Identification

Name
Moxifloxacin
Accession Number
DB00218
Description

Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. Bayer AG developed the drug (initially called BAY 12-8039) and it is marketed worldwide (as the hydrochloride) under the brand name Avelox (in some countries also Avalox) for oral treatment.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 401.4314
Monoisotopic: 401.175084476
Chemical Formula
C21H24FN3O4
Synonyms
  • 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-7-((4as,7as)-octahydro-6H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyridin-6-yl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Moxifloxacino
External IDs
  • BAY 12-8039

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of sinus and lung infections such as sinusitis, pneumonia, and secondary infections in chronic bronchitis. Also for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye).

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Moxifloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Moxifloxacin can be used to treat infections caused by the following bacteria: Aerobic Gram-positive microorganisms: Corynebacterium species, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus warneri, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus viridans group. Aerobic Gram-negative microorganisms: Acinetobacter lwoffii, Haemophilus influenzae, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Other microorganisms: Chlamydia trachomatis.
Moxifloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian. Moxifloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of moxifloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme that is involved in the replication, transcription and repair of bacterial DNA. Topoisomerase IV is an enzyme known to play a key role in the partitioning of the chromosomal DNA during bacterial cell division.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
ADNA gyrase subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
UDNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Absolute oral bioavailability is approximately 90%. Food has little effect on absorption.

Volume of distribution
  • 1.7 to 2.7 L/kg
Protein binding

50% bound to serum proteins, independent of drug concentration.

Metabolism

Approximately 52% or oral or intravenous dose is metabolized via glucuronide and sulphate conjugation. The cytochrome P450 system is not involved in metabolism. The sulphate conjugate accounts for 38% of the dose, and the glucuronide conjugate accounts for 14% of the dose.

Route of elimination

Approximately 45% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is excreted as unchanged drug (~20% in urine and ~25% in feces).

Half-life

11.5-15.6 hours (single dose, oral)

