Botulinum toxin type A

Identification

Summary

Botulinum toxin type A is a purified form of botulinum toxin type A used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of chronic sialorrhea, muscle spasticity, and dystonia, as well as in cosmetic applications.

Brand Names
Botox, Botox Cosmetic, Dysport, Jeuveau, Xeomin
Generic Name
Botulinum toxin type A
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00083
Background

In 2002, botulinum toxin A, also known as onabotulinumtoxinA or Botox, was the first type A botulism toxin to be introduced into the market for cosmetic use.8 With a wide variety of applications and favourable safety profile, Botulinum toxin A injection is a minimally invasive and promising treatment for cosmetic imperfections, muscle spasms, and other conditions.7,20 A popular use for Botox is the treatment of facial wrinkles and lines, however, there are many uses for the botulinum toxin A in the treatment of dystonia, incontinence, migraine, blepharospasm, and hyperhidrosis.15,19

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Other protein based therapies
Protein Structure
Db00083
Protein Chemical Formula
C6760H10447N1743O2010S32
Protein Average Weight
900000.0 Da
Sequences
>Botulinum Toxin Type A Sequence
MPFVNKQFNYKDPVNGVDIAYIKIPNVGQMQPVKAFKIHNKIWVIPERDTFTNPEEGDLN
PPPEAKQVPVSYYDSTYLSTDNEKDNYLKGVTKLFERIYSTDLGRMLLTSIVRGIPFWGG
STIDTELKVIDTNCINVIQPDGSYRSEELNLVIIGPSADIIQFECKSFGHEVLNLTRNGY
GSTQYIRFSPDFTFGFEESLEVDTNPLLGAGKFATDPAVTLAHELIHAGHRLYGIAINPN
RVFKVNTNAYYEMSGLEVSFEELRTFGGHDAKFIDSLQENEFRLYYYNKFKDIASTLNKA
KSIVGTTASLQYMKNVFKEKYLLSEDTSGKFSVDKLKFDKLYKMLTEIYTEDNFVKFFKV
LNRKTYLNFDKAVFKINIVPKVNYTIYDGFNLRNTNLAANFNGQNTEINNMNFTKLKNFT
GLFEFYKLLCVRGIITSKTKSLDKGYNKALNDLCIKVNNWDLFFSPSEDNFTNDLNKGEE
ITSDTNIEAAEENISLDLIQQYYLTFNFDNEPENISIENLSSDIIGQLELMPNIERFPNG
KKYELDKYTMFHYLRAQEFEHGKSRIALTNSVNEALLNPSRVYTFFSSDYVKKVNKATEA
AMFLGWVEQLVYDFTDETSEVSTTDKIADITIIIPYIGPALNIGNMLYKDDFVGALIFSG
AVILLEFIPEIAIPVLGTFALVSYIANKVLTVQTIDNALSKRNEKWDEVYKYIVTNWLAK
VNTQIDLIRKKMKEALENQAEATKAIINYQYNQYTEEEKNNINFNIDDLSSKLNESINKA
MININKFLNQCSVSYLMNSMIPYGVKRLEDFDASLKDALLKYIYDNRGTLIGQVDRLKDK
VNNTLSTDIPFQLSKYVDNQRLLSTFTEYIKNIINTSILNLRYESNHLIDLSRYASKINI
GSKVNFDPIDKNQIQLFNLESSKIEVILKNAIVYNSMYENFSTSFWIRIPKYFNSISLNN
EYTIINCMENNSGWKVSLNYGEIIWTLQDTQEIKQRVVFKYSQMINISDYINRWIFVTIT
NNRLNNSKIYINGRLIDQKPISNLGNIHASNNIMFKLDGCRDTHRYIWIKYFNLFDKELN
EKEIKDLYDNQSNSGILKDFWGDYLQYDKPYYMLNLYDPNKYVDVNNVGIRGYMYLKGPR
GSVMTTNIYLNSSLYRGTKFIIKKYASGNKDNIVRNNDRVYINVVVKNKEYRLATNASQA
GVEKILSALEIPDVGNLSQVVVMKSKNDQGITNKCKMNLQDNNGNDIGFIGFHQFNNIAK
LVASNWYNRQIERSSRTLGCSWEFIPVDDGWGERPL
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • AbobotulinumtoxinA
  • Botulinum A neurotoxin
  • Botulinum antitoxin type A
  • Botulinum toxin A
  • Botulinum toxin type A
  • BTX-A
  • EvabotulinumtoxinA
  • IncobotulinumtoxinA
  • OnabotulinumtoxinA
  • Prabotulinumtoxin A
  • Toxina botulínica A
  • Toxine botulinique A
External IDs
  • AGN 191622
  • ANT-1207
  • ANT-1401
  • ANT-1403
  • CNT 52120
  • NT 201

