Cefaclor

Identification

Summary

Cefaclor is a second generation cephalosporin used to treat a wide variety of infections in the body.

Generic Name
Cefaclor
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00833
Background

Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of cephalexin.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 367.807
Monoisotopic: 367.039354348
Chemical Formula
C15H14ClN3O4S
Synonyms
  • 3-Chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid
  • CCL
  • Cefaclor
  • Céfaclor
  • Cefaclor anhydrous
  • Cefaclorum
  • Céfeaclor
  • Cephaclor
External IDs
  • Compound 99638
  • S 6472

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Cefaclor is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic with a spectrum resembling first-generation cephalosporins. In vitro tests demonstrate that the bactericidal action of the cephalosporins results from inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. As indicated by in vitro and in vivo clinical studies, cefaclor was shown to be effective against most strains of Gram positive aerobes - Staphylococci (including coagulase-positive, coagulase-negative, and penicillinase-producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (group A ß-hemolytic streptococci), as well as Gram-negative aerobes - Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (including ß-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains), Klebsiella sp, and Proteus mirabilis.

Mechanism of action

Cefaclor, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins. It is possible that cefaclor interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

TargetActionsOrganism
APenicillin-binding protein 3
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae
APenicillin-binding protein 1A
inhibitor
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Absorption

Well absorbed after oral administration, independent of food intake.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

23.5%

Metabolism

No appreciable biotransformation in liver (approximately 60% to 85% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 8 hours).

Route of elimination

Approximately 60% to 85% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 8 hours, the greater portion being excreted within the first 2 hours.

Half-life

0.6-0.9 hour

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include diarrhea, nausea, stomach upset, and vomiting.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirCefaclor may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Abciximab can be decreased when used in combination with Cefaclor.
AceclofenacCefaclor may decrease the excretion rate of Aceclofenac which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Cefaclor which could result in a higher serum level.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Cefaclor is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenCefaclor may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Cefaclor which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe excretion of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when combined with Cefaclor.
AclidiniumCefaclor may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineCefaclor may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Cefaclor monohydrate69K7K19H4L70356-03-5WKJGTOYAEQDNIA-IOOZKYRYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Alenfral (Choseido Pharmaceutical) / Alfacet (Galenika) / Alfatil (Dexo) / Alfatil LP (Dexo) / Ceclor CD (Lilly) / Distaclor (Flynn) / Keflor (Alphapharm) / Kefral (Shionogi Seiyaku) / Panacef (Valeas) / Panoral (Eberth) / Raniclor (Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CeclorPowder, for suspensionOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1980-12-312016-10-25Canada flag
CeclorCapsuleOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1980-12-312016-10-25Canada flag
CeclorPowder, for suspensionOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1980-12-312016-10-25Canada flag
CeclorPowder, for suspensionOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1990-12-312016-10-25Canada flag
CeclorCapsuleOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1980-12-312016-10-25Canada flag
CefaclorTablet, film coated, extended release375 mg/1OralTEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA2006-11-062006-11-06US flag
CefaclorSuspension375 mgOralMm Therapeutics Inc1998-06-042009-12-18Canada flag
CefaclorCapsule500 mgOralMm Therapeutics Inc1998-06-042009-12-18Canada flag
CefaclorSuspension250 mgOralMm Therapeutics Inc1998-06-042009-12-18Canada flag
CefaclorCapsule250 mgOralMm Therapeutics Inc1998-06-042009-12-18Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-cefaclorPowderOralApotex Corporation1998-03-062019-01-16Canada flag
Apo-cefaclorCapsuleOralApotex Corporation1997-01-202019-12-02Canada flag
Apo-cefaclorPowderOralApotex Corporation1998-03-062019-01-16Canada flag
Apo-cefaclorPowderOralApotex Corporation1998-03-062019-01-16Canada flag
Apo-cefaclorCapsuleOralApotex Corporation1997-01-202019-12-02Canada flag
CefaclorFor suspension375 mg/5mLOralAytu Therapeutics, LLC2015-10-26Not applicableUS flag
CefaclorCapsule250 mg/1OralHikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.2007-05-01Not applicableUS flag
CefaclorCapsule250 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-01-24Not applicableUS flag
CefaclorSuspension125 mg/5mLOralRanbaxy Inc.1998-01-142012-04-25US flag
CefaclorFor suspension375 mg/5mLOralAvadel Pharmaceuticals (Usa), Inc.2015-10-262018-02-16US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
SEFKLAV 1000/125 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 20 ADETCefaclor (500 mg) + Clavulanic acid (125 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
SEFKLAV 250/62.5 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 20 ADETCefaclor (250 mg) + Clavulanic acid (62.5 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
SEFKLAV 500/125 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 20 ADETCefaclor (500 mg) + Clavulanic acid (125 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag

