Identification

Name
Phenol
Accession Number
DB03255
Description

Phenol is an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. Phenol has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. Phenol is also used as an oral analgesic or anesthetic in products such as Chloraseptic to treat pharyngitis. Additionally, phenol and its related compounds are used in surgical ingrown toenail treatment, a process termed phenolization. Research indicates that parental exposure to phenol and its related compounds are positively associated with spontaneous abortion. During the second world war, phenol injections were used as a means of execution by the Nazis. Phenol is a toxic compound whose vapours are corrosive to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 94.1112
Monoisotopic: 94.041864814
Chemical Formula
C6H6O
Synonyms
  • Acide carbolique
  • Acide phénique
  • Benzenol
  • Carbolic acid
  • Carbolsäure
  • Fenol
  • Hydroxybenzene
  • Karbolsäure
  • Monohydroxybenzene
  • Oxybenzene
  • Phenic Acid
  • Phenol
  • Phenyl alcohol
  • Phenyl hydroxide
  • Phenylic acid
  • Phenylic alcohol
  • PHOH
External IDs
  • ENT-1814
  • NSC-36808

Pharmacology

Indication

Phenol is primarily indicated for minor sore throat pain, sore mouth, minor mouth irritation, and pain associated with canker sores. Additionally, phenol is indicated in the treatment of focal spasticity.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Phenol is a potent proteolytic agent. Concentrations in the 5% to 7% range dissolve tissue on contact via proteolysis. In high concentrations when injected next to a nerve, phenol produces a chemical neurolysis which is nonselective across nerve fiber size and most prominent on its outer aspect. Local anesthetic effects occur within 5-10 minutes.

TargetActionsOrganism
UThermolysinNot AvailableBacillus thermoproteolyticus
USerum albuminNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Phenol is rapidly absorbed through the skin and into the lungs.

Volume of distribution

At I5 min after exposure, the liver contained the highest level of phenol, consisting mainly of free phenol. After 82 minutes post administration, phenol is uniformly distributed in the liver, blood, kidneys, lungs, along with the heart, testes, thymus and the spleen. With the passage of time, the proportion of free to conjugated phenol changed. By 360 minutes most phenol appears in conjugated forms.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Phenyl sulfate, phenyl glucuronide, quinol sulfate, and quinol glucuronide were detected in human beings as phenol metabolites.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

The kidney is the primary route of elimination of phenol.

Half-life
Not Available
Clearance

In rabbits, 72% is excreted in the urine, 1% in the feces, 4% in the carcass following sacrifice, and trace amounts were exhaled.

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Mouse, Subcutaneous, LD50: 0.3-0.35 g/kg. (Duplay and Cazin, 1891; Tollens, 1905). Rat, Subcutaneous, LD50: 0.45. (Deichmann and Witherup, 1944). Rat, Oral, LD50: 0.53. (Deichmann and Witherup, 1944). Rat, Oral, LD50: 0.65. (Flickinger, 1976). Rat, Cutaneous, LD50: 0.67. (Conning and Hayes, 1970).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Sulfite Oxidase DeficiencyDisease
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AmphetamineAmphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Phenol.
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Phenol.
Benzylpenicilloyl polylysinePhenol may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl polylysine as a diagnostic agent.
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Betahistine can be decreased when used in combination with Phenol.
DextroamphetamineDextroamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Phenol.
DiethylpropionDiethylpropion may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Phenol.
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Phenol.
Hyaluronidase (human recombinant)The therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase (human recombinant) can be decreased when used in combination with Phenol.
Hyaluronidase (ovine)The therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase (ovine) can be decreased when used in combination with Phenol.
Iofetamine I-123Iofetamine I-123 may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Phenol.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
    Available for Purchase

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action
    Available for Purchase

