Identification

Name
Timolol
Accession Number
DB00373
Description

Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist given in an eye drop solution to reduce intraocular pressure, or pressure in the eyes.16 It is also used in tablet form as a drug to treat hypertension.17 Timolol was first approved by the FDA in 1978.16 This drug is marketed by several manufacturers 20 and is an effective agent for the management of conditions such as open-angle glaucoma and hypertension.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 316.42
Monoisotopic: 316.156911344
Chemical Formula
C13H24N4O3S
Synonyms
  • (S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-[(4-morpholin-4-yl-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)oxy]propan-2-ol
  • Timolol
  • Timolol anhydrous
  • Timololo
  • Timololum
External IDs
  • MK 950

Pharmacology

Indication

Ophthalmic timolol is indicated for the treatment of increased intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. The oral form of this drug is used to treat high blood pressure.16,17 In certain cases, timolol is used in the prevention of migraine headaches.9,21

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Timolol, when administered by the ophthalmic route, rapidly reduces intraocular pressure. When administered in the tablet form, it reduces blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and decreases sympathetic activity.1,2,3,17. This drug has a fast onset of action, usually occurring within 20 minutes of the administration of an ophthalmic dose. Timolol maleate can exert pharmacological actions for as long as 24 hours if given in the 0.5% or 0.25% doses.23

Mechanism of action

Timolol competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters for binding to beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and the beta(2)-receptors in the vascular and bronchial smooth muscle. This leads to diminished actions of catecholamines, which normally bind to adrenergic receptors and exert sympathetic effects leading to an increase in blood pressure and heart rate.6 Beta(1)-receptor blockade by timolol leads to a decrease in both heart rate and cardiac output during rest and exercise, and a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.7,8 In addition to this, a reduction in reflex orthostatic hypotension may also occur. The blockade of beta(2) receptors by timolol in the blood vessels leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, reducing blood pressure.16,17,19

The exact mechanism by which timolol reduces ocular pressure is unknown at this time, however, it likely decreases the secretion of aqueous humor in the eye.18 According to one study, the reduction of aqueous humor secretion may occur through the decreased blood supply to the ciliary body resulting from interference with the active transport system or interference with prostaglandin biosynthesis.4

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
ULysozymeNot AvailableEnterobacteria phage T4
Absorption

The systemic bioavailability of the ophthalmic eyedrop in one study of healthy volunteers was 78.0 ± 24.5% 10, indicating that caution must be observed when this drug is administered, as it may be significantly absorbed and have various systemic effects. Another study measured the bioavailability of timolol eyedrops to be 60% in healthy volunteers.11

The peak concentration of ophthalmic timolol in plasma, Cmax was about 1.14 ng/ml in most subjects within 15 minutes following the administration of timolol by the ophthalmic route. The mean area under the curve (AUC) was about 6.46 ng/ml per hour after intravenous injection and about 4.78 ng/ml per hour following eyedrop administration.10

Volume of distribution

1.3 - 1.7 L/kg 22

Timolol is distributed to the following tissues: the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, sclera, aqueous humor, kidney, liver, and lung.22

Protein binding

The plasma protein binding of timolol is not extensive and is estimated to be about 10%.17,22

Metabolism

Timolol is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme, with minor contributions from CYP2C19.12,16 15-20% of a dose undergoes first-pass metabolism.14 Despite its relatively low first pass metabolism, timolol is 90% metabolized.14 Four metabolites of timolol have been identified, with a hydroxy metabolite being the most predominant.12

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Timolol and its metabolites are mainly found excreted in the urine.14

Half-life

Timolol half-life was measured at 2.9 ± 0.3 h hours in a clinical study of healthy volunteers.14

Clearance

One pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers measured the total plasma clearance of timolol to be 557 ± 61 ml/min.13 Another study determined the total clearance 751.5 ± 90.6 ml/min and renal clearance to be 97.2 ± 10.1 ml/min in healthy volunteers.14

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

The oral LD50 for timolol maleate is 1028 mg/kg in the rat and 1137 mg/kg in the mouse.MSDS

Symptoms of timolol overdose may include dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, bradycardia, in addition to bronchospasm. Sometimes, an overdose may lead to cardiac arrest. An overdose of timolol can be reversed with dialysis, however, patients with renal failure may not respond as well to dialysis treatment.16