Pharmacology

Indication

Botulinum toxin A is indicated for a variety of conditions, depending on the preparations. Cosmetically, it is used for the treatment of facial fine lines and wrinkles, specifically for upper facial rhytides, including forehead, lateral canthus, and glabellar lines.19

In addition to the above indications, botulinum toxin A is used for the following conditions: treatment of adults with symptomatic overactive bladder with or without incontinence, treatment of incontinence in adult patients who are not candidates for anticholinergic therapy, treatment of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO) in patients over 5 years who cannot undergo anticholinergic therapy. Botulinum toxin A is indicated for the prevention of chronic migraines, for the treatment of muscle spasms, cervical dystonia, axillary hyperhidrosis, strabismus,15 and disorders of the 7th cranial nerve.20

Off-label, botulinum toxin A is used for a variety of conditions such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and myofascial pain12, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, epicondylitis, post-stroke pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, neuropathic pain, spinal cord injury, and bladder pain.13

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Botulinum toxin A inhibits the release of acetylcholine, relieving muscle contraction and spasm associated with many conditions, such as incontinence and dystonia. Cosmetically, botulinum toxin A paralyses muscles in the face to temporarily treat wrinkles.9,19 The maximum effects of muscle paralysis occur four to seven days after a dose.6 When injected at therapeutic doses, botulinum toxin A causes partial chemical denervation of muscle tissue, causing local reduction of muscle activity. Muscle atrophy may result, axonal sprouting may begin, and extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors can be formed. Reinnervation of the muscle may occur, reversing muscle denervation caused by botulinum toxin A.15

Mechanism of action

Botulinum toxin is a 150-kDa molecular weight protein consisting of a light chain (50 kDa) and heavy chain (100 kDa) linked by a single disulfide bond. The crystal structure reveals 3 lobes - the light chain, the amino-terminal portion of the heavy chain, and the carboxyl-terminal portion of the heavy chain.11

Botulinum toxin type A blocks neuromuscular transmission on motor or sympathetic nerve terminals, inhibiting the release of acetylcholine.15 Botulinum toxins have actions on various regions: the neuromuscular junction, autonomic ganglia, and both postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings. The heavy chain of the toxin binds selectively at the presynaptic surface of cholinergic neurons in an irreversible fashion. After binding, the toxin-receptor complex is transported into the cell by endocytosis. The disulfide bond between the two chains is cleaved and the botulism toxin enters the cytoplasm. The light chain specifically interacts with SNAP-25 in the nerve terminals to block binding of acetylcholine vesicles with the cell membrane. SNAP-25 is required for successful binding and release of acetylcholine from vesicles in nerve endings.6

TargetActionsOrganism
ASynaptosomal-associated protein 25
inhibitor
Humans
URho-related GTP-binding protein RhoB
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

The chemical complexity of botulinum toxin type A combined with its extreme potency limits the opportunity to study its pharmacokinetic profile in humans.15 For this reason, human pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed. Animal studies using radio labeled botulinum toxin suggest it is absorbed systemically after subcutaneous and intranasal administration. Clinical relevance is unknown.11

Volume of distribution

There are extremely limited data about the pharmacokinetics of botulinum toxin in humans.15 An animal study demonstrated that botulinum toxin accumulates in the liver and spleen in rats and mice when injected subcutaneously or administered intranasally.11

Protein binding

A pharmacokinetic study in mice and rats revealed significant binding to albumin after subcutaneous injection or intranasal administration.11

Metabolism

Metabolism information for botulinum A toxin is not readily available in the literature.11,15

Route of elimination

Elimination information for botulinum A toxin is not readily available in the literature.11,15

Half-life

There is no readily available data about the pharmacokinetics of botulinum toxin in humans.15 The elimination half-life for non-metabolized botulinum toxin in blood and serum ranged from 230 to 260 min in a pharmacokinetic study of rats and mice.11

Clearance

Clearance information for botulinum A toxin is not readily available in the literature.11,15

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

The intraperitoneal LD50 of botulinum toxin A in mice is 160 ng/kg.22 An overdose of botulinum toxin A is expected to produce neuromuscular weakness, manifested by a variety of symptoms that may not appear immediately after injection. Dysphagia, dysphonia, weakness, dyspnea or respiratory distress may indicate distant spread of botulinum toxin A effects.14 If an overdose is suspected or confirmed, patients should be monitored for several weeks closely for local and distant neurologic effects. Hospitalization or further medical evaluation and appropriate intervention should be provided immediately.15