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Purchasing individual compounds or compound libraries for your research?
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Phenol 6%Solution6 %IntramuscularSandoz Canada Incorporated1993-12-312017-08-01Canada flag
Sterile Diluent for Allergenic ExtractInjection, solution0.004 mL/1mLIntradermal; SubcutaneousAntigen Laboratories, Inc.1974-03-23Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Aseptil RojoLiquid1 mg/1mLOralMenper Distributors2012-02-21Not applicableUS flag
Care One Sore ThroatSpray1.4 g/100mLOralAmerican Sales Company2003-11-192016-12-06US flag
Castellani PaintLiquid15 mg/1mLTopicalPedinol Pharmacal, Inc.1972-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Castellani PaintLiquid15 mg/1mLTopicalPedinol Pharmacal, Inc.1972-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Castellani PaintLiquid15 mg/1mLTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-05-15Not applicableUS flag
Castellani PaintLiquid15 mg/1mLTopicalStratus Pharmaceuticals2014-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Castellani Paint 1.5%Liquid15 mg/1mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2013-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Castellani Paint 1.5%Liquid15 mg/1mLTopicalThe Podiatree Company2013-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Cepastat CherryLozenge14.5 mg/1OralInsight Pharmaceuticals2009-06-292017-08-31US flag
Cepastat Extra StrengthLozenge29 mg/1OralInsight Pharmaceuticals2009-07-07Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ambix First AidPhenol (0.005 g/1g) + Dyclonine hydrochloride (0.005 g/1g)CreamTopicalOrganics Corporation Of America Dba Ambix Laboratories2013-08-22Not applicableUS flag
Ambix First AidPhenol (0.005 g/1g) + Dyclonine hydrochloride (0.005 g/1g)CreamTopicalSuite K Value Added Services LLC2013-08-192013-08-20US flag
Anbesol GelPhenol (0.5 %) + Benzocaine (6.4 %)GelOralWyeth Ltd.1993-12-312004-08-04Canada flag
Anbesol LiquidPhenol (0.45 %) + Benzocaine (6.5 %) + Camphor (0.25 %) + Levomenthol (0.25 %)LiquidBuccalWyeth Ltd.1992-12-312006-07-24Canada flag
Anbesol Maximum Strength LiquidPhenol (0.45 %) + Benzocaine (20.0 %) + Camphor (0.25 %) + Levomenthol (0.25 %)LiquidOralWyeth Ltd.1992-12-312006-07-24Canada flag
Au Kah Chuen Skin LotionPhenol (0.5 %) + Camphor (2 %) + Levomenthol (1 %)LotionTopicalWing Quon Enterprises Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Balzarol OntPhenol (250 mg) + Allantoin (200 mg) + Benzocaine (1 g)OintmentTopicalRolmex International Inc.1978-12-312008-07-09Canada flag
Banana Boat Medicated Lip BalmPhenol (0.5 %) + Camphor (0.25 %) + Levomenthol (0.6 %)StickTopicalThe Banana Boat Company1997-04-142000-09-13Canada flag
Bite and Sting Relief StickPhenol (0.0135 g/1g) + Benzocaine (0.05 g/1g) + Synthetic camphor (0.03 g/1g)LiquidTopicalCVS Health2020-04-17Not applicableUS flag
Bite ReliefPhenol (2 %) + Benzocaine (7.95 %) + Camphor (0.1 %) + Levomenthol (1 %)LiquidTopicalPic Corporation1986-12-311997-11-24Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
DermagesicPhenol (1.4 mg/100mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (1 mg/100mL)LiquidTopicalLlorens Pharmaceuticals International Division2009-02-012014-01-20US flag
Liver supplementPhenol (0.8 g/100g)PowderOralBionutrigen Co., Ltd.2011-09-15Not applicableUS flag
Preferred Plus Medicated Lip BalmPhenol (4 mg/1g) + Levomenthol (7 mg/1g) + Synthetic camphor (17 mg/1g)StickTopicalKinray2007-02-28Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C05BB05 — PhenolR02AA19 — PhenolN01BX03 — PhenolD08AE03 — Phenol
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that are unsubstituted at the 4-position.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Direct Parent
1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Alternative Parents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic oxygen compound / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenols (CHEBI:15882) / a phenol (PHENOL)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
339NCG44TV
CAS number
108-95-2
InChI Key
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H6O/c7-6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5,7H
IUPAC Name
phenol
SMILES
OC1=CC=CC=C1

References

Synthesis Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenols#Synthesisofphenols

