Levobunolol

Identification

Summary

Levobunolol is a beta-adrenergic antagonist used for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

Brand Names
Betagan
Generic Name
Levobunolol
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01210
Background

A nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist used in the treatment of glaucoma.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Weight
Average: 291.3853
Monoisotopic: 291.183443671
Chemical Formula
C17H25NO3
Synonyms
  • (-)-Bunolol
  • (S)-5-(3-((1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone
  • Levobunolol
  • Levobunololum

Pharmacology

Indication

For lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and may be used in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Management ofOcular hypertension••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••• • •••••
Management ofOpen-angle glaucoma••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••• • •••••
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Levobunolol is an ophthalmic beta-blocker, equally effective at β(1)- and β(2)-receptor sites. Levobunolol reduces both elevated and normal IOP in patients with or without glaucoma. In patients with elevated IOP, levobunolol reduces mean IOP by approximately 25-40% from baseline. As the drug is a nonselective &beta-adrenergic blocking agent, it can produce both systemic pulmonary and cardiovascular effects following topical application to the eye. These effects include adverse pulmonary effects (eg. bronchoconstriction, increased airway resistance), and a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate.

Mechanism of action

Levobunolol's mechanism of action in reducing IOP is not clearly defined, but is believed to be due to a reduction of the production of aqueous humor via blockage of endogenous catecholamine-stimulated increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) concentrations within the ciliary processes.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

80%

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

20 hours

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, and acute cardiac failure, LD50=700 mg/kg (orally in rat).

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Levobunolol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AvanafilThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Avanafil is combined with Levobunolol.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Clobazam.
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Clozapine.
DesvenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Desvenlafaxine.
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dipyridamole is combined with Levobunolol.
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Levobunolol hydrochlorideO90S49LDHH27912-14-7DNTDOBSIBZKFCP-YDALLXLXSA-N
International/Other Brands
Akbeta
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BetaganSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1986-07-242010-06-30US flag
BetaganSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.1986-07-24Not applicableUS flag
BetaganSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1986-07-242012-06-30US flag
BetaganSolution2.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.2006-03-032006-03-03US flag
Betagan 0.5% Ophthalmic SolLiquid0.5 %OphthalmicAllergan1985-12-312020-02-21Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-levobunolol Ophthalmic Solution USP 0.25%Liquid0.25 %OphthalmicApotex Corporation2000-02-21Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-levobunolol Ophthalmic Solution USP 0.5%Liquid0.5 %OphthalmicApotex Corporation2000-02-21Not applicableCanada flag
Levobunolol HydrochlorideSolution2.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicApotex Corporation2000-08-032006-02-03US flag
Levobunolol HydrochlorideSolution5 mg/1mLOphthalmicSandoz Inc1997-01-302017-08-31US flag
Levobunolol HydrochlorideSolution / drops2.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPacific Pharma, Inc.1997-07-152021-01-31US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Probeta - Liq OphLevobunolol hydrochloride (0.5 %) + Dipivefrin hydrochloride (0.1 %)LiquidOphthalmicAllergan1996-08-302012-07-16Canada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01ED03 — Levobunolol
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetralins. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a tetralin moiety, which consists of a benzene fused to a cyclohexane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Tetralins
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tetralins
Alternative Parents
Aryl alkyl ketones / Alkyl aryl ethers / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1,2-aminoalcohol / Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Aromatic homopolycyclic compound / Aryl alkyl ketone / Aryl ketone / Ether / Hydrocarbon derivative / Ketone
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
cyclic ketone, aromatic ether, propanolamine (CHEBI:6438)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
G6317AOI7K
CAS number
47141-42-4
InChI Key
IXHBTMCLRNMKHZ-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H25NO3/c1-17(2,3)18-10-12(19)11-21-16-9-5-6-13-14(16)7-4-8-15(13)20/h5-6,9,12,18-19H,4,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
5-[(2S)-3-(tert-butylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-one
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC[C@H](O)COC1=CC=CC2=C1CCCC2=O

References

General References
  1. Ishibashi T, Yokoi N, Kinoshita S: Comparison of the effects of topical levobunolol and timolol solution on the human ocular surface. Cornea. 2003 Nov;22(8):709-15. [Article]
  2. Ogasawara H, Yoshida A, Fujio N, Konno S, Ishiko S: [Effect of topical levobunolol on retinal, optic nerve head, and choroidal circulation in normal volunteers]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1999 Jul;103(7):544-50. [Article]
  3. Leung M, Grunwald JE: Short-term effects of topical levobunolol on the human retinal circulation. Eye (Lond). 1997;11 ( Pt 3):371-6. [Article]
  4. Dong Y, Ishikawa H, Wu Y, Yoshitomi T: Vasodilatory mechanism of levobunolol on vascular smooth muscle cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1039-46. Epub 2007 Jan 27. [Article]
  5. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [Article]
  6. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [Article]
  7. Novack GD: Levobunolol for the long-term treatment of glaucoma. Gen Pharmacol. 1986;17(4):373-7. [Article]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015341
KEGG Compound
C07914
PubChem Compound
39468
PubChem Substance
46507518
ChemSpider
36089
RxNav
1813
ChEBI
6438
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201237
ZINC
ZINC000003830339
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000303
PharmGKB
PA164747027
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levobunolol
FDA label
Download (850 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
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PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCountStart DateWhy Stopped100+ additional columns