Categories

ATC Codes
J01DC04 — Cefaclor
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
N-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Cephems / Aralkylamines / 1,3-thiazines / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Vinylogous halides / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids / Azetidines / Vinyl chlorides / Thiohemiaminal derivatives
show 13 more
Substituents
Amine / Amino acid / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azetidine / Benzenoid / Beta-lactam / Carbonyl group / Carboxamide group
show 32 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
cephalosporin (CHEBI:3478)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3Z6FS3IK0K
CAS number
53994-73-3
InChI Key
QYIYFLOTGYLRGG-GPCCPHFNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H14ClN3O4S/c16-8-6-24-14-10(13(21)19(14)11(8)15(22)23)18-12(20)9(17)7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5,9-10,14H,6,17H2,(H,18,20)(H,22,23)/t9-,10-,14-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(6R,7R)-7-[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido]-3-chloro-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12SCC(Cl)=C(N1C(=O)[C@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](N)C1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Bing L. Wong, Yong-Qiang Shen, Yung-Pin Chen, "Enzymatic production of cefaclor from cephalexin." U.S. Patent US5939299, issued November, 1987.

US5939299
General References
  1. Hebert AA, Sigman ES, Levy ML: Serum sickness-like reactions from cefaclor in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Nov;25(5 Pt 1):805-8. [PubMed:1802903]
  2. Parra FM, Igea JM, Martin JA, Alonso MD, Lezaun A, Sainz T: Serum sickness-like syndrome associated with cefaclor therapy. Allergy. 1992 Aug;47(4 Pt 2):439-40. [PubMed:1456417]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014971
KEGG Drug
D00256
KEGG Compound
C06877
PubChem Compound
51039
PubChem Substance
46507693
ChemSpider
46260
BindingDB
42131
RxNav
1450910
ChEBI
3478
ChEMBL
CHEMBL680
ZINC
ZINC000003812869
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000442
PharmGKB
PA164749137
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Cefaclor
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.06.08 — Second Generation Cephalosporins
FDA label
Download (186 KB)
MSDS
Download (43.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0TerminatedTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSnoring / Strep Throat1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Ceph international corp
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Hikma pharmaceuticals
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Yung shin pharmaceutical industrial co ltd
  • Acs dobfar info sa
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • World gen llc
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Alvogen Inc.
  • Apothecon
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Carlsbad Technology Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Jazeera Pharmaceutical Industries
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lilly Del Caribe Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PEDiNOL
  • Pharma Pac LLC
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
  • World Gen LLC
  • Yung Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionOral
TabletOral
Tablet, effervescent
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Granule, for suspensionOral
CapsuleOral250 mg/1
CapsuleOral500 mg/1
For suspensionOral125 mg/5mL
For suspensionOral250 mg/5mL
For suspensionOral375 mg/5mL
Solution / dropsOral
SuspensionOral125 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral125 mg
SuspensionOral187 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral250 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral250 mg
SuspensionOral375 mg
SuspensionOral375 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral375 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
PowderParenteral
GranuleOral
Capsule, coatedOral
PowderOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral375 mg
Syrup
CapsuleOral500 mg
Tablet, solubleOral
Suspension / dropsOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Powder
GranuleOral250 mg/5ml
CapsuleOral250 mg
Powder, for suspensionOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ceclor 15 500 mg capsule Bottle70.0USD bottle
Ceclor 375 mg/5ml Suspension 100ml Bottle59.99USD bottle
Ceclor 250 mg/5ml Suspension 150ml Bottle58.98USD bottle
Cefaclor 250 mg/5ml Suspension 150ml Bottle53.87USD bottle
Cefaclor 375 mg/5ml Suspension 100ml Bottle53.87USD bottle
Ceclor 15 250 mg capsule Bottle38.0USD bottle
Ceclor 125 mg/5ml Suspension 150ml Bottle34.99USD bottle
Ceclor 187 mg/5ml Suspension 100ml Bottle34.99USD bottle
Ceclor 250 mg/5ml Suspension 75ml Bottle31.99USD bottle
Cefaclor 125 mg/5ml Suspension 150ml Bottle29.41USD bottle
Cefaclor 250 mg/5ml Suspension 75ml Bottle29.37USD bottle
Cefaclor 187 mg/5ml Suspension 100ml Bottle29.26USD bottle
Cefaclor 375 mg/5ml Suspension 50ml Bottle27.44USD bottle
Cefaclor 187 mg/5ml Suspension 50ml Bottle14.92USD bottle
Cefaclor 125 mg/5ml Suspension 75ml Bottle14.7USD bottle
Ceclor 500 mg pulvule5.69USD each
Cefaclor 500 mg capsule4.05USD capsule
Cefaclor CR 500 mg 12 Hour tablet3.79USD tablet
Ceclor 250 mg pulvule3.28USD each
Raniclor 375 mg chewable tablet2.98USD tablet
Cefaclor 250 mg capsule2.07USD capsule
Raniclor 250 mg chewable tablet1.99USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)327 °CNot Available
water solubility1E+004 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.21 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.85ALOGPS
logP-2.3ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.03ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.73 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity89.56 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8839
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9817
Caco-2 permeable-0.8239
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6569
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9413
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9955
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9369
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8314
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8361
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5597
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9236
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9193
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6676
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8489
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.2960 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9966
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.85
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0590000000-34857060856b0cac1c04
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00p0-1950000000-9f8a92f4a857c98b63ab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ukc-3920000000-86cb2f866ab059592333
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fkl-4910000000-c6f6c93efa7b2b3bc3d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abc-7900000000-98306dadbeccb72e1ba8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abc-9700000000-f4a33b4825c13beb1024
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fr-0900000000-ec391756df89ec0d9544
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ab9-0900000000-f3ee64eb3dc5aa901340
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-0900000000-c4d5197048a0a6ec18a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-1900000000-5f6c6fcc3196ef576a9d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-3900000000-5151a520059ba886f4cc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066u-6900000000-e164f9cd4b1781b2168d
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-1911000000-144d67b80e602cc73566
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fu-0910000000-50ca0c98776044283551