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Timolol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirTimolol may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Timolol can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Timolol can be increased when used in combination with Acarbose.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Timolol.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Timolol which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Timolol which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Timolol hemihydrate817W3C617591524-16-2TWBNMYSKRDRHAT-RCWTXCDDSA-N
Timolol maleateP8Y54F701R26921-17-5WLRMANUAADYWEA-NWASOUNVSA-N
International/Other Brands
Proflax (Sidus) / Tenopt (Sigma) / Timacar Depot (MSD) / Timacor (Gerda) / Timoptol (Merck)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AzargaSuspension / dropsOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2008-11-25Not applicableEU flag
AzargaSuspension / dropsOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2008-11-25Not applicableEU flag
Beta-tim - 0.25% LiqLiquidOphthalmicCiba Vision1994-12-311998-07-16Canada flag
Beta-tim - 0.5% LiqLiquidOphthalmicCiba Vision1994-12-311998-07-16Canada flag
BetimolSolution5 mg/1mLOphthalmicVistakon Pharmaceuticals2000-10-01Not applicableUS flag
BetimolSolution / drops5.12 mg/1mLOphthalmicOak Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.) (968937719)2014-01-02Not applicableUS flag
BetimolSolution2.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicVistakon Pharmaceuticals2000-10-01Not applicableUS flag
BetimolSolution / drops2.56 mg/1mLOphthalmicOak Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.) (968937719)2014-01-02Not applicableUS flag
BlocadrenTablet5 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1981-11-252004-08-31US flag
BlocadrenTablet20 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1981-11-252004-08-31US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-timopSolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation1988-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-timopSolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation1988-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-timop GelSolution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmicApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Apo-timop GelSolution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmicApotex Corporation2008-02-20Not applicableCanada flag
Dom-timololSolutionOphthalmicDominion Pharmacal1999-03-08Not applicableCanada flag
Dom-timololSolutionOphthalmicDominion Pharmacal1999-03-08Not applicableCanada flag
Jamp-timololSolutionOphthalmicJamp Pharma Corporation2015-11-20Not applicableCanada flag
Med Timolol Liq Oph 0.25%LiquidOphthalmicMedican Pharma Incorporated1995-12-312011-03-29Canada flag
Med Timolol Liq Oph 0.5%LiquidOphthalmicMedican Pharma Incorporated1995-12-312011-03-29Canada flag
Mylan-timololSolutionOphthalmicMylan Pharmaceuticals1992-12-312012-10-19Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Act DorzotimololTimolol (5 mg) + Dorzolamide (20 mg)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2013-05-01Not applicableCanada flag
Act Latanoprost/timololTimolol (5 mg) + Latanoprost (50 mcg)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2015-09-29Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-dorzo-timopTimolol (5 mg) + Dorzolamide (20 mg)SolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2010-12-15Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-latanoprost-timopTimolol (5 mg) + Latanoprost (50 mcg)SolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2014-07-02Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-travoprost-timolol PqTimolol (0.5 %) + Travoprost (0.004 %)SolutionOphthalmicApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Apo-travoprost-timop PqTimolol (0.5 %) + Travoprost (0.004 %)SolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2018-12-06Not applicableCanada flag
AzargaTimolol (0.5 %) + Brinzolamide (1 %)SuspensionOphthalmicNovartis2009-08-25Not applicableCanada flag
CombiganTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (2 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-08-29Not applicableUS flag
CombiganTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (2 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.2007-11-14Not applicableUS flag
CombiganTimolol (0.5 %) + Brimonidine tartrate (0.2 %)SolutionOphthalmicAllergan2003-12-11Not applicableCanada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Tim-Brim-Dor PFTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (1.5 mg/1mL) + Dorzolamide hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Tim-Brim-Dor-LatTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (1.5 mg/1mL) + Dorzolamide hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Latanoprost (0.05 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Tim-Dor PFTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Dorzolamide hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Tim-Dor-LatTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Dorzolamide hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Latanoprost (0.05 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Tim-Lat -PFTimolol maleate (5 mg/1mL) + Latanoprost (0.05 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C07AA06 — TimololS01ED51 — Timolol, combinationsC07BA06 — Timolol and thiazidesC07DA06 — Timolol, thiazides and other diureticsS01ED01 — Timolol
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Dialkylarylamines
Alternative Parents
Alkyl aryl ethers / Morpholines / Imidolactams / Thiadiazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Oxacyclic compounds / Dialkylamines / Dialkyl ethers
show 3 more
Substituents
1,2-aminoalcohol / Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Dialkyl ether / Dialkylarylamine / Ether / Heteroaromatic compound
show 13 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
timolol (CHEBI:9599)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5JKY92S7BR
CAS number
26839-75-8
InChI Key
BLJRIMJGRPQVNF-JTQLQIEISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H24N4O3S/c1-13(2,3)14-8-10(18)9-20-12-11(15-21-16-12)17-4-6-19-7-5-17/h10,14,18H,4-9H2,1-3H3/t10-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-{[4-(morpholin-4-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]oxy}propan-2-ol
SMILES
[H][[email protected]](O)(CNC(C)(C)C)COC1=NSN=C1N1CCOCC1