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Acetophenazine.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aclidinium is combined with Botulinum toxin type A.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Alfentanil.
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Alimemazine.
AlmotriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Almotriptan.
AlosetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Alosetron.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Botulinum toxin type A is combined with Alprazolam.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BotoxInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution200 [USP'U]/1Intradermal; IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2010-01-11Not applicableUS flag
BotoxInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1Intradermal; IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.1989-12-15Not applicableUS flag
BotoxPowder, for solution100 unit / vialIntramuscularAllergan1992-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
BOTOX CosmeticInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2008-05-20Not applicableUS flag
BOTOX CosmeticInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2008-07-15Not applicableUS flag
BOTOX CosmeticPowder, for solution100 unit / vialIntramuscularAllergan2001-05-07Not applicableCanada flag
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution300 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-05-252015-03-31US flag
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution300 U/1IntramuscularIpsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-11-02Not applicableUS flag
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500 U/1IntramuscularIpsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-11-02Not applicableUS flag
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution300 U/1IntramuscularGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2009-11-02Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
M03AX01 — Botulinum toxin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
E211KPY694
CAS number
93384-43-1

References

Synthesis Reference

Alexander Zabudkin, Jun Krasnopolsky, Aleksandr Itkin, Dmitry Itkin.(2003). Pharmaceutical preparation of botulinum neurotoxin, methods of synthesis and methods of clinical use (US). Patent number WO2003101483A1.

General References
  1. Montecucco C, Molgo J: Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an old killer. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;5(3):274-9. [Article]
  2. Brin MF, Lew MF, Adler CH, Comella CL, Factor SA, Jankovic J, O'Brien C, Murray JJ, Wallace JD, Willmer-Hulme A, Koller M: Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1431-8. [Article]
  3. Shukla HD, Sharma SK: Clostridium botulinum: a bug with beauty and weapon. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2005;31(1):11-8. [Article]
  4. Eisenach JH, Atkinson JL, Fealey RD: Hyperhidrosis: evolving therapies for a well-established phenomenon. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 May;80(5):657-66. [Article]
  5. Schurch B, Corcos J: Botulinum toxin injections for paediatric incontinence. Curr Opin Urol. 2005 Jul;15(4):264-7. [Article]
  6. Nigam PK, Nigam A: Botulinum toxin. Indian J Dermatol. 2010;55(1):8-14. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.60343. [Article]
  7. Naumann M, Jankovic J: Safety of botulinum toxin type A: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Jul;20(7):981-90. doi: 10.1185/030079904125003962. [Article]
  8. Lorenc ZP, Kenkel JM, Fagien S, Hirmand H, Nestor MS, Sclafani AP, Sykes JM, Waldorf HA: A review of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox). Aesthet Surg J. 2013 Mar;33(1 Suppl):9S-12S. doi: 10.1177/1090820X12474629. [Article]
  9. Satriyasa BK: Botulinum toxin (Botox) A for reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles: a literature review of clinical use and pharmacological aspect. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019 Apr 10;12:223-228. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S202919. eCollection 2019. [Article]
  10. Lu B: The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion. PeerJ. 2015 Jun 30;3:e1065. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1065. eCollection 2015. [Article]
  11. Ravichandran E, Gong Y, Al Saleem FH, Ancharski DM, Joshi SG, Simpson LL: An initial assessment of the systemic pharmacokinetics of botulinum toxin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1343-51. doi: 10.1124/jpet.106.104661. Epub 2006 Jun 16. [Article]
  12. Mor N, Tang C, Blitzer A: Temporomandibular Myofacial Pain Treated with Botulinum Toxin Injection. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jul 24;7(8):2791-800. doi: 10.3390/toxins7082791. [Article]
  13. Padda IS, Tadi P: Botulinum Toxin . [Article]
  14. Omprakash Hm, Rajendran Sc: Botulinum Toxin Deaths: What is the Fact? J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2008 Jul;1(2):95-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.44169. [Article]
  15. FDA Approved Products: Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection [Link]
  16. World Health Organization: Botulism [Link]
  17. Allergan MSDS: Botox [Link]
  18. DermNet NZ: Botulinum toxin [Link]
  19. Product monograph: Botox Cosmetic (botulinum toxin A) for injection [Link]
  20. Product Monograph: Botox (Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin complex ) powder for injectable solution [Link]
  21. FDA Approved Drug Products: XEOMIN (incobotulinumtoxinA) for injection [Link]
  22. Allergan MSDS: OnabotulinumtoxinA [Link]
UniProt
P10845
Genbank
X52066
KEGG Drug
D00783
KEGG Compound
C07946
PubChem Substance
46505347
RxNav
1000104
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001298
PharmGKB
PA164754825
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Botulinum_toxin
FDA label
Download (115 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlabellar Frown Lines (GL)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOveractive Bladder Syndrome (OABS) / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSynkinesis1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Subjects (HS)1
4CompletedOtherForehead Rhytides / Forehead Wrinkles1
4CompletedOtherGlabellar Frown Lines (GL)1
4CompletedOtherSkin Wrinklings1
4CompletedPreventionAutonomic Dysreflexia1
4CompletedPreventionMigraine2
4CompletedPreventionOveractive Bladder Syndrome (OABS) / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS) / Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / Urinary Urge Incontinence1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Tercica Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral100 U
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral200 U
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntradermal; Intramuscular100 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntradermal; Intramuscular200 [USP'U]/1
PowderIntramuscular100 unit/1vial
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular100 unit / vial
InjectionIntramuscular
Injection, powder, for solutionIntradermal; Intramuscular200 U
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular500 unit/1vial
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous300 U
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous500 UI
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular300 U/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular300 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular500 U/1
Injection, powder, for solution300 unit/1vial
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous300 U
Injection, solutionIntramuscular
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular300 unit / vial
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular500 unit / vial
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous500 U
PowderIntramuscular200 unit/1vial
PowderIntramuscular50 unit/1vial
PowderIntramuscular100 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, for solution
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous100 IU
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular200 IU
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular100 U
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular50 U
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous50 U
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral50 U
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular100 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular200 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular50 [USP'U]/1
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular50 unit / vial
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular100 U
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular50 U
Injection, powder, for solution100 unit/1vial
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 unit/1vial
Injection, powder, for solution50 unit/1vial
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Botox 200 unit vial1260.0USD vial
Dysport 500 unit vial852.0USD vial
Botox 100 unit655.2USD vial
Botox 100 unit vial630.0USD vial
Botox cosmetic 100 unit vial630.0USD vial
Botox cosmetic 50 unit vial346.8USD vial
Botox (100 - 200 unit/Vial)3.74USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2280565No2005-11-152019-08-20Canada flag
CA2310845No2001-05-152014-06-07Canada flag

