Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic used to sterilize for surgeries and in healthcare practice, to reduce pocket depth in periodontitis, and to treat gingivitis.

Brand Names
Betasept, Hibiclens, Instillagel, Nupro Chlorhexidine, Oris, Oro-Clense, Paroex, Perichlor, Peridex, Periochip, Periogard, Prevora, X-pur
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial biguanide used as a topical antiseptic and in dental practice for the treatment of inflammatory dental conditions caused by microorganisms.11 It is one of the most common skin and mucous membrane antiseptic agents in use today.2 The molecule itself is a cationic bis-guanide consisting of two 4-chlorophenyl rings and two biguanide groups joined by a central hexamethylene chain.7 Topical chlorhexidine for disinfection, as well as oral rinses for dental use, carries activity against a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.12,11,7

Chlorhexidine was developed in the UK by Imperial Chemical Industries in the early 1950s9 and was introduced to the US in the 1970s.18 The FDA withdrew its approval for the use of chlorhexidine gluconate topical tincture 0.5%, due to a significant number of reports concerning chemical and thermal burns associated with the use of this product.19,20 Other formulations of chlorhexidine continue to be available.

Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved, Withdrawn
Average: 505.447
Monoisotopic: 504.203196424
Chemical Formula
  • 1,1'-Hexamethylene bis(5-(p-chlorophenyl)biguanide)
  • Chlorhexidin
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Chlorhexidinum
  • Cloresidina
  • Clorhexidina
  • N,N'-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,12-diimino-2,4,11,13-tetraazatetradecanediimidamide



Chlorhexidine is available over-the-counter in various formulations (e.g. solution, sponge, cloth, swab) as a topical antiseptic to sanitize prior to surgeries and/or medical procedures.12,13,14,15 Dental formulations, available by prescription only, include an oral rinse indicated for the treatment of gingivitis11 and a slow-release "chip" which is inserted into periodontal pockets and is indicated for the reduction of pocket depth in adult patients with periodontitis as an adjunct therapy to dental scaling and root planing procedures.16

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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with demonstrated activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.2 Antimicrobial activity is dose-dependent - chlorhexidine is bacteriostatic at lower concentrations (0.02%-0.06%) and bactericidal at higher concentrations (>0.12%).2 Pharmacokinetic studies of oral chlorhexidine rinses indicate that approximately 30% of the active ingredient is retained in the mouth following rinsing, which is subsequently slowly released into oral fluids.11 This ability to adsorb to dentine, shared with tetracycline antibiotics such as doxycycline, is known as "substantivity" and is the result of chlorhexidine's positive charge - it is likely that this substantivity plays at least some role in chlorhexidine's antimicrobial activity, as its persistence on surfaces such as dentine prevent microbial colonization.7

Dental chlorhexidine rinses may result in staining of oral surfaces, such as teeth. This effect is not ubiquitous and appears to be more significant with extended therapy (i.e. up to 6 months) - nevertheless, patients for whom oral staining is unacceptable should use chlorhexidine rinse with caution and for the shortest effective interval.11 Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine have been associated with the development of anaphylaxis.8

Mechanism of action

Chlorhexidine’s broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects are due to its ability to disrupt microbial cell membranes. The positively charged chlorhexidine molecule reacts with negatively charged phosphate groups on microbial cell surfaces - this reaction both destroys the integrity of the cell, allowing leakage of intracellular material, and allows chlorhexidine to enter the cell, causing precipitation of cytoplasmic components and ultimately cell death.16,7 The specific means of cell death is dependent on the concentration of chlorhexidine - lower concentrations are bacteriostatic and result in leakage of intracellular substances such as potassium and phosphorous, whereas higher concentrations are bactericidal and cause cytoplasmic precipitation.7

ABacterial outer membrane
incorporation into and destabilization

Topically, chlorhexidine is unlikely to undergo any degree of systemic absorption. Orally administered chlorhexidine, such as that found in oral rinses for dental purposes, is very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract - the Cmax in human subjects following an oral dose of 300mg was 0.206 µg/g and occurred approximately 30 minutes after ingestion (Tmax).11 Following the insertion of 4 PerioChips in 18 adult patients, no detectable plasma or urine chlorhexidine levels were observed.16

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Chlorhexidine is known to bind albumin in both serum and saliva,5 though the extent of this binding is unclear.