References

Synthesis Reference

Markku Per alampi, "S-timolol hemihydrate composition and method of preparation therefor." U.S. Patent US5574035, issued October, 1986.

US5574035
General References
  1. Nieminen T, Lehtimaki T, Maenpaa J, Ropo A, Uusitalo H, Kahonen M: Ophthalmic timolol: plasma concentration and systemic cardiopulmonary effects. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(2):237-45. doi: 10.1080/00365510601034736. [PubMed:17366003]
  2. Dunn FG, Frohlich ED: Pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action, indications, and adverse effects of timolol maleate, a nonselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent. Pharmacotherapy. 1981 Nov-Dec;1(3):188-200. [PubMed:6765488]
  3. Obel AO: A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in Black Africans. Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91. [PubMed:6649055]
  4. Watanabe K, Chiou GC: Action mechanism of timolol to lower the intraocular pressure in rabbits. Ophthalmic Res. 1983;15(3):160-7. doi: 10.1159/000265251. [PubMed:6314218]
  5. Maenpaa J, Pelkonen O: Cardiac safety of ophthalmic timolol. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016 Nov;15(11):1549-1561. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2016.1225718. Epub 2016 Aug 31. [PubMed:27534869]
  6. Laverty R: Catecholamines: role in health and disease. Drugs. 1978 Nov;16(5):418-40. doi: 10.2165/00003495-197816050-00003. [PubMed:363400]
  7. Leier CV, Baker ND, Weber PA: Cardiovascular effects of ophthalmic timolol. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Feb;104(2):197-9. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-104-2-197. [PubMed:3946944]
  8. Valvo E, Gammaro L, Tessitore N, Fabris A, Ortalda V, Bedogna V, Maschio G: Effects of timolol on blood pressure, systemic hemodynamics, plasma renin activity, and glomerular filtration rate in patients with essential hypertension. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1984 Mar;22(3):156-61. [PubMed:6370874]
  9. Migliazzo CV, Hagan JC 3rd: Beta blocker eye drops for treatment of acute migraine. Mo Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;111(4):283-8. [PubMed:25211851]
  10. Korte JM, Kaila T, Saari KM: Systemic bioavailability and cardiopulmonary effects of 0.5% timolol eyedrops. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002 Jun;240(6):430-5. doi: 10.1007/s00417-002-0462-2. Epub 2002 Apr 26. [PubMed:12107508]
  11. El-Rashidy R: Estimation of the systemic bioavailability of timolol in man. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1981 Apr-Jun;2(2):197-202. [PubMed:7248483]
  12. Volotinen M, Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Uusitalo J, Maenpaa J, Pelkonen O: Timolol metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated principally by CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1135-41. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.012906. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17431033]
  13. Ishizaki T, Tawara K, Oyama Y, Nakaya H: Clinical pharmacologic observations on timolol. I. Disposition and effect in relation to plasma level in normal individuals. J Clin Pharmacol. 1978 Nov-Dec;18(11-12):511-8. [PubMed:721948]
  14. Mantyla R, Mannisto P, Nykanen S, Koponen A, Lamminsivu U: Pharmacokinetic interactions of timolol with vasodilating drugs, food and phenobarbitone in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;24(2):227-30. [PubMed:6840172]
  15. Volotinen M, Hakkola J, Pelkonen O, Vapaatalo H, Maenpaa J: Metabolism of ophthalmic timolol: new aspects of an old drug. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011 May;108(5):297-303. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00694.x. [PubMed:21385322]
  16. Timolol FDA Label (Ophthalmic) [Link]
  17. Timolol maleate tablet [Link]
  18. Monograph, GD-LATANOPROST/TIMOLOL [Link]
  19. CV Pharmacology [Link]
  20. Approval information, FDA [Link]
  21. FDA summary review [Link]
  22. Link [Link]
  23. MedSafe NZ, Timolol [Link]
KEGG Compound
C07141
PubChem Compound
33624
PubChem Substance
46507733
ChemSpider
31013
BindingDB
50292219
RxNav
10600
ChEBI
9599
ChEMBL
CHEMBL499
ZINC
ZINC000000002176
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000088
PharmGKB
PA451690
PDBe Ligand
TIM
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Timolol
AHFS Codes
  • 52:40.08 — Beta-adrenergic Agents
  • 24:24.00 — Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
PDB Entries
3d4s / 6ps1 / 6ps6
FDA label
Download (471 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Glaucoma; Drugs / Normal Tension Glaucoma1
4CompletedNot AvailableGlaucoma1
4CompletedNot AvailableGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension2
4CompletedNot AvailableOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4CompletedNot AvailableOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceGlaucoma1
4CompletedOtherEye Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentExfoliation Syndrome / Ocular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG) / Pigmentary Glaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentEye Diseases / Glaucoma / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Santen oy
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Aton pharma inc
  • Ista pharmaceuticals