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)85.5-86.5https://www.guidechem.com/dictionary_keys_Botox-p1.html
water solubility>10 mg/mlhttp://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D3127
isoelectric point5.6https://mmbr.asm.org/content/mmbr/56/1/80.full.pdf

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Syntaxin-1 binding
Specific Function
t-SNARE involved in the molecular regulation of neurotransmitter release. May play an important role in the synaptic function of specific neuronal systems. Associates with proteins involved in vesi...
Gene Name
SNAP25
Uniprot ID
P60880
Uniprot Name
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25
Molecular Weight
23314.905 Da
References
  1. Zhou JY, Wang ZF, Ren XM, Tang MZ, Shi YL: Antagonism of botulinum toxin type A-induced cleavage of SNAP-25 in rat cerebral synaptosome by toosendanin. FEBS Lett. 2003 Dec 4;555(2):375-9. [Article]
  2. Flynn TC: Myobloc. Dermatol Clin. 2004 Apr;22(2):207-11, vii. [Article]
  3. Straughan D: Progress in applying the Three Rs to the potency testing of Botulinum toxin type A. Altern Lab Anim. 2006 Jun;34(3):305-13. [Article]
  4. Vaidyanathan VV, Yoshino K, Jahnz M, Dorries C, Bade S, Nauenburg S, Niemann H, Binz T: Proteolysis of SNAP-25 isoforms by botulinum neurotoxin types A, C, and E: domains and amino acid residues controlling the formation of enzyme-substrate complexes and cleavage. J Neurochem. 1999 Jan;72(1):327-37. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0720327.x. [Article]
  5. FDA Approved Products: Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Gtpase activity
Specific Function
Mediates apoptosis in neoplastically transformed cells after DNA damage. Not essential for development but affects cell adhesion and growth factor signaling in transformed cells. Plays a negative r...
Gene Name
RHOB
Uniprot ID
P62745
Uniprot Name
Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoB
Molecular Weight
22123.185 Da
References
  1. Ishida H, Zhang X, Erickson K, Ray P: Botulinum toxin type A targets RhoB to inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated actin reorganization and acetylcholine release in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):881-9. Epub 2004 May 12. [Article]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Ravichandran E, Gong Y, Al Saleem FH, Ancharski DM, Joshi SG, Simpson LL: An initial assessment of the systemic pharmacokinetics of botulinum toxin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1343-51. doi: 10.1124/jpet.106.104661. Epub 2006 Jun 16. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on September 16, 2021 13:04