As chlorhexidine is very poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, it is unlikely to undergo metabolic conversion to any significant extent.11

Route of elimination

Excretion of chlorhexidine gluconate occurs almost exclusively via the feces, with less than 1% of an ingested dose excreted in the urine.11


Not Available


Not Available

Adverse Effects
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The LD50 of subcutaneously administered chlorhexidine in mice is >5 g/kg.17

Small children are likely to be more susceptible to chlorhexidine overdose - ingestion of 1-2 ounces by a small child may result in gastric distress, nausea, and intoxication. Treatment should consist of symptomatic and supportive measures. Seek medical attention if a child ingests >4 ounces of chlorhexidine solution or if symptoms of intoxication develop post-exposure.11

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Allogeneic cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in murine collagenThe therapeutic efficacy of Allogeneic cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in murine collagen can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorhexidine.
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Food Interactions
  • Take separate from meals. May affect the taste of food and beverages. Avoid eating or drinking for 30 minutes following use.


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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Chlorhexidine acetate5908ZUF22Y56-95-1WDRFFJWBUDTUCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chlorhexidine gluconateMOR84MUD8E18472-51-0YZIYKJHYYHPJIB-UUPCJSQJSA-N
Chlorhexidine hydrochlorideE64XL9U38K3697-42-5WJLVQTJZDCGNJN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Cida-Stat (Ecolab) / Corsodyl (GlaxoSmithKline) / DentiSept / Dyna-Hex (Xttrium) / Exidine (Xttrium) / Hexadol (Green Cross) / Hibiscrub (AstraZeneca) / Hibitane (Imperial Chemical Industries) / Microderm (Johnson & Johnson) / Periogard Oral Rinse (Colgate) / Pharmaseal Scrub Care (CareFusion) / Prevacare R (Johnson & Johnson) / Rotersept (Roter) / Sterilon (Emcure) / Tubulicid
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2012-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalCardinal Health2012-01-012020-10-31US flag
BetaseptSolution0.04 mg/1mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.1993-06-01Not applicableUS flag
ChlorhexidineMouthwash0.12 %BuccalBajaj Medical, Llc2000-08-29Not applicableCanada flag
ChlorhexidineMouthwash0.12 % w/vBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2017-10-19Not applicableCanada flag
Chlorhexidine Alcohol FreeMouthwash0.12 % w/vBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2018-02-202021-06-03Canada flag
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse0.12 mg/1mLOralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC,2009-02-11Not applicableUS flag
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPLiquid; Mouthwash0.12 % w/wOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPMouthwash0.12 % w/wBuccalSage Products LLC2016-02-032022-04-22Canada flag
Denticare Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse 0.12%Mouthwash0.12 %BuccalAmd Medicom Inc1999-11-26Not applicableCanada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUS flag
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUS flag
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
ChlorhexidineSolution1.2 mg/1mLOralNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.1995-12-15Not applicableUS flag
ChlorhexidineSolution1.2 mg/1mLOralPINNACLE PHARMA LLC1995-12-15Not applicableUS flag
Chlorhexidine GluconanteRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralAmd Medicom Inc.2006-06-022023-05-31US flag
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-06-242019-12-31US flag
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralLohxa2010-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralDen-mat Holdings, Llc2009-06-18Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Akilgeld Hand SanitizerGel2 % w/wTopicalDelta Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Akilspray Hand SanitizerSpray2 % w/wTopicalDelta Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Alsoft A Hand Disinfectant 0.2% w/vSolution0.2 % w/vGoodmaid Chemicals Corp. Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Anti Mucedine Feminine WashLiquid0.1 g/100mLTopicalJiangxi Renhetang pharmaceutical chain Co., Ltd.2021-03-16Not applicableUS flag