  • Akorn inc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Bausch and lomb inc
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals inc
  • Fdc ltd
  • E fougera div altana inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Pacific pharma inc
  • Pacific pharma
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aton Pharma Inc.
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • ISTA Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Novex Pharma
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Pacific Pharma Lp
  • Pack Pharmaceuticals
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCAS Finland Oy
  • Person & Covey
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Qualitest
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Santen Inc.
  • Vistakon Pharmaceuticals LLC
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.05 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic50 mcg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/mL
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/mL
SuspensionOphthalmic
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic
SuspensionOphthalmic5 mg/ml
LiquidOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.56 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5.12 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.3 mg/mL
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic0.3 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.03 %
TabletOral10 MG
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletOral5 MG
SolutionOphthalmic2 mg
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic1 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.2 %
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic20 mg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic4 mg/0.2mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 mg/0.4mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2 mg/0.4mL
SolutionOphthalmic20 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic22.25 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.004 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic50 μg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.04 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic40 μg/ml
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic6 mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.01 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic6.8 mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.12 mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.3 mg
SolutionOphthalmic0.12 mg
RinseOral0.08 g
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic20 mg
OintmentTopical0.0275 g/g
SolutionOphthalmic; Topical2 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.005 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.05 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic50 cg
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic5 mg
Tablet10 mg
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic0.05 mg
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2 mg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic15 μg/ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic50 mcg
TabletOral
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.1 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.25 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.25 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.5 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 %
GelOphthalmic1 MG/G
TabletOral
TabletOral20 mg
SolutionOphthalmic6.8 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.1 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5.0 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic6.8 mg/1mL
Solution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmic
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic5 MG/ML
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic2.5 MG/ML
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.25 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic5.0 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic3.4 mg/1mL
Solution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmic0.25 %
Solution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmic0.5 %
Solution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
Solution, gel forming, extended releaseOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.50 %
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic5 mg
SolutionOphthalmic2 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic40 mcg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic40 mcg/mL
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic2 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic0.1 mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic50 mcg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic50 cg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Betimol 0.5% Solution 15ml Bottle152.24USD bottle
Timolol maleate powder107.1USD g
Betimol 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle106.88USD bottle
Betimol 0.25% Solution 15ml Bottle93.56USD bottle
Timoptic-XE 0.5% Gel Forming Solution 5ml Bottle85.09USD bottle
Timoptic 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle83.2USD bottle
Timoptic-XE 0.25% Gel Forming Solution 5ml Bottle65.37USD bottle
Betimol 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle63.43USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.5% Gel Forming Solution 5ml Bottle60.84USD bottle
