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Circulation. 2003 Aug 12;108(6):724-8. Epub 2003 Jul 28. [PubMed:12885750]
  5. Orlefors H, Sundin A, Lu L, Oberg K, Langstrom B, Eriksson B, Bergstrom M: Carbidopa pretreatment improves image interpretation and visualisation of carcinoid tumours with 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006 Jan;33(1):60-5. Epub 2005 Sep 24. [PubMed:16184369]
  6. Calabrese V, Mancuso C, Ravagna A, Perluigi M, Cini C, De Marco C, Butterfield DA, Stella AM: In vivo induction of heat shock proteins in the substantia nigra following L-DOPA administration is associated with increased activity of mitochondrial complex I and nitrosative stress in rats: regulation by glutathione redox state. J Neurochem. 2007 May;101(3):709-17. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17241115]
  7. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72. [PubMed:11106255]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 03, 2020 19:01

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