Anti-bac HandSoap0.45 g/100mLTopicalFujian Jinghua Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.2020-04-25Not applicableUS flag
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.07075 g/14.15gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.0045 g/.9gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Antimicrobial Foam HandwashLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2018-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Antimicrobial Skin CleanserLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2008-03-01Not applicableUS flag
Antiseptic Body CleanserCloth2 %TopicalSage Products LLC2006-02-14Not applicableCanada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(Fruli) Quick-Dry Disposable Hand SanitizerChlorhexidine gluconate (0.5 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)LiquidTopicalShandong Zhuojian Medical Technology Co., Ltd.2020-05-01Not applicableUS flag
(Qiqing) Chlorhexidine Gluconate Alcohol DisinfectantChlorhexidine gluconate (0.45 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidTopicalQingdao precision medical technology co., LTD. Zibo branch2020-05-01Not applicableUS flag
3M AvagardChlorhexidine gluconate (8.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (506.3 mg/1mL)LotionTopical3M Company2001-06-14Not applicableUS flag
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-082020-09-30US flag
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-08Not applicableUS flag
3m Soluprep SpongeChlorhexidine gluconate (2 % w/v) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 % v/v)SpongeTopical3 M Pharmaceuticals2013-09-11Not applicableCanada flag
3เอ็ม ซีเอชจี แพดChlorhexidine (0.114 ML/1.142ML) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.8 ML/1.142ML)SolutionTopicalบริษัท 3 เอ็ม ประเทศไทย จำกัด2018-08-10Not applicableThailand flag
Alcohol Antibacterial WipesChlorhexidine acetate (0.1 g/100a) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.1 g/100a) + Ethanol (15 g/100a)ClothTopicalKunming Ansheng Industry & Trade Co., Ltd.2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
Alcohol Disinfectant WipesChlorhexidine acetate (1 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1) + Ethanol (750 mg/1)ClothTopicalKunming Ansheng Industry & Trade Co., Ltd.2020-06-17Not applicableUS flag
ANDOREX %0.15+%0.12 GARGARA, 200 MLChlorhexidine gluconate (18 mg/15mL) + Benzydamine hydrochloride (22.5 mg/15mL)RinseOralPHARMACTİVE İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Anti Mucedine Feminine WashChlorhexidine acetate (0.1 g/100mL)LiquidTopicalJiangxi Renhetang pharmaceutical chain Co., Ltd.2021-03-16Not applicableUS flag
Anti-bac HandChlorhexidine acetate (0.45 g/100mL)SoapTopicalFujian Jinghua Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.2020-04-25Not applicableUS flag
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.07075 g/14.15g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.0045 g/.9g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalFoshan Flying Medical Products Co., Ltd.2012-12-27Not applicableUS flag
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalGuangdong Comfort Medical Products Co., Ltd.2017-07-17Not applicableUS flag
Bei Ling Tong Bao Er Zheng Yuan Antibacterial CreamsChlorhexidine acetate (0.03 g/15g)CreamTopicalJilin Mancaotang Health Management Group Co Ltd2018-11-202019-10-21US flag
Chinese Herb Essence Bacteriostatic Feminine WashChlorhexidine acetate (0.1 g/100mL)LiquidTopicalJiangxi Renhetang pharmaceutical chain Co., Ltd.2021-03-16Not applicableUS flag
DermacinRx ClorhexacinChlorhexidine gluconate (4 g/100mL) + Dimethicone (50 mg/1mL) + Mupirocin (20 mg/1g)KitTopicalPureTek Corporation2016-06-02Not applicableUS flag
DermacinRx Surgical ComboPakChlorhexidine gluconate (4 g/100mL) + Dimethicone (50 mg/1mL)Cream; Kit; SolutionTopicalPureTek Corporation2015-04-28Not applicableUS flag


