Identification

Summary

Tyrothricin is a topical antibiotic with broad spectrum activity against Gram positive bacteria and some fungal infections.

Generic Name
Tyrothricin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB13503
Background

Tyrothricin is an antibiotic peptide complex produced and extracted from the aerobic Gram-positive bacillus Brevibacillus parabrevis 11,12,2 which was previously categorized as Bacillus brevis and Bacillus aneurinolyticus 9. This complex is a mixture comprised of 60% tyrocidine cationic cyclic decapeptides (consisting largely of the six predominant tyrocidines, TrcA/A1, TrcB/B1, TrcC/C1, and other more minor contributors) and 40% neutral linear gramicidins (where valine-gramicidin A is often the major gramicidin present, although the mixture composition can vary) 11,12,13. Moreover, tyrothricin possesses broad spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial and antifungal activity that has not seen many - if any - significant reportings of microbial resistance during the over 60 years of therapeutic use the complex has provided 10. Nevertheless, as tyrothricin is both cytolytic and hemolytic, it does demonstrate systemic toxicity 11,12,13, although certain formulations that are safe for human use like throat lozenges do exist 14.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Synonyms
  • Bactratycin
  • Hydrotricine
  • Tirotricina
  • Tyrothricin
  • Tyrothricine
  • Tyrothricinum

Pharmacology

Indication

Tyrothricin is used as an over the counter topical antibiotic.

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Associated Conditions
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Pharmacodynamics

Tyrothricin consists of a mix of tyrocidines and gramcidins which exert a bacteriocidal effect. This clears the area of pathogenic bacteria to allow the body to heal wounds or other damage to the skin.

Mechanism of action

Tyrocidines have a β-sheet structure containing both L and D amino acids 3. These structural features contribute to the formation of a curved dimer in which most amino acid side chains are located on the convex surface. The dimer orients itself at the membrane-water interface on bacterial cells with the relatively hydrophilic back-bone on the concave side facing the external environment and the many hydrophobic side chains on the convex side facing into the cell's lipid bilayer. The tyrocidine dimer is able to disrupt the cell membrane producing leakage of cell contents but the exact mechanism of this permeabilization is unclear.

Tyrocidines appear to act as reversible non-competitive inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and β-galactosidase 4. The relation of this to their antibacterial action is unknown.

Gramcidins adopt similar β-sheet structures but are capable of forming β-helices 5. They can either form a double helix, running either parallel or anti-parallel, or a helical dimer wherein the N-termini of each polypeptide meets in the middle of the lipid bilayer. The alternating L and D amino acid structure allows the hydrophobic side chains to point outwards into the lipid bilayer, leaving the more hydrophilic backbone to form the lumen of the pore. The carbonyl oxygen atoms aid in the transport of cations through the pore. In both double helix and helical dimer conformations, gramcidins are capable of transporting monovalent cations through the membrane. Divalent cations result in blockage of the pore or channel when bound. Loss of potassium ions through membrane permeabilization seems to inhibit bacterial growth.

Gramcidin also appears to be able to insert into the mitochondial membrane and conduct hydrogen ions 6. This results in an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP generation due to the loss of the hydrogen ion gradient necessary for H+ATPase function.

TargetActionsOrganism
APhospholipid membrane
disruptor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
UAcetylcholinesterase
inhibitor
Humans
UBeta-galactosidase
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Absorption

