Identification

Name
Cysteamine
Accession Number
DB00847
Description

Cystinosis is a rare disease caused by mutations in the CTNS gene that encodes for cystinosin, a protein responsible for transporting cystine out of the cell lysosome. A defect in cystinosin function is followed by cystine accumulation throughout the body, especially the eyes and kidneys.2

Several preparations of cysteamine exist for the treatment of cystinosis manifestations, some in capsule form, and others in ophthalmic solution form.10,12 In particular, cystine deposits on the eye can cause significant discomfort throughout the day and require frequent treatment with eye drops, typically every waking hour.11

On August 25th 2020, the first ophthalmic solution for cystinosis requiring only 4 daily treatments was granted FDA approval.10 Cysteamine eye drops are a practical and effective option for those affected by ocular cystinosis. Marketed by Recordati Rare Diseases Inc., CYSTADROPS® reduce the burden of multiple frequent medications normally administered to those with cystinosis.9

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 77.149
Monoisotopic: 77.029919919
Chemical Formula
C2H7NS
Synonyms
  • 2-amino-1-ethanethiol
  • 2-amino-ethanethiol
  • 2-aminoethanethiol
  • beta-aminoethanethiol
  • beta-Mercaptoethylamine
  • Cysteamine
  • MEA
  • Mercaptamina
  • Mercaptamine
  • Mercaptaminum
  • Thioethanolamine
  • β-aminoethylthiol
  • β-MEA
External IDs
  • L 1573
  • L-1573

Pharmacology

Indication

The bitartrate salt of cysteamine is used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis and cystinuria in children 6 years old and above, and adults.12 The hydrochloride salt, used in eye drop preparations, is indicated for the treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation in patients with cystinosis.9,10

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Cystine accumulation is the cause of organ damage in cystinosis. Cysteamine prevents the accumulation of cystine crystals in the body and is specifically prescribed to prevent kidney and eye damage.4,9,12 Cysteamine converts cystine into a form that may easily exit cells, preventing harmful accumulation.10

Mechanism of action

Individuals born without the ability to metabolize cystine suffer from cystinosis, a rare genetic disorder characterized by the widespread accumulation of cystine crystals throughout the body and eye tissues. The cystine crystals may cause considerable damage, particularly in the renal tissues and corneal tissues. In some cases, renal failure can occur during childhood if the condition is left untreated. Other organs that may be affected by cystinosis include the CNS, thyroid, pancreas, muscle tissues, and gonads.2

Cysteamine converts cystine to cysteine and cysteine-cysteamine mixed disulfides, reducing the buildup of corneal cystine crystals.11 This drug participates in a thiol-disulfide interchange reaction with lysosomes, leading to cysteine exit from the lysosome in patients diagnosed with cystinosis.12

TargetActionsOrganism
UCystine
cleavage
Humans
UNeuropeptide Y receptor type 2
other/unknown
Humans
Absorption

Orally administered cysteamine is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and reaches its maximum plasma concentration in about 1.4 hours, with some variation according to the type of formulation (delayed versus immediate-release).6,5,12 One pharmacokinetic study of adults with Cystic Fibrosis revealed a Cmax of 2.86 mg/L.6The maximum plasma concentration after administration of cysteamine eye drops is unknown, however, it is likely to be considerably lower than oral administration.10

According to prescribing information, the AUC 0-12 h for the delayed-release oral tablets is 99.26 ± 44.2 μmol*h/L with a Cmax of 27.70 ± 14.99 μmol/L.12

The AUC 0-12 for the immediate-release tablets is 192.00 ± 75.62 μmol*h/L with a Cmax of 37.72 ± 12.10 μmol/L.12

Volume of distribution

Cysteamine has a volume of distribution of about 129 L, according to one pharmacokinetic study.6 Prescribing information indicates a volume of distribution of 382 L for the delayed-release formulation and 198 L for the immediate-release preparation.12 It is known to cross the blood-brain barrier.8

Protein binding

Cysteamine is 52% plasma protein bound, and is mostly bound to albumin.12

Metabolism

There is limited information in the literature regarding the metabolism of cysteamine. This drug undergoes significant first-pass metabolism.8