General References
  1. Chen X, Chen M, Xu B, Tang R, Han X, Qin Y, Xu B, Hang B, Mao Z, Huo W, Xia Y, Xu Z, Wang X: Parental phenols exposure and spontaneous abortion in Chinese population residing in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Chemosphere. 2013 Sep;93(2):217-22. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.04.067. Epub 2013 May 25. [PubMed:23714150]
  2. Gracies JM, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM: Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part I: Local treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1997;6:S61-91. [PubMed:9826983]
  3. Babich H, Davis DL: Phenol: a review of environmental and health risks. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1981 Jun;1(1):90-109. [PubMed:6764550]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000228
KEGG Drug
D00033
KEGG Compound
C15584
PubChem Compound
996
PubChem Substance
46508193
ChemSpider
971
BindingDB
26187
RxNav
33290
ChEBI
15882
ChEMBL
CHEMBL14060
ZINC
ZINC000005133329
PharmGKB
PA450913
PDBe Ligand
IPH
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Phenol
AHFS Codes
  • 52:16.00 — Local Anesthetics
  • 92:00.00 — Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
PDB Entries
1ai0 / 1ai7 / 1aiy / 1fjw / 1foh / 1jhx / 1jhy / 1li2 / 1lph / 1mpj
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MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPilonidal Sinus of Natal Cleft / Pilonidal Sinus Without Abscess1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2Unknown StatusPreventionProphylaxis of migraine headaches1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareInteractable Malignant Perineal Pain1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceAsthma, Allergic / Healthy Volunteers1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain, Unspecified1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Knee / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPilonidal Sinus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • ALK-Abello Inc.
  • Allergy Laboratories Inc.
  • Anachemia Canada
  • Antigen Laboratories Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous30 mg/100mL
GelOral
LiquidBuccal
LiquidOral
SolutionTopical
LiquidOral1 mg/1mL
KitTopical
OintmentTopical
PasteTopical
CreamTopical
LotionTopical
GelTopical
SolutionTopical1 g/100mL
LiquidTopical15 mg/1mL
LozengeOral14.5 mg/1
LozengeOral29 mg/1
StickTopical
SolutionTopical
SprayOral3.5 mg/0.7mL
LiquidTopical1.05 g/15mL
SpongeTopical
SolutionTopical1.5 mL/100mL
Solution
LiquidIntradermal; Percutaneous; Subcutaneous
LiquidSubcutaneous
SolutionOral200 mg/10ml
StickTopical0.68 g/7g
LiquidTopical1.5 g/100mL
SolutionBuccal; Oropharyngeal1.4 g
SprayOral1.4 mg/100mL
PowderOral0.8 g/100g
LiquidTopical
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous50 mg/1mL
SalveTopical
SprayOral1.4 g/177mL
SolutionTopical550 mg/100mL
SolutionBuccal; Oral1.4 g
LiquidTopical
SalveTopical1.5 g/100g
SprayOral1.4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous400 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous20 g/100mL
Injection, solution95 mL/100mL
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous5 g/100mL
SolutionIntramuscular6 %
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous6 mL/100mL
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
LiquidIntradermal; Subcutaneous
LiquidOral.25 mg/100mL
EmulsionTopical500 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
MouthwashOral17.79 mg/100mL
SprayOral1.4 g/100g
SprayOral1.4 g/100mL
SprayOral1.5 g/100mL
LiquidOral1.5 g/100mL
LiquidOral1.4 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous
Injection, solutionIntradermal; Subcutaneous0.004 mL/1mL
SprayOral10.628 mg/100mL
RinseOral6 mg/1mL
SprayOral
LiquidTopical6 mg/1mL
PlasterTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)40.9 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)181.8 °CPhysProp
water solubility8.28E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)SOUTHWORTH,GR & KELLER,JL (1986)
logP1.46HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS0ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.99 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility46.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.39ALOGPS
logP1.67ChemAxon
logS-0.31ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity28.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9931
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9076
Caco-2 permeable+0.9326
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8082
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.979
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9917
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8704
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6114
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9654
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9746
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8981
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9523
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8695
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9454
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7594
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7488
Rat acute toxicity2.5044 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8468
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9666
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
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Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0udi-3900000000-97dfa3be718a9ee7ace4
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-6fb456992902a13931f9
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-78c83ab6ff1d3dfdbec6
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-89b0c430b8924ee2afde
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fc01d0ad6740cfd70e13
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-006w-9000000000-c8b41f2899ca8cc9d4bc
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-db80d8b605e20595c679
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0udi-3900000000-97dfa3be718a9ee7ace4
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-40b376f4e58c23369a01
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e67da0571423f0e6b4b8
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e0f57b1e970d0d46597e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e67da0571423f0e6b4b8
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-7bfe3b897e928a8f3a2c
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-01-SG-2) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-78c83ab6ff1d3dfdbec6
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-89b0c430b8924ee2afde
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fc01d0ad6740cfd70e13
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-ca4fa5905cccbfeab33a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus thermoproteolyticus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Extracellular zinc metalloprotease.
Gene Name
npr
Uniprot ID
P00800
Uniprot Name
Thermolysin
Molecular Weight
60103.515 Da
References
  1. English AC, Groom CR, Hubbard RE: Experimental and computational mapping of the binding surface of a crystalline protein. Protein Eng. 2001 Jan;14(1):47-59. doi: 10.1093/protein/14.1.47. [PubMed:11287678]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Ogata N, Shibata T: Binding of alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted simple phenolic compounds to human serum proteins. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2000;107(1-2):167-73. [PubMed:11334365]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 23, 2020 09:08

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