The lack of water solubility prevents absorption of tyrothricin through the skin. It is not used through other routes due to toxicity concerns 1.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The components of tyrothricin are capable of disrupting eukaryotic cell membranes at high concentrations resulting in toxicity 8. This manifests as hemolysis in systemic administration. It is thought that the cholesterol present in eukaryotic cells affords some resistance to the toxic mechanisms of tyrothricin 7. Loss of olfactory function has been noted and topical administration to the nasal mucous membranes is not recommended 1.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcebutololTyrothricin may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Tyrothricin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tyrothricin is combined with Acetylcholine.
AclidiniumTyrothricin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Aclidinium.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.
AmifampridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tyrothricin is combined with Amifampridine.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amitriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Amobarbital can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.
AmoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amoxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.
Anisotropine methylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Anisotropine methylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Antibiotic Cold Sore OintmentTyrothricin (0.5 mg / g) + Benzocaine (50 mg / g) + Camphor (20 mg / g) + Levomenthol (1 mg / g) + Polymyxin B (500 unit / g)OintmentTopicalColumbia Laboratories1992-12-312009-07-17Canada flag
Antibiotic LozengesTyrothricin (1.5 mg / loz) + Benzocaine (5.0 mg / loz) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (1.3 mg / loz) + Polymyxin B sulfate (1500 unit / loz)LozengeOralNutribon (1986) Inc.1994-12-312003-07-25Canada flag
BEATHRICIN LOZENGESTyrothricin (1 mg) + Lidocaine (5 mg)LozengeOralBEACONS PHARMACEUTICALS PTE. LTD.1994-12-31Not applicable
DEQ LOZENGETyrothricin (1 mg) + Dequalinium chloride (0.25 mg)TabletOralATLANTIC PHARMACEUTICAL (S) PTE LTD1990-01-13Not applicable
DORITHRICIN THROAT LOZENGESTyrothricin (0.5 mg) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.0 mg) + Benzocaine (1.5 mg)LozengeOralHYPHENS PHARMA PTE. LTD.1990-05-03Not applicable
Emercreme No4 Ont EfaTyrothricin (1 mg / g) + Bacitracin (65 unit / g) + Benzocaine (20 mg / g) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (.4 mg / g) + Diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (2 mg / g)OintmentTopicalPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1984-12-312000-08-18Canada flag
GercillinTyrothricin (1.5 mg / loz) + Bacitracin (1 mg / loz) + Benzocaine (5 mg / loz) + Polymyxin B sulfate (1500 unit / loz)LozengeOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1987-12-312004-09-23Canada flag
Laryngets LozTyrothricin (1.5 mg) + Benzocaine (5 mg) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (1.3 mg) + Polymyxin B sulfate (1500 unit)LozengeBuccalNutribon (1986) Inc.1992-12-312003-07-25Canada flag
Pulmosirum PastilleTyrothricin (1.5 mg / loz) + Benzocaine (5 mg / loz) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (1.3 mg / loz) + Polymyxin B sulfate (1500 unit / loz)LozengeOralNutribon (1986) Inc.1994-12-312003-07-25Canada flag
ทาคอซินTyrothricin (1 MG) + Benzocaine (3 MG)LozengeOralบริษัท เอช.เค.ฟาร์มาซูติคอล จำกัด2015-12-08Not applicableThailand flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01AA05 — TyrothricinR02AB02 — TyrothricinD06AX08 — Tyrothricin
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
877376V2XW
CAS number
1404-88-2

References

Synthesis Reference

Vosloo JA, Stander MA, Leussa AN, Spathelf BM, Rautenbach M. Manipulation of the tyrothricin production profile of Bacillus aneurinolyticus. Microbiology (Reading, Engl). 2013;159(Pt 10):2200-11.