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

The half-life of cysteamine is about 3.7 hours.6

Clearance

The plasma clearance of cysteamine is about 1.2 - 1.4 L/min.12 One reference mentions a clearance of 89.9 L/h in patients with Cystic Fibrosis.6

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Two cases of human overdoses with cysteamine are recorded in the literature, according to prescribing information. In one case, vomiting was immediate after the administration of cysteamine, and the patient did not experience other symptoms. A 200 to 250 mg/kg dose was accidentally ingested by a healthy 13-month-old child. Vomiting and dehydration followed. A full recovery was made after hospitalization and the replenishment of fluids.13

There is no known antidote for an overdose with cysteamine. In the case of an overdose, provide supportive treatment, especially to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hemodialysis may be useful in some cases due to the fact that cysteamine has poor plasma protein binding.13

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismMetabolic
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AlmasilateThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Almasilate.
AluminiumThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Aluminium.
Aluminium phosphateThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Aluminium phosphate.
Aluminum hydroxideThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AsenapineAsenapine can cause an increase in the absorption of Cysteamine resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
Bismuth subnitrateThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Bismuth subnitrate.
Calcium carbonateThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Calcium carbonate.
CimetidineCimetidine can cause an increase in the absorption of Cysteamine resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
DexlansoprazoleThe bioavailability of Cysteamine can be decreased when combined with Dexlansoprazole.
DoxepinDoxepin can cause an increase in the absorption of Cysteamine resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
Additional Data Available
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  • Severity
    Severity
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    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
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    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
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    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach. The delayed-release capsules should be taken at least 30 minutes before or 2 hours after a high-fat meal to ensure adequate exposure.
  • Take with or without food. The immediate release preparation can be taken with or without food.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Cysteamine bitartrateQO84GZ3TST27761-19-9NSKJTUFFDRENDM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Cysteamine hydrochlorideIF1B771SVB156-57-0OGMADIBCHLQMIP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Cystagon / Cystaran / Procysbi
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CystadropsSolution0.37 %OphthalmicRecordati Rare Diseases Canada Inc2019-05-15Not applicableCanada flag
CystadropsSolution3.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicRECORDATI RARE DISEASES, INC.2020-08-19Not applicableUS flag
CystagonCapsule150 mgOralOrphan Europe S.A.R.L.1997-06-23Not applicableEU flag
CystagonCapsule50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUS flag
CystagonCapsule50 mgOralOrphan Europe S.A.R.L.1997-06-23Not applicableEU flag
CystagonCapsule150 mgOralOrphan Europe S.A.R.L.1997-06-23Not applicableEU flag
CystagonCapsule50 mgOralOrphan Europe S.A.R.L.1997-06-23Not applicableEU flag
CystagonCapsule150 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUS flag
CystaranSolution6.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicLeadiant Biosciences, Inc.2012-12-30Not applicableUS flag
ProcysbiCapsule, delayed release75 mgOralHorizon Pharma, Inc.2017-10-17Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
A16AA04 — MercaptamineS01XA21 — Mercaptamine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkylthiols. These are organic compounds containing the thiol functional group linked to an alkyl chain.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organosulfur compounds
Class
Thiols
Sub Class
Alkylthiols
Direct Parent
Alkylthiols
Alternative Parents
Organopnictogen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alkylthiol / Amine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Primary aliphatic amine / Primary amine
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
thiol, amine (CHEBI:17141) / Biogenic amines (C01678) / a thiol (CPD-239)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5UX2SD1KE2
CAS number
60-23-1
InChI Key
UFULAYFCSOUIOV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H7NS/c3-1-2-4/h4H,1-3H2
IUPAC Name
2-aminoethane-1-thiol
SMILES
NCCS

References

Synthesis Reference

Tethuharu Okazaki, Takeo Komukai, Saburo Uchikuga, "Process for preparing cysteamine-S-substituted compounds and derivatives thereof." U.S. Patent US4371472, issued September, 1969.