Timoptic 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle59.8USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.25% Gel Forming Solution 5ml Bottle59.71USD bottle
Betimol 0.25% Solution 5ml Bottle55.56USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.5% Solution 15ml Bottle50.7USD bottle
Betimol 0.25% Solution 10ml Bottle49.99USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.5% Gel Forming Solution 2.5ml Bottle46.74USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.25% Solution 15ml Bottle43.68USD bottle
Timoptic 0.25% Solution 5ml Bottle43.06USD bottle
Istalol 0.5% eye drops36.43USD ml
Timolol Maleate 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle33.58USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.25% Solution 10ml Bottle28.87USD bottle
Timoptic-XE 0.25% Gel Forming Solution 2.5ml Bottle23.99USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle17.68USD bottle
Timolol Maleate 0.25% Solution 5ml Bottle15.6USD bottle
Timoptic-xe 0.5% eye solution13.6USD ml
Timoptic-xe 0.25% eye solution11.51USD ml
Betimol 0.5% eye drops10.15USD ml
Betimol 0.25% eye drops9.19USD ml
Timoptic 0.5% eye drops8.63USD ml
Timoptic 0.25% eye drops7.32USD ml
Timoptic-Xe 0.5 % Long Acting Gellan Solution4.64USD ml
Timoptic 0.5% ocudose drops4.57USD each
Timoptic-Xe 0.25 % Long Acting Gellan Solution3.88USD ml
Timoptic 0.25% ocudose drops3.8USD each
Timoptic 0.5 % Solution3.63USD ml
Timolol 0.5% eye drops3.24USD ml
Timolol 0.25% eye drops2.78USD ml
Apo-Timop 0.5 % Solution1.95USD ml
Mylan-Timolol 0.5 % Solution1.95USD ml
Pms-Timolol 0.5 % Solution1.95USD ml
Sandoz Timolol Maleate 0.5 % Solution1.95USD ml
Apo-Timop 0.25 % Solution1.62USD ml
Mylan-Timolol 0.25 % Solution1.62USD ml
Pms-Timolol 0.25 % Solution1.62USD ml
Sandoz Timolol Maleate 0.25 % Solution1.62USD ml
Timolol maleate 20 mg tablet0.94USD tablet
Hydrocortisone 2.5% lotion0.6USD ml
Apo-Timol 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Novo-Timol 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Timolol maleate 10 mg tablet0.51USD tablet
Timolol maleate 5 mg tablet0.41USD tablet
Apo-Timol 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Novo-Timol 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Nu-Timolol 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Apo-Timol 5 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Novo-Timol 5 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Nu-Timolol 5 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Aquanil hc 1% lotion0.12USD ml
Aquanil cleanser0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5231095No1993-07-272010-07-27US flag
US6174524Yes2001-01-162019-09-26US flag
US7030149No2006-04-182022-04-19US flag
US7320976No2008-01-222022-04-19US flag
US7642258No2010-01-052022-04-19US flag
US8133890No2012-03-132022-04-19US flag
US8354409No2013-01-152022-04-19US flag
US8748425No2014-06-102022-04-19US flag
US7323463No2008-01-292023-01-19US flag
US6335335No2002-01-012018-11-02US flag
US6645963No2003-11-112018-11-16US flag
US9474751No2016-10-252022-04-19US flag
US9770453No2017-09-262022-04-19US flag
US9907801No2018-03-062022-04-19US flag
US9907802No2018-03-062022-04-19US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)202-203https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_US_CB3711352.aspx
boiling point (°C)>100https://imgcdn.mckesson.com/CumulusWeb/Click_and_learn/SDS_9AKORN_TIMOLOL_MALEATE_DRP_OPHTH_5ML.pdf
water solubilitysoluble in waterhttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/019463s028lbl.pdf
logP1.8http://secure.healthlinks.net.au/content/apo/index_pi_apo.cfm?product=txpdorti
Caco2 permeability159https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1087057107308892
pKa9.2http://secure.healthlinks.net.au/content/apo/index_pi_apo.cfm?product=txpdorti
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.269 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.44ALOGPS
logP1.34ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area79.74 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity83.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9958
Blood Brain Barrier-0.6467
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8522
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6567
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9552
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9105
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5389
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8678
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7338
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6096 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9214
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7334
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-d71d621ed511e13fd0fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02t9-0069000000-b1978af1db9940bfb5e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01vx-4390000000-df83be04a7e7c18de424
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9410000000-c9b47edd2cfab49a0aef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-617e94c43fe73fa575e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-da0c1e25ae5110879b00
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02t9-0379000000-8b822b96645d698d2c82