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Pacific Pharma Lp
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic0.25 %
LiquidOphthalmic0.50 %
LiquidOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.25 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 MG/ML
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 MG/ML
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 MG/ML
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 15ml Bottle50.25USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle33.58USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.25% Solution 10ml Bottle32.59USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle17.26USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.25% Solution 5ml Bottle16.45USD bottle
Betagan 0.5% Solution6.39USD ml
Betagan 0.5% eye drops6.1USD ml
Betagan 0.25% eye drops4.9USD ml
Betagan 0.5 % Solution3.7USD ml
Levobunolol 0.5% eye drops3.24USD ml
Levobunolol 0.25% eye drops2.83USD ml
Pms-Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Ratio-Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Sandoz Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Ratio-Levobunolol 0.25 % Solution1.23USD ml
Sandoz Levobunolol 0.25 % Solution1.23USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)209-211 °CNot Available
logP2.40HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.251 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.06ALOGPS
logP2.18Chemaxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09Chemaxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.75Chemaxon
Physiological Charge1Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area58.56 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count6Chemaxon
Refractivity83.28 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability33.38 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings2Chemaxon
Bioavailability1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterYesChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9923
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8738
Caco-2 permeable-0.6105
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8227
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5712
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5691
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8179
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7696
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8547
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5554
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8378
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8825
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9039
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.1253 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9613
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.593
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSsplash10-08gi-9540000000-243680d4a0d98a06ee5e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-1090000000-fdc4623f08e214b0f4a8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0390000000-44fa266952c4b03a4b62
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-02mi-9480000000-681f260c36c4c701b68b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-129c8fa8a24cfd237d56
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9400000000-98fa47d4b29eae956eb7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01ow-1900000000-0411e04c2eaafbbfdb59
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
AdductCCS Value (Å2)Source typeSource
[M-H]-181.6464731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M-H]-181.3032731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M-H]-166.227
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
[M+H]+181.3011731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M+H]+181.6194731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M+H]+168.585
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
[M+Na]+182.0441731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M+Na]+181.7462731
predicted
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
[M+Na]+174.67815
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)

Targets

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insights and accelerate drug research.
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [Article]
  2. Harris A, Malinovsky V, Martin B: Correlates of acute exercise-induced ocular hypotension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Oct;35(11):3852-7. [Article]
  3. Chidlow G, Melena J, Osborne NN: Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;130(4):759-66. [Article]
  4. Sharif NA, Xu SX, Crider JY, McLaughlin M, Davis TL: Levobetaxolol (Betaxon) and other beta-adrenergic antagonists: preclinical pharmacology, IOP-lowering activity and sites of action in human eyes. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Aug;17(4):305-17. [Article]
  5. Brooks AM, Gillies WE: Ocular beta-blockers in glaucoma management. Clinical pharmacological aspects. Drugs Aging. 1992 May-Jun;2(3):208-21. [Article]
  6. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
  2. Quast U, Vollmer KO: Binding of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists to rat and rabbit lung: special reference to levobunolol. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34(5):579-84. [Article]
  3. Sharif NA, Xu SX, Crider JY, McLaughlin M, Davis TL: Levobetaxolol (Betaxon) and other beta-adrenergic antagonists: preclinical pharmacology, IOP-lowering activity and sites of action in human eyes. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Aug;17(4):305-17. [Article]
  4. Harris A, Malinovsky V, Martin B: Correlates of acute exercise-induced ocular hypotension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Oct;35(11):3852-7. [Article]
  5. Brooks AM, Gillies WE: Ocular beta-blockers in glaucoma management. Clinical pharmacological aspects. Drugs Aging. 1992 May-Jun;2(3):208-21. [Article]
  6. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [Article]
  7. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Sternieri E, Coccia CP, Pinetti D, Guerzoni S, Ferrari A: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of headache medications, part II: prophylactic treatments. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Dec;2(6):981-1007. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2.6.981 . [Article]
  2. Brodde OE, Kroemer HK: Drug-drug interactions of beta-adrenoceptor blockers. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53(12):814-22. [Article]
  3. Iwaki M, Niwa T, Bandoh S, Itoh M, Hirose H, Kawase A, Komura H: Application of substrate depletion assay to evaluation of CYP isoforms responsible for stereoselective metabolism of carvedilol. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2016 Dec;31(6):425-432. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.08.007. Epub 2016 Sep 2. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at July 14, 2024 17:59