US4371472
General References
  1. Dohil R, Fidler M, Gangoiti JA, Kaskel F, Schneider JA, Barshop BA: Twice-daily cysteamine bitartrate therapy for children with cystinosis. J Pediatr. 2010 Jan;156(1):71-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.07.016. Epub . [PubMed:19775699]
  2. Elmonem MA, Veys KR, Soliman NA, van Dyck M, van den Heuvel LP, Levtchenko E: Cystinosis: a review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 Apr 22;11:47. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0426-y. [PubMed:27102039]
  3. Besouw M, Masereeuw R, van den Heuvel L, Levtchenko E: Cysteamine: an old drug with new potential. Drug Discov Today. 2013 Aug;18(15-16):785-92. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.02.003. Epub 2013 Feb 14. [PubMed:23416144]
  4. Cherqui S: Cysteamine therapy: a treatment for cystinosis, not a cure. Kidney Int. 2012 Jan;81(2):127-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.301. [PubMed:22205430]
  5. Gangoiti JA, Fidler M, Cabrera BL, Schneider JA, Barshop BA, Dohil R: Pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated cysteamine bitartrate in healthy adults: a pilot study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;70(3):376-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03721.x. [PubMed:20716238]
  6. Devereux G, Steele S, Griffiths K, Devlin E, Fraser-Pitt D, Cotton S, Norrie J, Chrystyn H, O'Neil D: An Open-Label Investigation of the Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Oral Cysteamine in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis. Clin Drug Investig. 2016 Aug;36(8):605-12. doi: 10.1007/s40261-016-0405-z. [PubMed:27153825]
  7. Langman CB, Greenbaum LA, Sarwal M, Grimm P, Niaudet P, Deschenes G, Cornelissen E, Morin D, Cochat P, Matossian D, Gaillard S, Bagger MJ, Rioux P: A randomized controlled crossover trial with delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate in nephropathic cystinosis: effectiveness on white blood cell cystine levels and comparison of safety. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;7(7):1112-20. doi: 10.2215/CJN.12321211. Epub 2012 May 3. [PubMed:22554716]
  8. Dohil R, Cabrera BL, Gangoiti JA, Barshop BA, Rioux P: Pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate following intraduodenal delivery. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Apr;28(2):136-43. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12009. Epub 2012 Oct 31. [PubMed:23113697]
  9. PRN News Wire: U.S. FDA Approves CYSTADROPS® (Cysteamine Ophthalmic Solution) 0.37%, A New Practical Treatment Option for the Ocular Manifestations of Cystinosis [Link]
  10. FDA Approved Products: Cystadrops (cysteamine solution 0.37%) for ophthalmic use [Link]
  11. FDA approved products: CYSTARAN (cysteamine 0.44%) for ophthalmic use [Link]
  12. FDA approved products: PROCYSBI (cysteamine bitartrate) delayed-release oral capsules [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Products: CYSTAGON® (cysteamine bitartrate) oral capsules [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0002991
KEGG Drug
D03634
KEGG Compound
C01678
PubChem Compound
6058
PubChem Substance
46507730
ChemSpider
5834
BindingDB
7968
RxNav
3022
ChEBI
17141
ChEMBL
CHEMBL602
ZINC
ZINC000008034121
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001297
PharmGKB
PA449171
PDBe Ligand
DHL
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Cysteamine
AHFS Codes
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
  • 92:92.00 — Other Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
PDB Entries
2y8d / 3q1l / 3som / 4cg4 / 4pa5 / 5apr / 5ej0
FDA label
Download (115 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentInfantile Neronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis1
3CompletedTreatmentCystinosis, Nephropathic4
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCystinosis, Nephropathic1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentCystinosis, Nephropathic1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentInherited Mitochondrial Disease, Including Leigh Syndrome1
2TerminatedTreatmentMitochondrial Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
1CompletedTreatmentCystinosis, Nephropathic1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
  • Mylan
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic0.37 %
SolutionOphthalmic3.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3.8 MG/ML
SolutionOphthalmic3.8 mg
CapsuleOral150 mg
CapsuleOral150 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg
Capsule, coatedOral150 mg
Capsule, coatedOral50 mg
SolutionOphthalmic6.5 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral25 MG
CapsuleOral75 MG
Capsule, delayed releaseOral25 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral75 mg
Granule, delayed releaseOral300 mg/1
Granule, delayed releaseOral75 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral25 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral75 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cystagon 150 mg capsule1.28USD capsule
Cystagon 50 mg capsule0.44USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US9192590Yes2015-11-242027-07-26US flag
US9198882Yes2015-12-012027-07-26US flag