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Nieminen T, Uusitalo H, Maenpaa J, Turjanmaa V, Rane A, Lundgren S, Ropo A, Rontu R, Lehtimaki T, Kahonen M: Polymorphisms of genes CYP2D6, ADRB1 and GNAS1 in pharmacokinetics and systemic effects of ophthalmic timolol. A pilot study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;61(11):811-9. Epub 2005 Nov 17. [PubMed:16315032]
  2. Varma DR, Shen H, Deng XF, Peri KG, Chemtob S, Mulay S: Inverse agonist activities of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in rat myocardium. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun;127(4):895-902. [PubMed:10433496]
  3. Hirooka K, Kelly ME, Baldridge WH, Barnes S: Suppressive actions of betaxolol on ionic currents in retinal ganglion cells may explain its neuroprotective effects. Exp Eye Res. 2000 May;70(5):611-21. [PubMed:10870519]
  4. Bhattacharyya BJ, Lee E, Krupin D, Hockberger P, Krupin T: (-)-Isoproterenol modulation of maxi-K(+) channel in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells through a G-protein gated pathway. Curr Eye Res. 2002 Mar;24(3):173-81. [PubMed:12221524]
  5. Wang T, Kaumann AJ, Brown MJ: (--)-Timolol is a more potent antagonist of the positive inotropic effects of (--)-adrenaline than of those of (--)-noradrenaline in human atrium. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996 Aug;42(2):217-23. [PubMed:8864321]
  6. Timolol FDA Label (Ophthalmic) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Fuchsjager-Mayrl G, Markovic O, Losert D, Lucas T, Wachek V, Muller M, Schmetterer L: Polymorphism of the beta-2 adrenoceptor and IOP lowering potency of topical timolol in healthy subjects. Mol Vis. 2005 Sep 23;11:811-5. [PubMed:16205624]
  2. Rotmensch HH, Vlasses PH, Feinberg JA, Abrams WB, Ferguson RK: Comparisons of beta-adrenergic blocking properties of S- and R-timolol in humans. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;33(6):544-8. [PubMed:8103526]
  3. Borger P, Hoekstra Y, Esselink MT, Postma DS, Zaagsma J, Vellenga E, Kauffman HF: Beta-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of IFN-gamma, IL-3, and GM-CSF mRNA accumulation in activated human T lymphocytes is solely mediated by the beta2-adrenoceptor subtype. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998 Sep;19(3):400-7. [PubMed:9730867]
  4. Van der Graaf PH, Saxena PR, Shankley NP, Black JW: Exposure and characterization of the action of noradrenaline at dopamine receptors mediating endothelium-independent relaxation of rat isolated small mesenteric arteries. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Dec;116(8):3237-42. [PubMed:8719802]
  5. Ferro A, Hall JA, Dickerson JE, Brown MJ: A prospective study of the effects of prolonged timolol therapy on alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor and angiotensin II receptor mediated responses in normal subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Mar;43(3):301-8. [PubMed:9088585]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  7. Timolol FDA Label (Ophthalmic) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Enterobacteria phage T4
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lysozyme activity
Specific Function
Endolysin with lysozyme activity that degrades host peptidoglycans and participates with the holin and spanin proteins in the sequential events which lead to the programmed host cell lysis releasin...
Gene Name
E
Uniprot ID
P00720
Uniprot Name
Endolysin
Molecular Weight
18691.385 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 2D6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Maenpaa J, Pelkonen O: Cardiac safety of ophthalmic timolol. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016 Nov;15(11):1549-1561. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2016.1225718. Epub 2016 Aug 31. [PubMed:27534869]
  2. Volotinen M, Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Uusitalo J, Maenpaa J, Pelkonen O: Timolol metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated principally by CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1135-41. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.012906. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17431033]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
  4. Timolol maleate tablet [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Volotinen M, Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Uusitalo J, Maenpaa J, Pelkonen O: Timolol metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated principally by CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1135-41. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.012906. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17431033]
  2. Volotinen M, Hakkola J, Pelkonen O, Vapaatalo H, Maenpaa J: Metabolism of ophthalmic timolol: new aspects of an old drug. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011 May;108(5):297-303. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00694.x. [PubMed:21385322]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wessler JD, Grip LT, Mendell J, Giugliano RP: The P-glycoprotein transport system and cardiovascular drugs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 25;61(25):2495-502. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.02.058. Epub 2013 Apr 3. [PubMed:23563132]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 25, 2020 15:13

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