ATC Codes
R02AA05 — ChlorhexidineS03AA04 — ChlorhexidineD08AC52 — Chlorhexidine, combinationsD08AC02 — ChlorhexidineS01AX09 — ChlorhexidineD09AA12 — ChlorhexidineB05CA02 — ChlorhexidineA01AB03 — ChlorhexidineS02AA09 — Chlorhexidine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Biguanides / Aryl chlorides / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Biguanide / Carboximidamide / Chlorobenzene / Guanidine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monochlorobenzenes, biguanides (CHEBI:3614)
Affected organisms
  • Bacteria

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key


Synthesis Reference

Rose, F.L. and Swain, G.; US. Patent 2,684,924; July 27, 1954; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.

General References
  1. McBain AJ, Bartolo RG, Catrenich CE, Charbonneau D, Ledder RG, Gilbert P: Effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash on the vitality and antimicrobial susceptibility of in vitro oral bacterial ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;69(8):4770-6. [Article]
  2. Karpinski TM, Szkaradkiewicz AK: Chlorhexidine--pharmaco-biological activity and application. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(7):1321-6. [Article]
  3. Betcher DL, Burnham N: Chlorhexidine. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 1990 Apr;7(2):82-3. doi: 10.1177/104345429000700227. [Article]
  4. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [Article]
  5. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [Article]
  6. Radford JR, Homer KA, Naylor MN, Beighton D: Inhibition of human subgingival plaque protease activity by chlorhexidine. Arch Oral Biol. 1992 Apr;37(4):245-8. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(92)90045-a. [Article]
  7. Mohammadi Z, Abbott PV: The properties and applications of chlorhexidine in endodontics. Int Endod J. 2009 Apr;42(4):288-302. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01540.x. Epub 2009 Feb 7. [Article]
  8. Sharp G, Green S, Rose M: Chlorhexidine-induced anaphylaxis in surgical patients: a review of the literature. ANZ J Surg. 2016 Apr;86(4):237-43. doi: 10.1111/ans.13269. Epub 2015 Sep 11. [Article]
  9. Lim KS, Kam PC: Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jul;36(4):502-12. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0803600404. [Article]
  10. Health Canada Product Monograph: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Avagard (chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol) topical solution [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Pre-Scrub (chlorhexidine gluconate) topical scrub [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: ChloraPrep One-Step (chlorhexidine/isopropyl alcohol) topical swab [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Chlorhexidine gluconate topical cloth [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: PerioChip (chlorhexidine gluconate) chip for oral insertion [Link]
  17. CaymanChem: Chlorhexidine MSDS [Link]
  18. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009) [Link]
  19. Code of Federal Regulations 216.24: Drug products withdrawn or removed from the market for reasons of safety or effectiveness. [Link]
  20. Federal Register: Determination that Chlorhexidine Gluconate Topical Tincture 0.5% Was Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
FDA label
Download (56 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionHospitalizations / Infection1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentClosed Lower Extremity Fracture / Fracture of Pelvis (Disorder) / Open Appendicular Fracture / Surgical Site Infections / Unplanned Fracture-Related Reoperation1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (MRSA) / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Staphylococcus Aureus1
4CompletedNot AvailableAntimicrobial Effectiveness2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Subjects (HS)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHip Arthroplasty1
4CompletedNot AvailableThis Study Evaluated the Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse on Subgingival Microbiota1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMicrobiome, Human2
4CompletedOtherGeneral Skin Cleansing1