Clearance
  • 12 +/- 2 L/hr
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include CNS and gastrointestinal effects such as decreased activity, somnolence, tremor, convulsions, vomiting, and diarrhea. The minimal lethal intravenous dose in mice and rats is 100 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Moxifloxacin.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Moxifloxacin is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be increased when used in combination with Moxifloxacin.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Moxifloxacin.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be increased when used in combination with Moxifloxacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.
AcrivastineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Acrivastine is combined with Moxifloxacin.
AcyclovirThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Moxifloxacin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Take with or without food.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Moxifloxacin hydrochlorideC53598599T186826-86-8IDIIJJHBXUESQI-DFIJPDEKSA-N
Moxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrateB8956S8609192927-63-2SKZIMSDWAIZNDD-WJMOHVQJSA-N
Product Images
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Act MoxifloxacinSolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2015-11-04Not applicableCanada flag
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2011-02-25Not applicableUS flag67296 015420180907 15195 6lgyze
AveloxTablet400 mgOralBayer2000-10-202019-07-04Canada flag
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralBayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.1999-12-102019-06-30US flag
AveloxInjection, solution400 mg/250mLIntravenousSchering Plough Corporation2001-11-302016-07-29US flag
AveloxInjection, solution400 mg/250mLIntravenousBayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-11-302020-06-01US flag
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-072017-12-31US flag
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralPD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1999-12-102018-08-01US flag
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-05-242017-03-01US flag00085 1733 03 nlmimage10 2619935c
AveloxTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-07-16Not applicableUS flag54868 436720180907 15195 2ys30l
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ag-moxifloxacinSolutionOphthalmicAngita Pharma Inc.2020-07-09Not applicableCanada flag
Ag-moxifloxacinTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-07-23Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-moxifloxacinTabletOralApotex Corporation2016-01-11Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-moxifloxacinSolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2015-11-19Not applicableCanada flag
Auro-moxifloxacinTabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-11-04Not applicableCanada flag
Bio-moxifloxacinTabletOralBiomed Pharma2016-01-15Not applicableCanada flag
Dom-moxifloxacinTabletOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Ipg-moxifloxacinTabletOralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Jamp-moxifloxacinTabletOralJamp Pharma Corporation2015-11-04Not applicableCanada flag
Jamp-moxifloxacinSolutionOphthalmicJamp Pharma Corporation2019-02-28Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dex-MoxiMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUS flag
Dex-Moxi PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntraocularImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Dex-Moxi-KetorMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (0.5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/1mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.4 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUS flag
DexMoxiKetor PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (0.5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/1mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.4 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntraocularImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Moxifloxacin PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUS flag
Moxifloxacin PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntraocularImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Moxifloxacin PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2020-02-10Not applicableUS flag
Triamcinolone-Moxifloxacin PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (1 mg/1mL) + Triamcinolone acetonide (15 mg/1mL)Injection, suspensionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUS flag
Triamcinolone-Moxifloxacin PFMoxifloxacin hydrochloride (1 mg/1mL) + Triamcinolone acetonide (15 mg/1mL)SuspensionOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01AE07 — MoxifloxacinJ01MA14 — Moxifloxacin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Quinolines and derivatives
Sub Class
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Direct Parent
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Fluoroquinolones / Haloquinolines / Hydroquinolones / Aminoquinolines and derivatives / Hydroquinolines / Pyrrolopyridines / Pyridinecarboxylic acids / Methoxyanilines / Dialkylarylamines / Anisoles
show 15 more
Substituents
Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Amino acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Aminoquinoline / Anisole / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Azacycle
show 33 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aromatic ether, cyclopropanes, quinolone antibiotic, fluoroquinolone antibiotic, quinolone, quinolinemonocarboxylic acid, pyrrolidinopiperidine (CHEBI:63611)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
U188XYD42P
CAS number
151096-09-2
InChI Key
FABPRXSRWADJSP-MEDUHNTESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H24FN3O4/c1-29-20-17-13(19(26)14(21(27)28)9-25(17)12-4-5-12)7-15(22)18(20)24-8-11-3-2-6-23-16(11)10-24/h7,9,11-12,16,23H,2-6,8,10H2,1H3,(H,27,28)/t11-,16+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
7-[(4aS,7aS)-octahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][[email protected]]12CN(C[[email protected]@]1([H])NCCC2)C1=C(F)C=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1OC)C(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Manne Reddy, Sajja Eswaraiah, Vetukuri Venkata Naga Raju, Rapolu Kumar, Ningam Srinivasreddy, Vedantham Ravindra, "Crystalline form III of anhydrous moxifloxacin hydrochloride and a process for preparation thereof." U.S. Patent US20050137227, issued June 23, 2005.

US20050137227
General References
  1. Ginsburg AS, Hooper N, Parrish N, Dooley KE, Dorman SE, Booth J, Diener-West M, Merz WG, Bishai WR, Sterling TR: Fluoroquinolone resistance in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):1448-52. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14614666]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014363
KEGG Drug
D08237
KEGG Compound
C07663
PubChem Compound
152946
PubChem Substance
46508509
ChemSpider
134802
BindingDB
50366824
RxNav
139462
ChEBI
63611
ChEMBL
CHEMBL32
ZINC
ZINC000003826253
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000158
PharmGKB
PA450555
PDBe Ligand
MFX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Moxifloxacin
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 08:12.18 — Quinolones
PDB Entries
2xkk / 3fof / 4z2c / 4z3o / 5bs8 / 5bta / 5cdq
FDA label
Download (162 KB)
MSDS
Download (193 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis, Aggressive1
4CompletedNot AvailableAbscesses / Cysts1
4CompletedNot AvailableBacterial Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataract Surgery1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataract Surgery / Corneal Health1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnti-Biotic Resistance1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCataracts2
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSide-effect of Antibiotic1
4CompletedOtherAntibiotic Side Effect / Cataract Senile / Endophthalmitis / Safety Issues1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • Alcon inc
  • Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Fresenius Kabi AB
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Schering Corp.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic
TabletOral
Injection, solution400 MG/250ML
Tablet, film coatedOral400 MG
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous400 mg
SolutionParenteral400 mg/250ml
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/1
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous160 mg
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 %
Injection, solutionOphthalmic
Injection, solutionIntraocular
InjectionIntravenous400 mg/250ml
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic1 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg
TabletOral400 MG
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/250mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
SolutionParenteral400 mg
TabletOral400 mg/1
Solution
Injection, solutionIntraocular5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Tablet, coatedOral400 mg
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg
SolutionOphthalmic1 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic5 mg
SolutionIntravenous1.6 mg
Injection, suspensionOphthalmic
SuspensionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic100 mg/100mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic500 mg/100mL
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.6 g/100mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Tablet, film coatedOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vigamox 0.5% Solution 3ml Bottle90.72USD bottle
Vigamox 0.5% eye drops27.22USD ml
Avelox 400 mg tablet16.68USD tablet
Avelox abc pack 400 mg tablet16.35USD tablet
Avelox iv 400 mg/250 ml0.17USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US4990517No1991-02-052011-12-08US flag
CA2342211No2009-05-262019-09-29Canada flag
CA1340114No1998-11-032015-11-03Canada flag
US5849752No1998-12-152016-12-05US flag
US6610327No2003-08-262019-10-29US flag
US6548079No2003-04-152020-07-25US flag
US7671070Yes2010-03-022020-03-29US flag
US6716830Yes2004-04-062020-03-29US flag
US8450311No2013-05-282029-05-29US flag
US9114168No2015-08-252029-05-29US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)238-242 °CNot Available
logP2.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.168 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.01ALOGPS
logP-0.5ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.42ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area82.11 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity106.22 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.24 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9794
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9597
Caco-2 permeable-0.6093
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8607
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7181
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7318
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8018
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8247
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5756
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7417
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7735
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8359
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7401
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8811
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5536
Ames testAMES toxic0.6227
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9038
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.3267 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8092
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6461
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0176900000-5ca9cd234a2a93f05658
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0391000000-7a74ddcc516a82243c1a