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pbp3
Uniprot ID
Q75Y35
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 3
Molecular Weight
45209.84 Da
References
  1. Chambers HF, Miick C: Characterization of penicillin-binding protein 2 of Staphylococcus aureus: deacylation reaction and identification of two penicillin-binding peptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Mar;36(3):656-61. [PubMed:1622180]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific Function
Cell wall formation. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid intermediates. The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan str...
Gene Name
pbpA
Uniprot ID
Q8XJ01
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 1A
Molecular Weight
75176.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chambers HF, Miick C: Characterization of penicillin-binding protein 2 of Staphylococcus aureus: deacylation reaction and identification of two penicillin-binding peptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Mar;36(3):656-61. [PubMed:1622180]
  4. Li M, Anderson GD, Phillips BR, Kong W, Shen DD, Wang J: Interactions of amoxicillin and cefaclor with human renal organic anion and peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr;34(4):547-55. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434549]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production o...
Gene Name
MPO
Uniprot ID
P05164
Uniprot Name
Myeloperoxidase
Molecular Weight
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Zuccotti G, Dauria E, Torcoletti M, Lodi F, Bernardo L, Riva E: Clinical and pro-host effects of cefaclor in prophylaxis of recurrent otitis media in HIV-infected children. J Int Med Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;29(4):349-54. [PubMed:11675909]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297]
  3. Li M, Anderson GD, Phillips BR, Kong W, Shen DD, Wang J: Interactions of amoxicillin and cefaclor with human renal organic anion and peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr;34(4):547-55. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434549]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID
Q16348
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297]
  2. Li M, Anderson GD, Phillips BR, Kong W, Shen DD, Wang J: Interactions of amoxicillin and cefaclor with human renal organic anion and peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr;34(4):547-55. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434549]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Substrate and inhibitor activity was demonstrated in vitro using human OAT3 expressed on HEK293 cells.
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. VanWert AL, Gionfriddo MR, Sweet DH: Organic anion transporters: discovery, pharmacology, regulation and roles in pathophysiology. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2010 Jan;31(1):1-71. doi: 10.1002/bdd.693. [PubMed:19953504]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on May 06, 2021 06:19