US8026284Yes2011-09-272028-03-22US flag
US9233077Yes2016-01-122034-12-17US flag
US9173851Yes2015-11-032034-12-17US flag
US9925158No2018-03-272027-01-26US flag
US9925157No2018-03-272027-01-26US flag
US9925156No2018-03-272027-01-26US flag
US10143665No2018-12-042036-08-16US flag
US10328037No2019-06-252036-08-16US flag
US10548859No2016-08-162036-08-16US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)67-71https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_US_CB9337215.aspx
boiling point (°C)133.6±23.0 http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.5834.html
water solubilityFreely soluble in water.https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_US_CB9337215.aspx
logP0.1https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40261-016-0405-z
pKa10.4https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40261-016-0405-z
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.01ALOGPS
logP-0.42ChemAxon
logS-0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity22.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9378
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7618
Caco-2 permeable+0.7461
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9634
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9637
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.751
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9035
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5713
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8282
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8091
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8488
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5197
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7564
Rat acute toxicity2.2165 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8358
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8686
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.29 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-287334efed4c27d47e62
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-e26f666cab18d523e475
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-7900000000-25e27a3413a3e9bd6e86
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-3900000000-5f3c0dc6b99382c852e2
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-287334efed4c27d47e62
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-e26f666cab18d523e475
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-7900000000-25e27a3413a3e9bd6e86
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00dr-3900000000-5f3c0dc6b99382c852e2
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00dr-3900000000-5f3c0dc6b99382c852e2
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-ba8ae281d3d77ff202c1
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-0fdf5bdcf8a4a1bf9afb
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-f99f2f10c6728595d6ea
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-01t9-9000000000-fa7f96e00debe1bebf70
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cleavage
References
  1. Omran Z, Kay G, Di Salvo A, Knott RM, Cairns D: PEGylated derivatives of cystamine as enhanced treatments for nephropathic cystinosis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 1;21(1):45-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.085. Epub 2010 Nov 21. [PubMed:21147534]
  2. FDA approved products: PROCYSBI (cysteamine bitartrate) delayed-release oral capsules [Link]
  3. PRN News Wire: U.S. FDA Approves CYSTADROPS® (Cysteamine Ophthalmic Solution) 0.37%, A New Practical Treatment Option for the Ocular Manifestations of Cystinosis [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
Curator comments
Data for this target action are limited to animal studies and relevance to humans is unknown.
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. The rank order of affinity of this receptor for pancreatic polypeptides is PYY > NPY > PYY (3-36) > NPY (2-36) > [Ile-31, Gln-34] PP > [Leu-31, Pro-34] N...
Gene Name
NPY2R
Uniprot ID
P49146
Uniprot Name
Neuropeptide Y receptor type 2
Molecular Weight
42730.69 Da
References
  1. Li W, Hexum TD: Cysteamine selectively enhances neuropeptide Y2 receptor binding activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Apr 15;184(1):380-6. [PubMed:1314592]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production o...
Gene Name
MPO
Uniprot ID
P05164
Uniprot Name
Myeloperoxidase
Molecular Weight
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Svensson BE: Abilities of peroxidases to catalyse peroxidase-oxidase oxidation of thiols. Biochem J. 1988 Dec 15;256(3):757-62. [PubMed:2852004]
  2. Svensson BE, Graslund A, Strom G, Moldeus P: Thiols as peroxidase substrates. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993 Feb;14(2):167-75. [PubMed:8381104]
  3. Svensson BE, Lindvall S: Myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine. Biochem J. 1988 Jan 15;249(2):521-30. [PubMed:2829860]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. FDA approved products: PROCYSBI (cysteamine bitartrate) delayed-release oral capsules [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 23, 2020 09:08

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