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name
parC
Uniprot ID
P43702
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
Molecular Weight
83366.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schafer J, Hovde LB, Simonson D, Rotschafer JC: In vitro pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin versus levofloxacin against 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: 1 wild type, 2 first-step parC mutants, and 1 pump mutant. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Feb;60(2):155-61. Epub 2007 Oct 29. [PubMed:17910998]
  4. Deryke CA, Du X, Nicolau DP: Evaluation of bacterial kill when modelling the bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetic profile of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against parC-containing isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Sep;58(3):601-9. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [PubMed:16857688]
  5. Perez-Vazquez M, Roman F, Aracil B, Canton R, Campos J: Laboratory detection of Haemophilus influenzae with decreased susceptibility to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin due to GyrA and ParC mutations. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):1185-91. [PubMed:15004073]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, inc...
Gene Name
gyrA
Uniprot ID
P43700
Uniprot Name
DNA gyrase subunit A
Molecular Weight
97817.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schmitz FJ, Hofmann B, Hansen B, Scheuring S, Luckefahr M, Klootwijk M, Verhoef J, Fluit A, Heinz HP, Kohrer K, Jones ME: Relationship between ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) MICs and mutations in grlA, grlB, gyrA and gyrB in 116 unrelated clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Apr;41(4):481-4. [PubMed:9598779]
  4. Brisse S, Milatovic D, Fluit AC, Verhoef J, Martin N, Scheuring S, Kohrer K, Schmitz FJ: Comparative in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes clinical isolates with alterations in GyrA and ParC proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Aug;43(8):2051-5. [PubMed:10428935]
  5. Dridi L, Tankovic J, Burghoffer B, Barbut F, Petit JC: gyrA and gyrB mutations are implicated in cross-resistance to Ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3418-21. [PubMed:12384345]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segr...
Gene Name
TOP2A
Uniprot ID
P11388
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Molecular Weight
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Reuveni D, Halperin D, Shalit I, Priel E, Fabian I: Moxifloxacin enhances etoposide-induced cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-topoisomerase II effects in a human colon carcinoma cell line. Int J Oncol. 2010 Aug;37(2):463-71. [PubMed:20596674]
  3. Wohlkonig A, Chan PF, Fosberry AP, Homes P, Huang J, Kranz M, Leydon VR, Miles TJ, Pearson ND, Perera RL, Shillings AJ, Gwynn MN, Bax BD: Structural basis of quinolone inhibition of type IIA topoisomerases and target-mediated resistance. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010 Sep;17(9):1152-3. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.1892. Epub 2010 Aug 29. [PubMed:20802486]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Yang LP, Zhou ZW, Liu YH, Chan E: Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2. AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):481-94. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9127-y. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [PubMed:19590965]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 23, 2020 12:18

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