General References
  1. Lang C, Staiger C: Tyrothricin--An underrated agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections and superficial wounds? Pharmazie. 2016 Jun;71(6):299-305. [Article]
  2. Vosloo JA, Stander MA, Leussa AN, Spathelf BM, Rautenbach M: Manipulation of the tyrothricin production profile of Bacillus aneurinolyticus. Microbiology. 2013 Oct;159(Pt 10):2200-11. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.068734-0. Epub 2013 Aug 20. [Article]
  3. Loll PJ, Upton EC, Nahoum V, Economou NJ, Cocklin S: The high resolution structure of tyrocidine A reveals an amphipathic dimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 May;1838(5):1199-207. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.01.033. Epub 2014 Feb 11. [Article]
  4. Changeux JP, Ryter A, Leuzinger W, Barrand P, Podleski T: On the association of tyrocidine with acetylcholinesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Mar;62(3):986-93. [Article]
  5. Wallace BA: Recent Advances in the High Resolution Structures of Bacterial Channels: Gramicidin A. J Struct Biol. 1998;121(2):123-41. doi: 10.1006/jsbi.1997.3948. [Article]
  6. Sorochkina AI, Plotnikov EY, Rokitskaya TI, Kovalchuk SI, Kotova EA, Sychev SV, Zorov DB, Antonenko YN: N-terminally glutamate-substituted analogue of gramicidin A as protonophore and selective mitochondrial uncoupler. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41919. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041919. Epub 2012 Jul 24. [Article]
  7. Prenner EJ, Lewis RN, Jelokhani-Niaraki M, Hodges RS, McElhaney RN: Cholesterol attenuates the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S with phospholipid bilayer membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Feb 9;1510(1-2):83-92. [Article]
  8. Qin C, Zhong X, Bu X, Ng NL, Guo Z: Dissociation of antibacterial and hemolytic activities of an amphipathic peptide antibiotic. J Med Chem. 2003 Nov 6;46(23):4830-3. doi: 10.1021/jm0341352. [Article]
  9. Shida O, Takagi H, Kadowaki K, Komagata K: Proposal for two new genera, Brevibacillus gen. nov. and Aneurinibacillus gen. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Oct;46(4):939-46. doi: 10.1099/00207713-46-4-939. [Article]
  10. Stauss-Grabo M, Atiye S, Le T, Kretschmar M: Decade-long use of the antimicrobial peptide combination tyrothricin does not pose a major risk of acquired resistance with gram-positive bacteria and Candida spp. Pharmazie. 2014 Nov;69(11):838-41. [Article]
  11. Arnold Vosloo, J., Beims, H., Allsopp, M.H. et al. Tolerance of honey bee adults and larvae toward tyrothricin peptides derived from Brevibacillus parabrevis Apidologie (2017) 48: 833. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-017-0528-0 [Link]
  12. National Research Foundation Institutional Repository: Characterization of natural antimicrobial peptides adsorbed to different matrices [Link]
  13. Production and characterisation of analogues of the antimicrobial tyrocidine peptides with modified aromatic amino acid residues. [Link]
  14. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Tyrozets (benzocaine and tyrothricin) lozenges Monograph [Link]
ChemSpider
398608
RxNav
10968
ChEMBL
CHEMBL577736
Wikipedia
Tyrothricin
MSDS
Download (320 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
OintmentTopical
LozengeOral5 mg
InsertVaginal
LozengeOral
TabletOral0.25 mg
LozengeOral1.0 mg
Tablet, orally disintegrating
SuppositoryVaginal
SprayTransmucosal
Tablet
LozengeOral
LozengeBuccal
Solution / dropsNasal
Solution / dropsNasal0.25 mg/ml
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsolubleLang C, Staiger C. Tyrothricin--An underrated agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections and superficial wounds?. Pharmazie. 2016;71(6):299-305.
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

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1. Phospholipid membrane
Kind
Group
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Disruptor
References
  1. Lang C, Staiger C: Tyrothricin--An underrated agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections and superficial wounds? Pharmazie. 2016 Jun;71(6):299-305. [Article]
  2. Loll PJ, Upton EC, Nahoum V, Economou NJ, Cocklin S: The high resolution structure of tyrocidine A reveals an amphipathic dimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 May;1838(5):1199-207. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.01.033. Epub 2014 Feb 11. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Non-competitive inhibitor. Maximum inhibition found to be 60% of enzyme activity.
General Function
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name
ACHE
Uniprot ID
P22303
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholinesterase
Molecular Weight
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Changeux JP, Ryter A, Leuzinger W, Barrand P, Podleski T: On the association of tyrocidine with acetylcholinesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Mar;62(3):986-93. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Very weak inhibition.
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
lacZ
Uniprot ID
P00722
Uniprot Name
Beta-galactosidase
Molecular Weight
116482.045 Da
References
  1. Changeux JP, Ryter A, Leuzinger W, Barrand P, Podleski T: On the association of tyrocidine with acetylcholinesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Mar;62(3):986-93. [Article]

Drug created at June 23, 2017 20:43 / Updated at May 29, 2021 18:11