Nitrous oxide

Identification

Summary

Nitrous oxide is an inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure.

Brand Names
Alnox, Entonox
Generic Name
Nitrous oxide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB06690
Background

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "laughing gas", is a chemical compound with the chemical formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as an inhalant drug.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 44.0128
Monoisotopic: 44.001062632
Chemical Formula
N2O
Synonyms
  • Dinitrogen oxide
  • N2O
  • Nitrious oxide
  • Nitrous oxide
  • óxido nitroso
External IDs
  • E-942
  • FEMA NO. 2779
  • INS NO.942
  • INS-942

Pharmacology

Indication

Not Available

Pharmacology
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Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action

Findings to date indicate that nitrous oxide induces opioid peptide release in the brain stem leading to the activation of descending noradrenergic neurones, which results in modulation of the nociceptive process in the spinal cord. Several receptor–effector mechanisms including dopamine receptors, α2 adrenoceptors, benzodiazepine receptors and -methyl- -aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been implicated although the relationship of one with the other is not known.

Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AcebutololNitrous oxide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Acemetacin.
AcetaminophenThe risk or severity of methemoglobinemia can be increased when Acetaminophen is combined with Nitrous oxide.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Nitrous oxide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with Nitrous oxide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Nitrous oxide.
AclidiniumNitrous oxide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aclidinium.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Nitrous oxide.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Nitrous OxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Compressed Gases Inc1980-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Roberts Oxygen Company, Inc.1967-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)NexAir, LLC1996-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas992 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Mid South, Inc1997-11-062010-08-06US flag
Nitrous OxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Indianapolis Welding Supply, Inc1972-01-012013-04-12US flag
Nitrous OxideGas995 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Medical-Technical Gases, Inc.1963-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Badger Welding Supplies, Inc1955-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas995 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)General Air Service & Supply Co1976-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Welding & Therapy Service, Inc1971-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideGas992 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Norpac Inc.1983-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alnox GasNitrous oxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Air Liquide Canada Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
EntonoxNitrous oxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Llc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Liqui-med Analgesic GasNitrous oxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair, Inc.1983-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Nitrous Oxide In OxygenNitrous oxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Matheson Gas Products Canada Inc.1982-12-311997-12-24Canada flag
OXICALM®Nitrous oxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)GASES INDUSTRIALES DE COLOMBIA S.A. CRYOGAS S.A.2016-08-12Not applicableColombia flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Compressed Gases Inc1980-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Indianapolis Welding Supply, Inc1972-01-012013-04-12US flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Welding & Therapy Service, Inc1971-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (992 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Norpac Inc.1983-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 kg/100kg)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Holston Gases, Inc.1958-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Boggs Gases Div. Boggs Fire Equipment1995-09-282009-11-04US flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Argyle Welding Supply Company, Inc.1974-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Air Liquide Canada Inc.1960-01-012016-10-01US flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Fullerton Welding Supply2008-02-06Not applicableUS flag
Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (990 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Abco Welding And Industrial Supply Inc2010-05-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N01AX13 — Nitrous oxideN01AX63 — Nitrous oxide, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal nitrides. These are inorganic compounds of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of -3, and the heaviest atom bonded to it belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Other non-metal organides
Sub Class
Other non-metal nitrides
Direct Parent
Other non-metal nitrides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides / Inorganic nitrides
Substituents
Inorganic nitride / Inorganic oxide / Other non-metal nitride
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
nitrogen oxide (CHEBI:17045) / a non-metabolic compound (NITROUS-OXIDE)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
K50XQU1029
CAS number
10024-97-2
InChI Key
GQPLMRYTRLFLPF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/N2O/c1-2-3
IUPAC Name
diazooxidane
SMILES
[N-]=[N+]=O

References

General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0035807
KEGG Drug
D00102
KEGG Compound
C00887
PubChem Compound
948
PubChem Substance
310264877
ChemSpider
923
RxNav
7486
ChEBI
17045
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1234579
PharmGKB
PA450645
PDBe Ligand
N2O
Wikipedia
Nitrous_oxide
PDB Entries
2icq / 2ie7 / 2ppa / 3pk3 / 3pks / 3pkt / 3pku / 3ple / 3plg / 3plh
show 7 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAdverse Side Effects / General Anesthesia / Nitrous Oxide1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Subjects (HS)1
4CompletedDiagnosticDepth of Anaesthesia1
4CompletedDiagnosticGlaucoma / Sedation1
4CompletedDiagnosticMalignancies / Pain1
4CompletedOtherLumbar Punctures / Minor Incision Drainage of Abscesses Not Requiring Extensive Debridement / Sedation, Conscious / Simple Lacerations Less Than 4 cm1
4CompletedPreventionEffects of Nitrous Oxide Following Anaesthesia / Induced Endothelial Dysfunction / Quality of Recovery From Anaesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CareLeukemias / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
GasIntravenous; Respiratory (inhalation)100 %
GasRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
GasIntravenous; Respiratory (inhalation)
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
Gas
GasRectal990 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)900 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)98 %
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 kg/100kg
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 mL/100mL
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 L/100L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99.5 L/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99.5 L/100L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)990 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)992 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)995 mL/1L
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99 L/100L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 % v/v
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 %
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-90.81 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)-88.46 °CPhysProp
logP0.36HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area51.21 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity27.67 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.55 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9467
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9872
Caco-2 permeable+0.5561
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9009
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9747
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9944
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9407
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8867
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8789
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7447
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7496
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9074
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9089
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9871
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9435
Ames testAMES toxic0.7381
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6906
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9704
Rat acute toxicity2.8320 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8497
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.971
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-2eee7435817186856ef7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001j-9000000000-d1a5381e3dd214cad7ab
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-9000000000-3ae2e01e3d626729760b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-9000000000-c53ff0d270e0310b3375
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-c8b9d8f80d3f41ad7f54
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-9000000000-12c3fe456373daff732e

Drug created on September 02, 2008 15:56 / Updated on September 25, 2021 16:29