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Dosage Forms
SolutionTopical20 mg
SolutionTopical40 mg
GelTopical2 % w/w
Solution0.2 % w/v
SoapTopical0.45 g/100mL
LotionTopical.0045 g/.9g
LotionTopical.07075 g/14.15g
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral1 g
GelBuccal; Oral0.2 g
ClothTopical2 %
SwabTopical0.0002 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 % w/w
SolutionTopical2 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100g
SolutionTopical2.5 g
SolutionTopical2 g
DressingTopical.5 %
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
SpongeTopical40 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical11.8 g
SolutionTopical0.05 % w/v
SolutionTopical20 %
SolutionTopical0.5 %
SolutionTopical40 g/1000mL
CreamTopical0.03 g/15g
SolutionTopical.04 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical0.04 mg/1mL
SolutionCutaneous; Topical
Solution, concentrateTopical
Solution4 % w/v
Solution, concentrate5 % w/v
GelOral1 %
SolutionOral0.1 %
RinseOropharyngeal2 mg/ml
MouthwashBuccal0.12 % w/v
SolutionOral1.2 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical4 %
GelTopical4 g/100mL
LiquidOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
Liquid; mouthwashOral0.12 % w/w
MouthwashBuccal0.12 % w/w
SolutionTopical0.05 %
SolutionTopical0.75 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical20 % w/v
SolutionDental1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical.05 %
GelBuccal; Topical0.2 g
Solution, concentrate
SolutionBuccal; Oral0.2 g
SolutionOral120 mg
LiquidDental1.2 mg/1mL
Cream; kit; solutionTopical
ShampooTopical30 g/L
LotionTopical4 % w/v
LiquidTopical0.5 g/1L
ClothTopical0.2 g/100mL
GelExtracorporeal0.55 g/500g
SolutionTopical4 g/100mL
SpongeTopical4 %
LiquidTopical4.0 %
SolutionTopical2 %
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
ClothTopical2 g/100g
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
SolutionTopical20 g
RinseDental0.5448 g/454g
GelTopical2 %
GelTopical4 %
RinseOral17.5 g/100g
TabletTransmucosal5 MG
MouthwashBuccal0.12 %
GelTopical4 % w/v
SolutionTopical4 % w/w
SolutionTopical213 g/1000mL
SolutionTopical4 % w/v
LiquidCutaneous; Infiltration
LiquidTopical0.02 g/10mL
ConcentrateIrrigation2.36 mL/236mL
ClothTopical0.127 g/100g
CreamTopical2 %
Injection, solution; kit; solutionIntravenous; Topical
SwabTopical2 % w/v
SolutionTopical1 %
SolutionTopical1 G/100ML
SolutionTopical0.5 g
GelTopical0.09 g/100g
Cream; kit; ointment; solutionTopical
LotionTopical1 % w/w
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
LotionTopical0.5 % w/v
SolutionOral0.12 g
RinseDental1.2 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical1 %
MouthwashOral1.2 mg/ml
Liquid; mouthwashBuccal0.12 %
Spray, meteredOral
Insert, extended releasePeriodontal2.5 mg/1
Liner, dentalPeriodontal2.5 mg
InsertPeriodontal2.5 mg
LiquidOral1.2 mg/1mL
RinseBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
SolutionBuccal0.12 % w/w
LiquidTopical.12 %
LiquidTopical0.1 g/100mL
SwabTopical0.2 g/100g
SolutionTopical1 mg/25mL
Kit; solutionDental10 %
LiquidBuccal0.12 %
LotionTopical.283 g/56.6g
LotionTopical2.1508 g/430.16g
LotionTopical2 %
KitBuccal; Oral
ClothTopical500 mg/1
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical.75 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
LiquidTopical4 %
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
LotionTopical2.0 %
ClothTopical0.35 U/100U
SoapTopical24 mg/3g
SoapTopical48 mg/3g
CreamTopical2 mg/g
KitOral; Topical
KitBuccal; Topical
LotionTopical2.25 %
LiquidTopical2 % w/w
Liquid; spongeTopical4 %
AerosolTopical4 % w/v
SpongeTopical4 % w/v
SolutionTopical2 % w/v
SpongeTopical2 % w/v
ClothTopical2 % w/v
SpongeTopical0.05 % w/v
Solution; spongeTopical
AerosolTopical0.5 %
SprayTopical0.5 %
LiquidTopical.5 %
SprayTopical2 % w/w
LiquidTopical2 %
LiquidTopical20 %
KitBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
Solution0.05 %w/v
SolutionTopical10 g
ShampooTopical2 g
SolutionTopical0.35 g
SolutionTopical2.3 %
SolutionTopical4 g
LiquidTopical0.01 g/10mL
CreamTopical1 %w/w
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Peridex 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle23.99USD bottle
Periogard 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle15.99USD bottle
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle14.0USD bottle
Biopatch dressing4.21USD each
Hibistat towelette0.43USD each
Chlorhexidine gluc 20% soln0.16USD ml
Hibiclens 4% liquid0.04USD ml
Peridex 0.12% liquid0.04USD ml
Chlorhexidine 2% scrub0.03USD ml
Chlorhexidine 0.12% rinse0.02USD ml
Dynahex 4% liquid0.02USD ml
Dynahex 2% liquid0.01USD ml
Periogard 0.12% oral rinse0.01USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US7422388No2008-09-092027-04-25US flag
US6536975No2003-03-252020-11-10US flag
US6729786No2004-05-042023-03-14US flag
US7241065No2007-07-102023-03-14US flag
US5690958No1997-11-252016-09-30US flag
US6991394No2006-01-312024-01-31US flag
US7182536No2007-02-272023-12-30US flag
US5538353No1996-07-232015-08-25US flag
US5772346No1998-06-302017-04-22US flag
US7081246No2006-07-252016-08-03US flag
US5897031No1999-04-272016-06-21US flag
USD468424No2003-01-072017-01-07US flag
US7066916No2006-06-272024-02-17US flag
US7595021No2009-09-292023-05-12US flag
US7717889No2010-05-182025-02-27US flag
US7935093No2011-05-032027-10-02US flag
US7427574No2008-09-232026-04-25US flag
US8623935No2014-01-072029-07-26US flag


Experimental Properties
water solubility800 mg/L (at 20 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995), ionized pH 5
pKa10.8 (at 25 °C)HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0261 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.52Chemaxon
Physiological Charge4Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area167.58 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count9Chemaxon
Refractivity181.71 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability54.58 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings2Chemaxon
Rule of FiveNoChemaxon
Ghose FilterNoChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8984
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7872
Caco-2 permeable+0.5231
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6016
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5733
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9175
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7955
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6218
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6532
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8025
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6847
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.927
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5065
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.59
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6532
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9896
Rat acute toxicity1.7711 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5579
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5661
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-2900000000-77fb2c1a85c1b39d8e91
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00yi-2912000000-109a5810a9e5d36f3105


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1. Bacterial outer membrane
Pharmacological action
Incorporation into and destabilization
  1. Zorko M, Jerala R: Alexidine and chlorhexidine bind to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid and prevent cell activation by antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Oct;62(4):730-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn270. Epub 2008 Jul 16. [Article]
  2. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
  1. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at January 28, 2023 12:29